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VI. Activities and programmes of the organization

A. Programme of work and budget 1984-85 and medium-term objectives
B. Review of the regular programme 1982-83
C. Review of field programmes 1982-83
D. United nations/FAO world food programme
E. Plant genetic resources (follow-up of conference resolution 6/81)
F. Relations and consultations with international organizations

A. Programme of work and budget 1984-85 and medium-term objectives

Format and presentation
Strategies, priorities and objectives
Level of the budget
General policy and direction
Major programme 2.1: Agriculture
Programme 2.1.1: Natural resources
Programme 2.1.2: Crops
Programme 2.1.3: Livestock
Programme 2.1.4: Research and technology development
Programme 2.1.5: Rural development
Programme 2.1.6: Nutrition
Programme 2.1.7: Food and agricultural information and analysis
Programme 2.1.8: Food and agricultural policy
Major programme 2.2: Fisheries
Major programme 2.3: Forestry
Development support programmes
Technical cooperation programme
Support and common services
Budgetary appropriations


143. The Conference agreed with the assessment of the world situation and the approach of the Director-General in formulating his proposals for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1984-85.

144. The Conference expressed the view that the gravity of the world economic and social situation was unparalleled in its impact since the end of the Second World War and affected all countries. Developed countries had faced industrial and economic stagnation, inflation, declining productivity, unemployment and budgetary deficits. The similar problems affecting developing countries were all the more harshly felt, in that, in addition they had to face the compounded burdens of debt servicing of historically unique dimensions, growing trade deficits and the consequences of stringent adjustment policies. The impact of these factors was particularly severe on the least developed countries.

145. The world food and agricultural situation offered no grounds for relief or complacency. The objective of a 4 percent growth rate in food and agricultural production inscribed in the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade had not been reached and was unlikely to be met in the immediate future. Progress towards global, regional and national food security remained at best patchy and highly uncertain. Food production per capita, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continued to be the cause of serious concern.

146. The Conference emphasized that the current world economic situation made it necessary, now more than ever, not to relax the momentum of international effort and commitment to reduce and eventually eliminate malnutrition and poverty. It agreed that FAO had to remain at the forefront of efforts towards this objective which was universally shared.

Format and presentation

147. The Conference welcomed the further improvements in the format and presentation of the Programme of Work and Budget document, which were in conformity with its own wishes as expressed at its Twenty-first Session and the subsequent decisions of the Council. In particular the incorporation of the Medium-Term Objectives in the document facilitated consideration of the proposals and resulted in greater clarity in the document.


148. The Conference recognized the difficult task which the Director-General had faced in reconciling the need for FAO programmes to respond to the highest priorities and felt needs of Member Nations, with the requirement to limit the request for additional resources, in view of the financial difficulties experienced by Member Nations.

149. The Conference commended the Director-General's spirit of initiative as reflected in his proposed Programme of Work and Budget for 1984-85. He had achieved a fine balance between two policy parameters, by providing for a modest but well-timed net increase of 3.6 percent in resources for the Organization's technical and economic programmes of direct developmental impact, while limiting the overall net programme growth to only 0.5 percent. The Conference recognized that this modest increase was only made possible by further reducing administrative and support services costs to a minimum level, and by a further elimination of some established posts, which would still allow a timely and effective delivery of programmes. The Conference stressed in this connection that, commendable though this approach to cost reduction might be, it would impose tight constraints on the work of the Organization and should not lead to expectations that it could be pursued indefinitely. It emphasized the importance of safeguarding the Organization's proven capacity to deliver effectively its approved programmes. The Conference was particularly appreciative of this renewed evidence of the Director-General's continuing successful efforts to further improve FAO's efficiency and cost effectiveness.

Strategies, priorities and objectives

150. The four principal aims of promotion of food production, increase in food security, impact at the field level and enhancement of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries had influenced the shaping of the Director-General's proposals. The Conference expressed its full support to the Director-General's choice of strategies and priorities which had been carefully distilled from the deliberations and recommendations of the whole range of FAO's technical and regional bodies. It agreed that they were in full compliance with previous guidance of the Conference and Council.

151. The Conference also reiterated its agreement on the long-term goals and medium-term objectives of the Organization, the continued validity of which needed no demonstration in the face of the multiplicity of challenges posed to the international community in food and agriculture.

