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S. Special program of technical assistance under FAO's regular program

356. The Conference considered the Director-General's proposal for an experimental special program of technical assistance under the Regular Program, for which a budget allocation of $400,000 was pro posed. The advantages of such a program had been emphasized in the Forward Appraisal submitted to the Tenth Session of the Conference and were more specifically stated in Chapter VI. D of Document C 61/3 and in Document C 61/55. The Director-General was proposing in the ensuing biennium to meet from this provision urgent needs, on request of the developing countries, particularly in Africa, for short-term assistance in development planning in agriculture and for fellowships.

357. Differing views were expressed on the idea of providing such technical assistance through the Regular Program. Some delegations felt that the program might be postponed for the time being, in view of the considerable increase in the Regular Budget and because of the imminent meeting of the Committee of Eight, or that it could perhaps be financed from EPTA funds, including the Technical Assistance Board Contingency Fund. Others felt that the proposed program was complementary to the assistance received under EPTA and was needed to give the total aid program the necessary flexibility: they also considered that deferment of the program was inadvisable in view of the immediate importance of development assistance to a large number of newly-independent countries in Africa. After carefully examining the question, the Conference approved the program of technical assistance proposed in the Regular Program of Work during 1962-63.

T. Activities arising out of the Mediterranean development project

358. The Conference had before it the Report of activities arising out of the Mediterranean Development Project (C 61/20). It took note of the work that had been done to implement Conference Resolution No. 17/59 on the Mediterranean Development Project and of the effort made, in spite of budgetary limitations, to implement it. Attention had been concentrated on the formulation and elaboration of preinvestment surveys in co-operation with the United Nations Special Fund in " spearhead regions " in four countries, Turkey, Tunisia, Morocco and Greece. Other regional development projects were also envisaged.

359. At the invitation of the Spanish Government, a conference had been called in Madrid and Badajoz to initiate regular contacts in respect of the various development zones, including those established in France, Italy and Spain, where considerable experience had been acquired in regional planning. The purpose of the conference was to discuss problems of regional planning for rural development and their relation to national development plans, implementation problems, the opportunities afforded by multilateral and bilateral aid, as well as by various FAO programs (such as the Freedom from Hunger Campaign and the proposed activities on surplus utilization) and, also, to consider specific projects of interest to participating countries, e.g. the " cold chain. "

360. The Conference noted the action taken by the Director-General to implement Conference Resolution No. 17/59, and the general conclusions of the aforementioned report. The Conference was also informed of the recommendations of the Madrid/ Badajoz conference. Several delegations referred to the impact of FAO's activity within the scope of the Mediterranean Development Project on their national and regional development planning, and outlined some of their problems: the need to counteract erosion, land-use improvement, and the difficulties encountered in exporting certain agricultural commodities of importance to the trade of the Mediterranean area.

361. Some countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libya and Pakistan), expressed a wish to be more closely associated with the project, through country studies, the establishment of " spearhead " development zones, or joint investigation of specific problems.

362. There was general agreement that periodic meetings such as that held in Madrid/Badajoz, which facilitate consultation and exchange of information on rural development planning in its wider context at the national and regional level, would serve a useful purpose. In this connection, it was suggested that a meeting he held in the near future in Nīmes, France.

363. The need for appropriate training courses was stressed.

364. The Conference noted with satisfaction that FAO was already co-operating actively with the United Nations and its Economic Commission for Europe, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in the area.

365. The Conference adopted the following resolution:


Mediterranean Development Project


Expressing its satisfaction with the action undertaken by the Director-General in accordance with Conference Resolution No. 17/59, particularly as regards the formulation and elaboration of preinvestment surveys in Mediterranean countries, and

Considering that the preparation of such surveys enables the countries of the region to make a definite start with the implementation of the recommendations contained in the over-all report of the Mediterranean Development Project and the specific country reports,

Congratulates the Director-General for his initiative and thanks the United Nations Special Fund and the United Nations for their co-operation; and

Invites the Mediterranean countries for which no special country studies have yet been made to carry out such studies in co-operation with FAO, the United Nations and the international organizations concerned; and

Having taken note of the activities arising out of the Mediterranean Development Project (C 61/20), and

