H. Technical assistance in the regular program
392. The Conference examined the Director-General's proposal to continue provision in the 1964-65 budget of $ 400,000 for Regular Program Technical Assistance (RPTA). As in 1962-63, about half this sum was to be used to meet requests from Member Governments for short-term assistance in agricultural development planning and about half for training and fellowships in the same field.
393. The activities undertaken in 1962-63 were reviewed in the light of a progress report (c 63/32). It was noted that the advisory work was being carried out chiefly with the help of a small task force of senior agricultural planning economists. Though based at Headquarters, they spent most of their time in the field, especially in Africa, where most of the requests for short-term consultation and advice had so far originated. In addition, an agricultural planning economist had been outposted to the Cairo Office to meet requests from Member Governments in the Near East region, which was not served by a joint UN/FAO agriculture division. A number of country missions had been completed or were under way, and many more requests were in hand. It was suggested that the services of the task force might be extended to countries of Latin America.
394. The Conference noted with satisfaction the high priority given to training facilities and fellowships in agricultural development and planning. The main activity in this field had been the organization by FAO with the assistance of the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, of a special five-months course on the subject. The 36 participants had been drawn half from Africa and half from the Near East and Asia, and most of them occupied responsible positions in development planning in their countries. While the course had been largely experimental, the Conference was informed that there had been general agreement among the trainees that it had been most valuable for their future work. Other training activities organized under the program in the past year had included centers on agrarian reform and on statistics. Assistance had been given to the United Nations Regional Development Institutes for Africa and Latin America in regard to training in agricultural development planning.
395. Since courses of the required type specializing in agriculture and oriented toward the particular needs of developing countries were not regularly available at existing institutions, the Conference supported the holding of a further comprehensive course on agricultural development planning in the ensuing biennium. Other opportunities for training and fellowships to promote better development and planning of agriculture might also arise, especially in conjunction with the various United Nations regional development institutes.
396. The Conference considered that the funds made available for technical assistance in the Regular Program in 1962-63 had been well used and had permitted important work to be done. It recognized the value of having these funds available in the budget to enable unforeseen opportunities for assisting member countries to be immediately seized, without detracting from the regular activities of the Divisions concerned.
397. It considered that the expenditure charged against the RPTA fund should be subject to regular review so as to ensure that individual activities of a continuing nature and otherwise readily identifiable as a Regular Program responsibility of a specific Branch or Branches were not included.
398. The Conference therefore endorsed the views of the Technical Committee on Economics regarding this program and approved the provision of $ 400,000 in the 1964-65 budget for continuation of work on agricultural development planning, to enable the following activities to be undertaken:
(ii) continuation of advisory work on agricultural development and planning with Near East Member Governments;
(iii) continuing provision of training facilities in agricultural development planning, including individual fellowships as well as group fellowships schemes;
(iv) meeting, so far as possible, such other requests as might be received for assistance in agricultural development planning and for which alternative sources of financing are not available.
I. Survey and appraisal of world agriculture, fisheries and forestry resources in relation to needs - report on the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra basin
399. The delegate of Pakistan said that the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin was a densely populated area with vast rich resources in all fields of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. In consequence, the study on the potentialities of this area could be of value to the countries concerned. At the Eleventh Session of the Conference his delegation had drawn attention to certain unacceptable features in the study, to the need for sending a suitable expert or experts to the countries to discuss the data and the issues that might be raised by the governments, and that the study should not be released until it had received the prior agreement and concurrence of the governments concerned. He requested that action should be taken, in accordance with the procedures indicated at the previous session of the Conference, as soon as possible.
400. The Commission noted the request of the Pakistan delegation. It was informed that the Director-General would take necessary action to pursue this matter to the extent that the competence of the Organization and its priorities of work permitted, and that the report would not be released until it had received the prior concurrence of the governments concerned.
J. André Mayer research fellowships
401. The Conference reviewed the Director-General's proposal for a modest increase in the budget for André Mayer Research Fellowships for the biennium 1964-65. In addition to this proposal contained in the Program of Work and Budget for 1964-65, the Director-General had published a report entitled André Mayer Research Fellowships 1956-1962 which summarizes the results of the program.