152. The Conference singled out for particular emphasis the special and urgent requirements of the African continent, and stressed the importance given to the revised and broadened concept of food security, the increase of food production in low-income food-deficit countries, including their attendant training and research support aspects. It considered that these fully deserved the high priority accorded to them in the Programme of Work and Budget.

153. The Conference supported the selective increases proposed for programme priorities such as research and technology development, farming systems development, indigenous food crops in Africa, WCARRD follow-up, support to women's role in rural development, development of fisheries and forestry for rural development.

154. The Conference noted that the momentum of FAO action in the field had been carefully maintained, through its policy of decentralization, and an increase in resources for the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP), which remained a means of action at the service of Member Nations, through its special characteristics enabling urgent response to special short-term needs that could not be met from other sources. Likewise, the Conference supported the importance accorded to the TCP by the Director-General and recognized the highly positive effect of this programme for developing countries.

Level of the budget

155. The Conference agreed on the budget level proposed by the Director-General. A great majority considered that the net real increase of 0.5 percent proposed for 1984-85 was tantamount to the concept of zero-growth, the application of which to FAO they had consistently rejected in view of the growing demands on the Organization as the leading international agency for food and agricultural development, its record of effectiveness and the careful and efficient management of resources entrusted to it. While being ready to join the consensus on the Director-General's realistic proposals, they emphasized that this could not be interpreted as a precedent towards any continuing trend of budgetary restraint and that in the future they would seek to ensure resource levels to match the magnitude of the tasks assigned to FAO. A few members, while fully recognizing the magnitude of FAO's responsibilities, stressed the need for continued financial stringency, particularly in the difficult economic situation prevailing throughout the world.

156. In discussion of the individual Chapters, the following main points were made on various programme matters.

General policy and direction

157. The Conference reiterated its support to the ongoing and well established programmes comprised in this Chapter. It commended particularly the example set by the Director-General himself in effecting a reduction of four Professional posts in his immediate office.

158. The Conference recognized that the proposed reinforcement of the Office of Internal Audit and Inspection and the continued attention to evaluation activities and techniques were a further evidence of the continued and resolute approach of the Director-General to ensure that the Organization observed a methodical and comprehensive process of management control.

Major programme 2.1: Agriculture

159. The Conference supported the long-term goals and strategies and the medium-term objectives of the Major Programme: Agriculture, and considered that the balance of programme activities proposed under its constituent programmes and sub-programmes represented an appropriate response to these objectives.

160. The Conference noted the close relationship between Regular Programme and extra-budgetary activities, particularly under the many Special Action Programmes supported by the Major Programme, which contributed to increased food and agricultural production and integrated rural development.

Programme 2.1.1: Natural resources

161. The Conference endorsed the proposals under this programme which were aimed at optimizing land and water use and the conservation of these essential resources for sustained and increased agricultural production. It recognized the usefulness of the study on potential population-carrying capacity of land at the global and regional levels, and agreed that this type of activity would have to be pursued at the national level.

162. The Conference stressed the need for intensified action to prevent further degradation of land and water resources, and supported the interdisciplinary approach adopted to land use planning. The Conference welcomed the high priority given in the programme to the management of tropical soils and to shifting cultivation.

163. The Conference approved the enlarged scope of activities concerning farming systems development, to take into account a necessary multi-disciplinary approach to farm production. It stressed in this connection that it was especially necessary to integrate the corresponding socio-economic factors when dealing with the small farm-holder sector.

164. The Conference recognized the importance of sound water management practices, particularly at the farm level, and endorsed the proposed activities under the International Support Programme for Farm Water Management, one of the objectives of which was to foster farmers' participation at all stages of irrigation development.

165. The Conference approved the integrated plant nutrition systems approach which combined the efficient use of mineral fertilizers with organic recycling and biological nitrogen fixation. It reiterated its appreciation of the role played by the Fertilizer Programme and the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme (IFS) in the promotion of increased and more effective use of fertilizers. It called in this connection for additional donor support to be given to the IFS.

166. The Conference noted with satisfaction the importance attached in the implementation of the programme to such aspects as training, Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries, and the increased use of national institutions.

Programme 2.1.2: Crops

167. The Conference endorsed the objectives and thrust of the Crops Programme which was a central component of FAO's assistance to Member Nations in their efforts to accelerate food production. It welcomed the emphasis given throughout the programme to the transfer of suitable production technologies for indigenous staple food crops including roots and tubers as well as horticulture crops, and endorsed the related increase in resources.