Convinced of the desirability of moving ahead with these activities in agreement with the governments concerned and insofar as funds are available within the budget for 1962-63,

Recommends, in particular:

(a) that the Director-General set up an expert group on Mediterranean questions,

(b) that, in co-operation with the United Nations and other international organizations, meetings be organized at regular intervals with a view to examining the achievements obtained in carrying out the Mediterranean Development Project at national and regional levels, especially with regard to speeding up the economic and social advancement of rural populations within the framework of the over-all development of the countries concerned,

(c) that the Committee on Commodity Problems examine the advisability of studies being undertaken on trade in Mediterranean commodities,

(d) that the expert group referred to under (a) above consider the advisability of studies being undertaken on the establishment of a " cold chain, " such studies to be carried out in close cooperation with the Economic Commission for Europe and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and other interested international organizations, and

(e) that the FAO promote the expansion of the development zones and the training of national officials while the preinvestment surveys are under way.

U. Survey and appraisal of world agriculture, fisheries and forestry resources in relation to needs

366. The Conference noted that, in accordance with the instructions of its Tenth Session, the following action had been taken in connection with the draft pilot study on resource potentialities in relation to needs in the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra basin:

(a) The draft had been reviewed both within FAO and by some persons acting in a personal and professional capacity.

(b) The draft had been submitted to the governments concerned in July 1960 for review of the data, the general approach, and the tentative conclusions.

(c) The governments of India and Pakistan had carefully reviewed the draft study, and their official comments either had been received or were to be expected in the near future.

367. Assurance was given by the Director-General that, before this pilot study was completed, suitable experts would be sent to the countries concerned to finalize the data and the over-all approach in accordance with the issues that had been or might be raised by the governments concerned. The draft study would not be released before it had been thoroughly discussed with and received the concurrence of these governments.

368. It was noted with satisfaction that the decision to undertake a pilot study to explore the methodology of laying a solid long-term foundation for agricultural programing, with particular reference to resource potentialities, had led to useful results. The experience gained in this project had contributed in a substantial degree to the proposals put forward by the Director-General for the Reorientation of FAO's activities to strengthen the ability of the Organization to give assistance to governments in their agricultural development (C 61/57). The project would in future be merged with work to be done in accordance with these proposals, after their review by the Program Committee, the Council, and the Conference.

369. However, as the study on the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra basin had still to be finalized, the Conference requested a final report on this matter at its Twelfth Session.

V. Technical co-operation programs

Field personnel
Contracting for the execution of projects
Associate experts
United nations development decade
Expanded program of technical assistance (EPTA)
The united nations special fund
Relationship between EPTA and the special fund
Program for operational executives (OPEX)

370. The Conference decided to consider jointly the developments of the United Nations technical cooperation programs in which the Organization was participating, i.e., the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance (EPTA), the United Nations Special Fund and the United Nations Program for Operational Executives (OPEX). It had before it a written report of the Director-General on the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance and the United Nations Special Fund (C 61/17).

371. The Conference also heard statements made by representatives of the Executive Chairman of the Technical Assistance Board and the Managing Director of the United Nations Special Fund.

372. The Conference was gratified to note the increased emphasis that was being placed on the need for international action for economic development in the world. Such action had commenced on a modest scale in 1950 by the creation of the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance. The financial resources for this program had steadily increased from approximately $6,400,000 for the program for the year 1950 to approximately $44,000,000 for 1961.

373. The Expanded Program was complemented in 1958 by the establishment of the United Nations Special Fund. The latter enabled the Organization to increase its technical assistance activities considerably, particularly since a high proportion of projects approved by the Governing Council of the Special Fund were assigned to FAO, as executing agency.

Field personnel

374. The welcome expansion of resources for international technical co-operation had increased the demand for qualified field personnel. Several delegations expressed concern about the scarcity of duly qualified persons: this, in their opinion, might well become a real stumbling block for the Organization's field programs. The Conference was informed, however, that, although speedy recruitment was a major problem for the Organization, it was not yet an insurmountable difficulty. The problem might conceivably become more acute as the field programs increased.