402. Since the inception of this Program in 1956 and until recently, it had been possible to award an average of nine to ten fellowships a year. Due to rising costs, however, it had only been possible to award eight fellowships in 1963. Moreover, the number of member countries of the Organization had increased considerably, and with it the number of countries interested in participating in the Program. It was for these reasons that the Director-General had proposed the increase in the budgetary provision which would allow the Organization to award from ten to twelve fellowships a year. In doing so, the Director-General had also kept in mind the recommendation of the Eleventh Session of the Conference that he consider an expansion of the Research Fellowships Program.
403. The Conference expressed great interest in the Program: there was no question about its value and importance. The Conference noted, however, that the Program Committee had expressed some concern that there had been some departure from the original purpose of awarding those fellowships primarily for advanced studies on problems directly related to the FAO Program of Work and that it had decided to make a general review of these fellowships at its session in the spring of 1964 (document CL 40/2). The Conference agreed that the purpose of the André Mayer Fellowships Program should be further clarified in the light of the current situation and commended the proposed study of the Program Committee.
404. The majority of the delegates felt that this Program was of such importance, particularly to the developing countries, which are in great need of experienced research scientists, that the increase proposed by the Director-General should be approved without awaiting the outcome of the Program Committee's study. On the other hand, several delegates. in view of the questions raised regarding the purpose of the program, indicated that in their opinion no increase in the budget provision should be made until the results of the Program Committee review were available.
405. After this exchange of views, the Conference agreed with the increased budgetary provision for André Mayer Research Fellowships of up to $ 150,000 for the biennium, within the limits of the funds finally appropriated, particularly in the light of the explanation by the Director-General that the additional awards made possible as a result of the increased budgetary provision would not be made until after the Program Committee review was available to the Director-General.
K. Measures to develop rural youth activities in the world especially with a view to improving agricultural production and social conditions in developing countries
406. The Conference was in unanimous agreement about the increasing importance of activities on behalf of rural youth, particularly in regard to out-of-school agricultural training, and welcomed the proposal for intensifying FAO's work in this field. General support was expressed for the program that had been outlined.
407. It was recognized that the work undertaken on behalf of rural youth should be integrated with the main program of work of the Rural Institutions and Services Division, and more particularly that part relating to agricultural education and extension.
408. The Conference stressed the need for cooperation and co-ordination with the programs of other international, bilateral and national organizations engaged in rural youth work. Many examples of outstanding national programs were mentioned, and the considerable assistance already given by other international organizations was acknowledged.
409. The Conference discussed the possibility of seeking material assistance from various international organizations and foundations engaged in rural youth work in support of the new activities proposed by FAO. It was also considered that the experience gained in 1964-65 would help in the formulation of proposals for more concrete action in 1966-67.
410. Special attention should be given when designing small rural youth activities to the needs of young women and girls, and training should cover the various aspects of rural life, including both agriculture and home economics.
411. Besides receiving training in technical fields, rural youth should also be given guidance on the cultural, economic and sociological aspects of community life. Such activities, which would promote the betterment of rural life, could help to stem the excessive flow of rural youth to the urban and industrialized areas. The fact that young people were also tending to migrate from the fishing communities was mentioned, and it was requested that some attention should be devoted to the problems of interesting youth in maritime activities.
412. The Conference noted the need for careful planning and operation of youth activities. They should be adjusted to the special requirements of the environments for which they were intended. It was important for the young people to participate actively in running their own organizations, and the Conference emphasized the need for training in leadership for youth activities and the value of trained and capable young leaders to their communities.
413. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
RESOLUTION No. 24/63
Measures to Develop Rural Youth Activities
Recognizing FAO's responsibilities toward the future farmers and farm wives who form an important part of the world population and on whose training and abilities the future development of agriculture will largely depend,
Considering the important contribution rural youth organizations and out-of-school training programs are making in several countries to improve the standard of living in rural districts through the diffusion of modern up-to-date production techniques,
Considering that FAO should play a leading role in the promotion of rural youth programs,
Requests the Director-General:
1. to implement as soon as possible a world-wide action program in rural youth work adapted to the conditions of different regions along the lines of that proposed by the Thirteenth Session of the European Commission on Agriculture;
2. to strengthen the services of FAO in charge of this program, insofar as is practicable, even in 1964-65 in order to ensure its efficient implementation; and
3. to interest and ensure the collaboration of other international organizations and foundations in the carrying out of this program.
L. Codex alimentarius program
Method of financing
414. At its Eleventh Session the Conference in Resolution No. 12/61 initiated the joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Program and agreed to its being financed by means of a special trust fund, subject to review of the method of finance at its Twelfth Session.
415. The Conference now noted that 52 countries were participating in the activities of this Program and unanimously underlined its importance in simplifying and integrating international food standards work.
416. The Conference approved the proposal made by the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Report of First Session, June 1963, paragraph 73) that the costs of the Program should be transferred to the Regular Programs of FAO and WHO as soon as practicable. In so doing, it concurred in the Director-General's view (c 63/36) that this could not be done before the end of 1965, having regard to the difficulty of foreseeing accurately the pattern of expenditure of the new program and the different budgetary procedures of FAO and WHO. Some concern was expressed about the possible duplication of work resulting from the large program adopted by the Joint Commission and about the magnitude of the budgetary provisions to be made as a consequence for the carrying out of such a program in the Regular Programs of the two Organizations. The Conference requested the Commission when proposing the pattern of expenditure to exercise the mandate unanimously underlined in the preceding paragraph to the full and in liaison with the various international organizations concerned with this work, so as to minimize the total cost to Member Nations of effective work in this field.
417. The Conference therefore requested the Director-General to study, in close collaboration with the Director-General of WHO, the minimum costs involved by the program of work as proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and its Executive Committee, in such a way as to be able to present realistic and effective estimates of expenditures, consistent with needs, for inclusion in the 1966-67 Program of Work and Budget.
418. The Conference further requested the Director-General to communicate its view to the Director-General of WHO SO that the necessary consideration could be given to including an appropriate share of the costs in the Regular Program of WHO.
M. Global locust research and control
419. The Conference expressed appreciation of the work done by the Organization during recent years to support and strengthen the action taken by many countries in Africa and southwestern Asia to control the desert locust.
420. Nevertheless, it noted the need to maintain liaison between the various regional and national organizations responsible for the control of and research on other species of migratory locusts which periodically inflict major crop losses over vast areas of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
421. The Conference recognized that, while most of such intergovernmental locust control organizations had proved highly effective against their specific locust species, they could benefit greatly by exchanging their experiences, and it considered closer co-operation between regional locust organizations to be of vital importance. The Conference therefore, considered that FAO should as soon as practicable emphasize in its work the establishment of liaison and the exchange of information between such regional organizations.
N. Emergency fund for the control of Livestock disease
422. The Conference reviewed the findings of the Technical Committee on Agriculture in regard to the proposals for the establishment of an Emergency Fund for the Control of Livestock Disease. Consideration was given to the deliberations of the Finance Committee and the Council and to the recommendations of the latter addressed to the Conference. It was noted that the concept of such a Fund had arisen in previous FAO Conferences and in a number of technical meetings in the regions.
423. Appreciating that the control of epizootic diseases must logically be based on international co-operation, the Conference approved in principle the establishment of an Emergency Fund for the Control of Livestock Disease to be at the disposal of the Director-General, who would be advised by a small committee of experts as to whether and how funds should be used for any particular emergency.
424. The Conference viewed with concern the fact that, since a number of member countries were in substantial arrears with their contributions to the Organization, it did not appear likely that proposals previously made for the establishment of the Fund from miscellaneous income would be feasible at the present time. The volume of support for the Fund was such that consideration should be given by the Director-General to alternative means of providing the necessary finances in the event of unavoidable failure to establish it by the methods proposed by the Secretariat. If such alternative means could not be found, it was unlikely that the Fund would become a reality before the end of the 1964-65 biennium.
425. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
RESOLUTION No. 25/63
Emergency Fund for the Control of Livestock Disease
Recalling that at its Eleventh Session it had commended the Organization for the emergency action taken with regard to certain epizootics and suggested that the Organization should further strengthen its ability to assist in this field,
Noting with concern the serious threat to the livestock industry, especially in developing countries, presented by the increasing incidence and rapid spread of such diseases as foot-and-mouth, African horse-sickness, African swine fever anti other epizootics,
Further noting that the Member Governments are looking increasingly to the Organization to provide emergency assistance when such diseases occur and that, for such aid to be fully effective it must be given rapidly so that the disease may he brought under control before it has an opportunity of becoming widespread, thus eliminating the need for a long and costly control campaign, and
Desiring to find means to assist in emergencies as they arise within available financial resources,
Authorizes the Director-General, notwithstanding the provisions of Financial Regulation 6.1 (b), to withhold the distribution of any cash surplus at the end of the 1962-63 biennium, provided any such surplus exceeds $ 50,000;
Authorizes a withdrawal from the Working Capital Fund to the extent of such surplus but not to exceed the amount of the excess miscellaneous income for 1962-63 for the purpose of financing the initial operations of an emergency nature for the control of livestock diseases as outlined in document C 63/38 and taking into account the observations of the Technical Committee on Agriculture (C 63/AG/9);
Decides that the Working Capital Fund be reimbursed from the above surplus;
Notes that the Council will instruct the Finance Committee, in consultation with the Director-General, to develop appropriate procedures for the utilization of the advance and the accounting thereof for approval of the Council; and
Requests the Director-General, in the event of such a cash surplus not being available, to give consideration to the possibility of establishing an Emergency Fund for the above purposes from outside sources, and requests Member Governments to offer practical suggestions to this effect to the Director-General for consideration by the Finance Committee and approval by the Council.
O. Interagency relations and consultations on matters of common interest
Matters arising out of the administrative committee on coordination and the economic and social council discussions
Matters arising out of the administrative committee on coordination and the economic and social council discussions
426. The Conference reviewed a report of the Director-General (c 63/62) drawing attention to decisions taken at the Thirty-Sixth Session of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on matters of common interest to the United Nations family organizations. The decisions related to a wide range of subjects in the technical, economic, social and human rights fields, in which FAO has a vital role to play individually and in concert with the United Nations and other United Nations family members.
427. The Conference noted the views expressed by the Director-General on the different resolutions, many of which were fundamental to the specialized tasks of the Organization. More specifically, it recognized the importance of the application of science and technology in accelerating economic development of the developing countries and the measures proposed by the Director-General to intensify the efforts of FAO in consultation with the appropriate organs of FAO.
428. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
RESOLUTION No. 26/63
Application of science and technology in food and agriculture
Noting the predominantly agricultural character of the economies of developing and newly developing countries and the consequent importance to their progress of the development and application of science and technology in all specialized food and agricultural fields,
Affirming a conclusion of the United Nations Conference on the Application of Science and Technology for the Benefit of Less Developed Areas that if research results are to be of practical use they must be applied within an effective organizational structure for agricultural development,
Recognizing that FAO is competent to render assistance to governments in promoting the use of science and technology and the development of applied research in all areas of food and agriculture and in developing the appropriate research organization and total organizational and institutional framework within which farmers, foresters, and fishermen may be assisted and induced to apply the findings of research,
Requests the Director-General:
1. to assist governments in obtaining increased resources, through the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, the United Nations Special Fund and other sources for the application of science and technology and for the development of adequate facilities for applied food and agricultural research;
2. to continue, as provided in the 1964-65 Program of Work, to give attention to the solving of the organizational and institutional problems associated with the provision of resources for research related to the implementation of development plans; and
3. to ensure that the Organization takes an active part in the newly established Sub-Committee on Science and Technology of the Administrative Committee on Coordination.