168. The Conference supported training activities in the field of food crop production and the emphasis given to the transfer of low-risk production technologies to farmers, particularly small farmers, through the expansion of on-farm demonstration activities at village level. It also supported the expanded assistance to horticultural production both around large population centres and at village level.

169. The Conference reiterated its support to the Seed Improvement and Development Programme (SIDP) which provided assistance to the formulation and implementation of seed programmes and projects in close collaboration with national institutions. It emphasized the need for continued assistance to seed production and utilization activities and endorsed the high priority given to training, seed exchange, organization of seed campaigns, implementation of seed security schemes and harmonization of seed quality control systems.

170. The Conference recognized the importance of crop protection and expressed its support to the global strategy proposed under the Cooperative Action for Plant Health. It also expressed its support for the programme in plant protection to enable it to give particular emphasis to Integrated Pest Control programmes, improved weed management and the development of a computerized information system.

171. The Conference welcomed FAO's initiative in the preparation of a Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides in close cooperation with Member Nations and Non-Governmental Organizations.

172. The Conference supported FAO's essential role in dealing with emergency pest and disease situations such as desert locust, migratory birds and armyworms and recommended the further strengthening of regional plant protection organizations.

173. The Conference endorsed the emphasis given to appropriate mechanization policies and planning including the application of improved hand-tools and animal draught equipment, and welcomed the continued attention to the design of rural infrastructures, particularly for storage of agricultural produce.

174. The Conference reiterated its support to the Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses, supported with satisfaction the inclusion of fruits and vegetables in its commodity coverage and called for adequate resources to fund a pipeline of projects.

175. The Conference endorsed the work of the Organization concerned with food and agricultural industries and in particular with activities designed to increase national capabilities in the conservation and processing of agricultural products to improve the quality and to extend shelf life. It recommended the close integration of such activities with crop production and marketing.

Programme 2.1.3: Livestock

176. The Conference endorsed the activities of the livestock programme and the corresponding allocation of resources proposed for 1984/85. It noted with satisfaction the emphasis placed on training and on the promotion of improved production technologies for small farmers, both of which were key ingredients of balanced rural development.

177. The Conference emphasized the importance of ensuring the closest integration between crop and livestock production in existing farming systems in order to increase farm output and achieve higher productivity levels.

178. The Conference expressed its appreciation of the continued high priority given to emergency disease control and to long-term disease control campaigns among which those against rinderpest in Africa and African Swine Fever were outstanding examples. The Conference stressed the importance of FAO's active collaboration, with the other intergovernmental organizations concerned, in coordinating animal disease control in order to bring to bear the Organization's long experience in providing comprehensive approaches to control campaigns.

179. The Conference agreed with a greater emphasis being given to the rational utilization of forage and feed resources and to close cooperation with other expert bodies on the improvement of animal genetic resources, including the improvement of trypanotolerant livestock.

180. The Conference noted that in addition to traditional work on large ruminants, adequate attention must be given to small animal production. It further supported the activities on draught animal power with due recognition of local conditions.

181. The Conference supported the assistance to national institutions dealing with meat and dairy development and stressed the importance of animal products processing and marketing as a means of income generation.

182. The Conference reiterated its support for the Special Action Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development, while recognizing its potential impact in developing untapped agricultural resources of the region.

Programme 2.1.4: Research and technology development

183. The Conference endorsed the consolidation of four existing units into a new Research and Technology Development Division, with Organization-wide responsibilities, comprising the Research Development Centre, Environment and Energy Programme Coordinating Centre, Remote Sensing Centre and the Secretariat of the Technical Advisory Committee to the CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research). It fully supported the programme, the scope of which had been enlarged to reflect FAO's growing involvement in, and support to, a wide range of research and technology activities.

184. The Conference reiterated its strong support to FAO's assistance to the strengthening of national research systems. It stressed in this connection the importance of training in research management and planning in order to increase the number of well-trained research managers in developing countries and enabling them to determine research policies and priorities.

185. The Conference expressed its appreciation in this connection of a thematic evaluation carried out jointly by FAO and UNDP, the results of which were made available in an information document submitted to the Conference and which included a wealth of informative material on national agricultural research in a sample of countries supported by FAO and UNDP.

186. The Conference supported the emphasis on functional linkages between research and extension in order to ensure full benefits from research investment and a timely diffusion of research results to users. It noted that the programme contributed to Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries and to enhancing inter-country cooperation in research.