375. The Director-General, on the advice of the Program Committee and the Council, had been circulating lists of vacancies for field posts to governments, national technical assistance committees and national FAO committees. As a response to the first 2 of these lists, the Organization had received some 1,600 applications of which 450 were from suitably qualified experts. Of these, some 60 had already been or were being recruited. The Conference recognized that the circulation of such vacancy lists was to be considered as an experiment. In this connection, some delegates felt that they did not contain sufficient details of the existing vacancies. The Director-General would keep the whole matter under constant review.

Contracting for the execution of projects

376. The trend toward the execution of relatively larger projects, particularly those supported by the United Nations Special Fund, provided an opportunity for contracting with scientific institutions or firms of consultants for the execution by them of projects or parts of projects. The Conference was informed that the Director-General had already availed himself of such assistance and that some 15 contracts had been made, involving over $3,500,000. The Conference recognized, however, that contracting with outside institutions or organizations for specific technical assistance work was a complicated matter that needed the further careful consideration the Director-General intended to give it.

Associate experts

377. Another possible means of easing the field staff recruitment situation would be, as some delegations proposed, to recruit at a somewhat lower academic level, but maintaining the requirement of substantial practical experience. The increased use of associate experts would also help to a certain extent to overcome possible scarcity of top-level experts. The Director-General had already concluded arrangements with two member countries for the provision of associate experts, at no cost to the recipient countries. The Conference was informed that two or three other countries had shown an interest in joining this scheme. Associate experts who are academically qualified but have limited practical experience can, on the one hand, relieve senior experts of much of their day-to-day work and, on the other, gain the necessary experience to qualify as experts themselves.

United nations development decade

378. The Conference was informed that the United States of America and a number of other countries were proposing to the Sixteenth Session of the United Nations General Assembly currently being held in New York, that the 1960s be designated as the United Nations Development Decade, during which there would be a concentrated plan of action with increased resources for United Nations assistance for economic development. The Conference appreciated the value of these proposals, which, if endorsed by the General Assembly, would further strengthen the work of the Organization.

Expanded program of technical assistance (EPTA)

379. The Conference noted that the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, now more than ten years old, was running satisfactorily along well-established lines. It had proved its usefulness and become of essential value to the developing countries. The Conference welcomed as a further improvement the new EPTA programing procedures adopted by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and due to take effect for the years 1963-64. There was also general recognition that the most effective EPTA projects were those closely tied to the governments' own activities for economic development.

380. The Conference felt that experts provided under EPTA should direct their attention increasingly to the training of national personnel. For this purpose national training centers should be organized wherever possible to provide concentrated courses. A few of the more promising of the participants could then be selected for study abroad under fellowship grants.

381. The increased resources that would be available for EPTA regional projects would also allow FAO to organize and carry out more regional training centers and seminars.

382. The Conference placed much emphasis on the training of national staff, because it was now generally recognized that the economic development of the developing countries was very much dependent upon the availability of qualified personnel, of which there was a general shortage in those countries. In this connection, the Conference called on Member Governments to make appropriate use of the EPTA fellowship possibilities, particularly as it noted that the percentage of fellowships in the Organization's total EPTA program had decreased from 7.6 percent in 1951 to 4.9 percent in 1961.

383. Another factor that greatly influences the effectiveness of technical assistance is the period of service of the experts. An expert once assigned to a country should, whenever possible, remain until his task is completed. Prior replacement of an expert always results in a break in much-needed continuity.

384. The Conference noted that the Director-General was proposing a study for submission to the Twelfth Session of the Conference on programing and evaluation of the Organization's technical assistance in selected countries (C 61/3, page 9).17 The Conference hoped that this study, which had been begun, would, when completed, give an insight into the results obtained from technical assistance, particularly with regard to the use made of the reports of technical assistance experts and the follow-up on them.

The united nations special fund

385. The Conference noted with appreciation the close collaboration between the Director-General and the Managing Director of the United Nations Special Fund in the preparation, evaluation and execution of Special Fund projects. The Conference was also gratified to note the rather large proportion of Special Fund projects in the field of food and agriculture for which the Organization had been asked to act as executing agency. The Conference realized that the support of the Special Fund and the success of projects depended greatly on the active participation of the governments concerned. In this connection, the Conference noted with appreciation the full recognition by the Director-General and the Managing Director of the Special Fund that projects supported by the Special Fund are in the first instance national projects for which governments are responsible.