429. The Conference also took note of ECOSOC Resolution 991 (XXXVI) on the evaluation of programs and approved the steps proposed by the Director-General in order to comply with this Resolution consistent with the responsibilities of the FAO governing body in the matter.
430. The Conference also took note that ECOSOC Resolution 986 (XXXVI) on atomic energy was in conformity with its own views inasmuch as the Resolution recognized not only the primary responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency under its statute for work in the field of atomic energy, but also the constitutional responsibilities of the specialized agencies, each in its own particular field.
431. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
RESOLUTION No. 27/63
Co-operation between FAO and other Members of the United Nations system
Considering the importance of ensuring co-ordination of the steadily expanding activities of the organizations of the United Nations system,
Anxious to avoid duplication of effort and to ensure appropriate interagency co-operation in all cases affecting more than one organization,
Conscious of the need to use the limited financial resources of United Nations bodies to the maximum benefit of countries requesting assistance,
Noting with concern the problems of duplication discussed during the Eleventh and Twelfth Sessions, in particular as regards the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, Unesco and the International Labour Organisation, and
Also noting Resolution 986 (XXXVI) of the Economic and Social Council concerning work in the field of atomic energy,
Confirms the willingness of FAO to conform to the terms of that Resolution and to co-operate with other international agencies in the field of atomic energy activities in order to prevent duplication of work, taking into account, however, that FAO has responsibility for the use of nuclear science techniques in applied research and development in agriculture, food, fisheries and forestry;
Supports the Director-General in his efforts in the Administrative Committee on Coordination to reach satisfactory interagency co-operation and coordination in fields where difficulties are experienced;
Expresses appreciation of the action of the Economic and Social Council in keeping these matters of cooperation and co-ordination under continuing review;
Recommends Member Governments to strengthen their efforts to ensure full co-ordination of the views expressed by their delegates at meetings of the governing bodies of the various intergovernmental organizations.
(Adopted 4/1 2/63)
432. On the question of human rights, the Conference was in agreement with action the Director-General was taking to ensure concrete and precise formulation of man's right to freedom from hunger in the future convenants on economic, social and cultural rights before the General Assembly, and on the measures to ensure this achievement which would constitute a most valuable contribution to freedom from hunger.
433. The Conference supported the effective participation of FAO in the study undertaken by the Administrative Committee on Coordination for coordination of emergency relief activities of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and stressed the importance of ensuring that the procedures adopted were flexible and did not in any way hamper the initiative of participating agencies directly concerned with emergency relief measures.
434. In general, the Conference endorsed the lines of action proposed by the Director-General on the resolutions that called for action on the part of FAO and wished to be kept informed of further development.
435. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
RESOLUTION No. 28/63
Recognizes the world-wide importance of industries based on the products of agriculture, fisheries and forestry and their role in the economic development process, as they are capable of making a special contribution to economic growth in developing countries and often possess high import-saving and export-earning potential,
Considers (a) that FAO's broad responsibilities in the field of food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry cannot be adequately discharged without increasing attention to ensuring remunerative outlets for the products of the farm, the forest and the sea, and fulfilling the nutritional needs of the people, and (b) that the proper management and development of renewable natural resources requires that there should be no divorce between responsibility for these resources and responsibility for the industries based upon them,
Reaffirms FAO's responsibility for advising and assisting Member Nations on the sound development of industries either based on renewable natural resources or designed to meet food and nutritional needs,
Accordingly welcomes the degree of understanding in this regard already reached with the United Nations Commissioner for Industrial Development and the arrangements made for collaboration with the United Nations Industrial Development Center and hopes that this will be widened;
Recognizes that trends in the world forest and forest products economy may especially provide opportunities for many developing countries to expand their domestic industries and diversify their exports, thereby stimulating their economic development and helping to solve their pressing trade problems; and
Requests the Director-General, in formulating his Program of Work and Budget for 1966-67, to pay particular attention to strengthening those aspects of the Organization's activities which can assist the developing countries to achieve a rapid and sound expansion of industries either based on renewable natural resources or designed to meet food and nutritional needs.