187. The Conference recognized the contribution to research support programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Division in the field of application of radiation, isotope and biotechnology in the solution of various food and agricultural problems. It noted FAO's continuous support to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research through the activities of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to the CGIAR, and the close cooperation established between FAO and CGIAR institutes.

188. The Conference approved the proposed activities aimed at assisting Member Nations in the application of remote sensing to renewable resources through a mix of advisory services, technical assistance and training programmes.

189. The Conference agreed with the importance of including environmental and energy considerations in agricultural, forestry and fisheries, as well as rural development programmes and activities. It noted with concern the various forms of increasing environmental degradation such as soil erosion, forest depletion, desertification and air and water pollution including acid rain. The Conference requested therefore that action to alleviate environmental problems be strengthened and collaboration enhanced with other organizations working in this same area, particularly UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme).

Programme 2.1.5: Rural development

190. The Conference recognized the pivotal role of Programme 2.1.5: Rural Development in the Organization-wide support to the implementation of WCARRD's Programme of Action. The main objectives of WCARRD, alleviation of poverty and improvement of living conditions in the rural areas, remained as essential as ever.

191. The Conference emphasized the importance of agricultural education, extension and training, agrarian reform and land settlement, the support to rural institutions and people's participation and the role of women in rural development within the broad scope of activities included in the programme.

192. The Conference reaffirmed its appreciation of FAO's lead role in the UN system in promoting and implementing rural development programmes and recommended that every effort be made to muster additional resources which could lead to further positive and concrete achievements in this field.

193. The Conference supported FAO's continued assistance to Member Nations in the development of policies and strategies for rural development and agrarian reform; in this connection the importance of identifying target groups among the rural poor and of studies on the dynamics of their poverty was emphasized. This would provide the basis for specific action by governments and for monitoring and evaluation of programmes. In this connection it welcomed the emphasis placed on the dissemination of information and exchange of experiences among countries.

194. The Conference, as also emphasized by COAG, recognized the contribution of women to agricultural production and marketing and recommended that efforts be continued to assist rural women in their roles as primary producers as well as domestic consumers. It endorsed the proposed increase of resources to stimulate the participation of women in production and marketing of agricultural produce.

195. The Conference also endorsed the emphasis placed on strengthening institutional arrangements which allow for closer participation of small farmers, peasants and rural women in the planning, programming and implementing of rural development programmes, leading in particular to improved know-how and access to inputs, services and resources. In this respect, the support to non-governmental organizations and peasants' groups including cooperatives, was stressed.

196. The Conference stressed the crucial role of marketing especially for the produce from the small farm sector. Similarly, the role of market price policy as an incentive to increased food production was emphasized. The Conference supported FAO's initiative in sponsoring regional associations of marketing organizations as vehicles for training and TCDC (Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries) activities.

197. The Conference recognized the importance of credit facilities for the primary rural producers and the gap which still existed between the credit and banking facilities available to them as compared with the urban dwellers. It considered that Central Banks had to play a major role in support of rural credit institutions and welcomed FAO's continuing support to the Regional Agricultural Credit Associations.

Programme 2.1.6: Nutrition

198. The Conference agreed with the proposed activities included in this programme and related priorities, among which the integration of nutritional considerations into agricultural and rural development policies, programmes and projects were considered most prominent. It was mentioned in this connection that due emphasis should also be placed on incorporating nutrition objectives in fisheries development projects. It was noted that some activities which appeared with a relatively lower level of priority were also of importance, and that the whole nutrition programme deserved therefore full support. Stress was placed on the close relationship between nutrition activities, such as field projects for improvement of nutrition, and WCARRD follow-up programmes.

199. The Conference welcomed the proposed activities towards the completion of the fifth World Food Survey, which would include an assessment of the global nutritional situation, based on the most recent scientific knowledge of human requirements for dietary energy, proteins and other nutrients.

200. The Conference appreciated the continued contribution of the work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, as a means of removing technical barriers to trade which might emerge as a result of varying national food standards and regulations, and recognized the value of Codex publications to all Member Nations.

Programme 2.1.7: Food and agricultural information and analysis

201. The Conference reaffirmed the importance of timely, reliable and comprehensive statistics and emphasized the need to further harmonize FAO, data and those of national and other international agencies. Among the activities proposed in the programme it singled out particularly the improved methodology and data base used for the Fifth World Food Survey and the emphasis given to price statistics and the use of such statistics in policy analysis.