386. The Conference was informed that so far the Organization had been designated executing agency for 65 projects approved by the Governing Council of the Special Fund, that plans of operation had been prepared and signed for 38 of them, and that 35 were in operation. Since the duration of most of these projects was from three to five to years, it was too early to seek to evaluate them. The Conference, however, requested the Director-General to present such an evaluation to its next session.

Relationship between EPTA and the special fund

387. The Director-General, in document C 61/17, had placed before the Conference inter alia a resolution of the Economic and Social Council establishing an ad hoc eight-member committee to study the possibilities of better co-ordination of the field programs of the United Nations family.

388. The resolution also requested the United Nations and the specialized agencies to submit their comments on this matter to the ad hoc Committee before 31 December 1961. One of the important issues likely to be considered by this Committee was the question of a possible merger between EPTA and the United Nations Special Fund, and if such a merger were to take place, whether it should follow the Technical Assistance Board (TAB) or Special Fund pattern.

389. In view of this, the Conference felt that it should not take a firm position or make specific recommendations on the said issue at that juncture. Several delegates, however, shared the Director-General's view that it was too early to decide in favor of a merger, not only because of certain basic differences between EPTA and the United Nations Special Fund, but also because the procedure under EPTA was well established, while that under the United Nations Special Fund was relatively new and untried. Other delegations felt, on the contrary, that there was such a similarity between the two programs that a merger might well result in more efficiency of operation and simplicity of procedure.

390. The Director-General suggested that, if it was decided to merge EPTA and the Special Fund, some arrangement similar to TAB should be maintained. While some members of the Conference recognized the value of TAB for the co-ordination of the activities of the United Nations specialized agencies and the promotion of co-operation between them, others maintained that the Special Fund procedure would ensure better co-ordination and centralized responsibility. But the Conference also felt that this question was so closely linked with the task of the ad hoc Committee of Eight that it would be inappropriate to prejudge the issue.

391. The Conference agreed that the Director-General in presenting his comments to the ad hoc Committee, should attach the text of the Conference report and the verbatim record of the discussion on the subject.

Program for operational executives (OPEX)

392. The Conference was informed that the Program for Operational Executives (OPEX), whereby the United Nations was supplying senior executive staff upon request to its Member Governments to serve in the national departments as members of the national civil service, had become a permanent and very important feature. When OPEX assistance had been requested in the field of food and agriculture, collaboration between the United Nations and the Organization had been very satisfactory, the United Nations always requesting the Organization's advice and co-operation both in the preparatory evaluation work and in recruitment.

393. It was evident that there would be a growing demand for OPEX personnel, especially in many newly-independent countries and at least for the next few years, which could probably not be fulfilled by the United Nations with its current resources. Nor had FAO any funds for this purpose. The Conference realized that an immediate solution could not be found but expressed its concern that many legitimate requests for assistance in this important field might not be met.

W. Special program of agricultural education and training in Africa

Co-operation between FAO, UNESCO, ILO and the united nations
Institutions for higher education

394. The Conference approved the Director-General's proposed special program of agricultural education and training in Africa. It was noted that this program was intended as a part of a co-ordinated program of education and training in Africa that was being developed co-operatively by the United Nations and the appropriate specialized agencies.

395. The proposed FAO program would deal with both short-term and long-term agricultural education and training requirements. Three categories of advisers would be appointed: (1) general agricultural education advisers to assist in planning the over-all agricultural education and training program and facilities, and to help improve existing facilities and programs; (2) specialists in the various fields of food and agriculture; and (3) agricultural educators to participate in ILO manpower surveys and UNESCO planning missions. The work of the advisers would be supplemented by short-term training centers in various specialized fields and by subregional meetings of key officials, leaders, agricultural administrators and educators who would plan and lay down policy for regional co-operation for the improvement of agricultural education and training.

Co-operation between FAO, UNESCO, ILO and the united nations

396. The Conference offered a number of suggestions for the Director-General's consideration in implementing the program. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for co-ordination between FAO, UNESCO and ILO. While FAO was requested to take leadership in the field of agricultural education and training, the closest co-operation among FAO, UNESCO, ILO and the United Nations would be required both to avoid duplication and to ensure that any advice rendered was in harmony with plans for general educational development and economic and social development as a whole. The Conference noted that close co-operation between FAO, UNESCO and ILO, on the basis of a written agreement (see Appendix 1), already existed, and this was confirmed in a statement by the representative of UNESCO.