436. The Conference considered the nature and scope of FAO activities in collaboration with UNICEF to assist governments in their projects for improved nutrition. It had before it information on the subjects as presented in the Program of Work and Budget for 1964-65, the reports of its Eleventh Session, of the Fortieth Session of the Council, of the Seventh Session of the Program Committee and of the Ninth Session of the Finance Committee, and document c 63/39 on FAO/UNICEF relations. The Conference heard with appreciation statements on the joint program and on UNICEF policies and views as presented on behalf of the Executive Board of UNICEF by the Chairman of its Program Committee.
437. The Conference took into account the background on this matter extending over a number of years during which careful consideration had been given to the issues relating to the respective responsibilities of FAO and UNICEF as to sources of funds for joint activities. In reconsidering these issues many delegations expressed complete support for the program as presented. Certain others, while offering equally strong support for this work considered that financial arrangements in support of the joint program had not yet been satisfactorily worked out. The following views were expressed:
(b) With respect to FAO Headquarters and regional costs, reference was made to the view expressed by the Program and Finance Committees that funds should be provided by the agency on whose initiative the action is undertaken. Several delegates felt that UNICEF, in addition to financing such FAO field-project personnel and fellowships as could not be accommodated under EPTA, should help also to meet the FAO servicing costs at Headquarters and in the regions. Some delegates proposed that governments arrange through the UNICEF Executive Board for UNICEF to provide FAO with additional funds, representing a proportion of the field costs, to help cover the servicing of projects by FAO Headquarters and regional staff, in a manner similar to the EPTA and United Nations Special Fund (UNSF) arrangements in this respect. Some delegates proposed that the UNICEF Executive Board execute its projects in the field of food and agriculture through FAO in a manner similar to the EPTA and UNSF programs.
(c) Attention was drawn to the recommendation of the Technical Committee on Nutrition that under no circumstances should the aspects of the program proposed for the Nutrition Division be adversely affected by priorities. Mention was made of the possible need for determining priorities among other items in the proposed Program of Work and Budget for 1964-65 in recognition of the fact that the FAO/UNICEF joint program was supported so strongly that no reduction could be envisaged for this item.
(d) Several delegates proposed that the Director-General of FAO and the Executive Director of UNICEF should continue to discuss this matter further in an endeavor to reach a more satisfactory long-term solution, that the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee might well keep the matter under review, and that the policy of governments on sources of funds should be consistent in the different international bodies.
438. The Conference greatly appreciated the provision by UNICEF of funds for FAO project personnel and fellowships not covered by EPTA during recent years and the indications given of continuing UNICEF support in this regard through 1964, and hoped that this arrangement initiated as an interim measure could be maintained as long as was necessary. The Conference was informed that the questions of responsibility for financing and of source of funds would continue to be kept under review by the UNICEF Executive Board.
439. The Conference considered that, if the UNICEF Executive Board would be prepared to provide FAO with additional funds to meet Headquarters and regional costs, such would be most welcome. It recognized, however, that this could not be anticipated prior to a decision by the UNICEF Executive Board. The Director-General informed the Conference that, if UNICEF were later to make funds available for such a purpose, a corresponding amount, below the requirements for this item presented in the 1964-65 Program of Work and Budget, would remain unexpended and thus would finally be returned to Member Governments.
440. In all the circumstances, the Conference reaffirmed its support for the activities jointly carried on by FAO and UNICEF in co-operation with Member Governments and emphasized that they should be continued fully and without interruption. The Conference confirmed the principles in the report of its Eleventh Session to the effect that FAO is responsible under its Regular Program for the technical guidance essential to the jointly-assisted projects, which includes the provision of supporting services at Headquarters and in the regions and, additionally, is responsible for providing the project personnel required within FAO's field of competence, drawing on EPTA and any other sources of funds to the extent possible for the corresponding costs. The Conference noted that UNICEF allocates funds to projects for material aid including the training of national personnel.
441. The Conference approved the program as submitted for Expanded Support for Joint FAO/UNICEF-Assisted Projects in 1964-65 within the limits of funds available.