202. The Conference noted with satisfaction the continued emphasis given to the development and improvement of food and agricultural statistics at the country level. It noted also the link of the 1990 World Census of Agriculture Programme with a multi-year survey cycle to establish a balance between statistics on basic agricultural structures and current statistics on prices, production, food consumption, and other indicators of food security and socio-economic progress. The need for adequate training and technical back-stopping in these programmes was emphasized. The Conference expressed the desire to review the 1990 World Census of Agriculture Programme at its 1985 session.

203. The Conference welcomed the further improvements in the State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) and other reports on situation and outlook. Attention would continue to be paid to aspects such as improving the analysis of fluctuations in production, consumption and prices of food commodities as well as to flows of domestic and external public resources.

204. The Conference supported the activities concerned with information and analysis on international trade and market prospects for agricultural commodities.

205. The Conference endorsed the priority attached to the Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture. It stressed the valuable contribution of the System to monitoring the world food situation, especially in identifying potential threats of crop failures and providing timely alerts of food shortages and emergencies. It agreed that the provision of advice and technical support leading to the establishment and strengthening of national, regional and sub-regional early warning systems was essential. In this connection, it supported the proposed workshops in order to assist governments of developing countries to exchange ideas and experiences on the operation of national early warning systems.

Programme 2.1.8: Food and agricultural policy

206. The Conference reaffirmed its support to this programme and the proposed plan of action for 1984-85, and endorsed the strengthening of selected priority activities.

207. The Conference agreed that priority should in particular be given to the establishment and improvement of national, sub-regional and regional food security systems and infrastructures. These activities had to give emphasis to assistance to developing countries in improving their national and regional food security systems and infrastructures as well as policies and programmes, particularly through the Food Security Assistance Scheme, with primary focus on low-income food-deficit countries, especially in Africa. The Conference stressed the need to continue efforts towards a more effective world food security system and agreed with the proposals made to this effect, which included further cooperative action and consultations among governments in the Committee on World Food Security, with particular emphasis on follow-up to the enlarged concept of world food security.

208. The Conference stressed the importance of the formulation of sound agricultural policies, taking into account the need to raise food production in developing countries and other development goals. It endorsed the special emphasis on prices and incentives offered to farmers, and supported the proposed comprehensive study, which would address the whole range of factors involved, including the difficulties of reconciling producer and consumer interests.

209. The Conference agreed on the need to improve the conditions of international trade in agricultural commodities with particular reference to products of export interest to developing countries. It supported the proposed activities to that end, including further consultations through FAO's Intergovernmental Commodity Groups, technical support to other organizations and assistance to developing countries in the formulation of national commodity policies. In this connection, the Conference noted that FAO's trade-related activities would avoid duplication with those of other international organizations with responsibilities for trade and trade policy, notably UNCTAD and GATT.

210. The Conference supported the overall priority given in the programme to training, direct policy advice and assistance for strengthening national planning capacities, with particular reference to sector and project planning and to the analysis of agricultural policy options. It emphasized the importance of basing policy formulation and planning on a more thorough identification and promotion of suitable farming systems.

211. The Conference appreciated that the programme gave due prominence to Economic Cooperation between Developing Countries. In particular, it endorsed the convening of a technical consultation on progress and problems in ECDC in food and agriculture and the holding of regional workshops on ECDC in trade in selected commodities, as well as FAO's assistance and support for meetings on ECDC.

212. The Conference noted that the level of resources for global perspective studies was reduced to reflect a decrease in activities relating to the study "Agriculture: Toward 2000". It agreed, however, that further revisions and updating of the study would need to be undertaken as required, particularly for the review and appraisal of progress in implementation of the International Development Strategy. The Conference also emphasized the importance of FAO's role in analyzing global agricultural policy issues and the performance of the agricultural sector.

Major programme 2.2: Fisheries

213. The Conference fully supported the level of resources and the activities proposed under Major Programme 2.2: Fisheries. It considered the fisheries programme well-balanced and agreed that the strategies and priorities thereof were consonant with the recent fundamental changes affecting world fisheries.

214. The Conference noted with satisfaction the progress achieved in the implementation of the Comprehensive Programme of Assistance in the Development and Management of Fisheries in Exclusive Economic Zones since its inception in 1979, and commended the continuation of this Programme on the basis of expected recommendations in this regard of the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development which FAO would convene in 1984.

215. The Conference supported FAO's intensified efforts to strengthen national capability ties in fisheries management and development, particularly when developing coastal States were faced with new opportunities under the new legal regime of the seas. It also endorsed the priority accorded to fisheries training in these countries.

216. In recognizing the essential role of comprehensive and updated information and statistics in fisheries management and development and in the transfer and adaptation of technology in developing countries, the Conference endorsed the activities under Programme 2.2.1: Fisheries Information.

217. The Conference supported the priority given to Programme 2.2.2: Fisheries Exploitation and Utilization among fisheries programmes and the net increase in resources proposed. It emphasized the importance of the conservation and management of fishery resources with a view to increasing food production and contributing to enhanced food security. In this respect, the growing and potential contribution of inland fisheries and aquaculture was recognized. The Conference noted, however, that aquaculture development would require sustained efforts to develop skilled personnel and attract financial support. Several members stated their readiness to cooperate with FAO to assist developing countries in expanding their aquaculture activities.

218. The Conference recalled the importance it attached to the reduction of post-harvest losses and supported activities with respect to fish technology development and the better use of by-catch products.

219. The Conference emphasized the high priority which should be given to the management and development of small-scale fisheries and aquaculture and the central role played by women in this sector. It also stressed the necessity of adopting an integrated approach to the development of small-scale fisheries, with due recognition to social and economic aspects. It recommended therefore that the World Fisheries Conference consider this subject in detail.

220. The Conference endorsed the activities included under Programme 2.2.3: Fisheries Policy.

221. The Conference drew attention to the achievements of the Committee on Fisheries at its Fifteenth Session, both in carrying out its traditional review of the work of FAO in fisheries and in functioning as the technical phase of the forthcoming World Fisheries Conference. It agreed that the recommendations of the Committee on Fisheries and of the World Fisheries Conference would provide the basis for strengthening FAO fisheries activities over the medium-term.

222. The Conference approved the proposal for the formulation of a Draft Strategy for Fisheries Management and Development which would be submitted to the policy phase of the World Fisheries Conference. It also approved the elaboration of the following five Action Programmes on which the World Fisheries Conference would seek agreement: fisheries planning, management and development (covering both marine and inland fisheries); development of small-scale fisheries; aquaculture trade in fish and fisheries products; and promotion of the role of fisheries in alleviating undernutrition. In this respect the Conference endorsed the Eighty-fourth Council's recommendation, regarding a number of steps that could be taken by the Director-General before the finalization of the Draft Strategy and associated Action Programmes and their submission to the World Fisheries Conference.

Major programme 2.3: Forestry

223. The Conference underlined the essential contribution of forestry to promoting integrated rural development, providing employment and income, ensuring environmental stability and improving the quality of life. It endorsed the proposed activities under the forestry programmes and the high priority given to forestry for rural development, fuelwood and the development of forestry institutions.

224. The Conference reiterated its serious concern at the accelerated rate of deforestation occurring especially in tropical areas, which was leading to soil erosion, desertification and consequent loss of land productivity. It noted that excessive deforestation threatened the base for continued food production. It stressed that priority should be given to controlled management of the natural forests and to promotion of integrated land-use systems, in particular in upland and arid areas. It therefore supported the importance given to afforestation and reforestation programmes.

225. The Conference also recognized the seriousness of fuelwood scarcity in many regions of the developing world and fully endorsed the activities related to fuelwood. It noted the need for concerted efforts to rationalize shifting cultivation and to improve forest land-use practices. The Conference appreciated in this connection the contributions of the Special Action Programme on Forest Energy and Forestry for Local Community Development.

226. The Conference recognized the importance of developing forestry activities in rural areas which incorporated the fullest participation and involvement of the local people so as to enable them to enjoy 8 larger and more equitable share of the economic benefits from forestry and forest industries.

227. The Conference emphasized the relevance of training and manpower improvement related to forestry and forest industries.

228. The Conference emphasized that the long-term nature of forestry activities should not overshadow immediate contribution to human welfare and recommended that investment in forestry-related activities should be increased. Since, moreover, the results of forestry programmes were only clearly noticeable in the medium and long term, it stressed the need for rational planning and management of the forest resources, for which uncoordinated attempts for short-term gains were no substitute.

229. The Conference expressed appreciation for the arrangements for the World Forestry Congress to be held in Mexico in 1985.

230. The Conference considered that there was growing awareness about the importance of forestry for its production, protection and social functions and expressed the hope that increased resources could be made available for this Major Programme in future biennia.

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