397. The Director-General was requested to ensure a proper balance between assistance designed to meet short-term and long-term requirements. Many African delegations stressed the urgency of embarking upon short-term emergency training programs in the specialized fields. It was suggested that teams of specialists might operate regional or national training centers to meet this need.

398. Regarding balance between fields of specialization, the view was expressed that too few man-months of service of specialists were available in too limited a number of fields. The need for greater attention to forestry, mechanization, extension, and training of women in home economics was particularly stressed.

399. While the proposed program visualized assistance to governments in planning national systems of agricultural education and training at all levels, observations were made to the effect that the emphasis should be less on higher education in agriculture than on the more pressing and more easily met need, in most countries, for training at the intermediate level. The problem of how to train farmers in better farming techniques including mechanization was also of importance to many African countries.

Institutions for higher education

400. It was felt that the development of institutions for higher education in agriculture could best be achieved through regional co-operation, which would make it possible to provide a higher standard of education at lower cost. In this connection, attention was drawn to the existence of three systems of education in the region and it might be desirable to promote more uniformity in this respect. Subregional meetings of agricultural leaders could facilitate further planning for this regional co-operation which was already well advanced in several groups of countries.


401. It was thought desirable to include fellowships in the program but, at the same time, it was noted that the latter was supplementary to other programs and that a substantial number of fellowships would be available from other sources.

X. Reorientation of FAO's activities to strengthen the ability of the organization to give assistance to governments in their agricultural development

Country representatives
Co-ordination of programs
Agricultural development planning

402. In introducing his proposals concerning the reorientation of FAO's activities (C 61/57), l. the Director-General emphasized that the dramatic increase in the size of FAO's various field programs of assistance to member countries had raised more sharply the question of how FAO could best fit itself to help countries to make the most effective use of this aid and to assist them generally, on request, with their agricultural-economic development programing.

403. The proposals placed before the Conference indicated:

(a) that there was urgent need in an increasing number of countries for a full-time FAO country representative;

(b) that the type of assistance already being given to governments, on request, in preparing or revising their development programs should not only be continued but intensified; and

(c) that it was necessary, in close co-operation with the countries concerned, to arrive at a deeper understanding of the long-term possibilities for agricultural-economic development in relation to future needs, as one fundamental basis for the effective work of the country representative and for the advice given on agricultural programing. From the experience gained in a number of basic studies carried out over the last few years, it clearly emerged that full use of the resources and their correct orientation toward nutritional and economic needs, would often require radical changes in the long run in the patterns of resources use. Technological and institutional improvements could be fully effective only insofar as agricultural development was consciously oriented toward such long-term objectives.

404. The Director-General said that to assist in developing work along the above lines, he intended to explore special additional sources of financing. For the moment he would be satisfied if, apart from support for the proposal for full-time country representatives where needed, the Conference would take note of his proposals and give him such guidance as they wished to help him in reorienting the future work of the Organization to the degree necessary to take due account of the changes taking place in the nature of FAO's activities and responsibilities. In particular, he requested guidance to assist him in placing proposals, not later than 31 December 1961, before the eight-country ECOSOC committee established to consider the broad question of the ways in which the whole United Nations machinery could best be organized to give most effective aid to developing countries.

405. Thus, the Conference had two basic questions before it:

(a) whether or not full-time FAO country representatives should be appointed, as needed; and

(b) how FAO's work might be reoriented to improve the Organization's ability to assist countries in short and long-range planning and to make the most effective use of aid programs under FAO's auspices.

406. There was full recognition by the Conference of the growing problems which were being created by the increasing size and variety of FAO activities at the country level, and of the strain being placed upon the Regular Program as a result of the great expansion in direct assistance to developing countries. It was also recognized that the Organization should maintain a reasonable balance between its Regular Program and its technical assistance activities, both because of the value to all countries of the work carried out under the Regular Program and because such work was essential to provide a sound base for technical assistance to the developing countries.

Country representatives

407. The Conference was informed that in a number of countries a point had been reached at which the fulfilment of the joint responsibilities of co-ordinating FAO activities and of advising the government on the most effective use of these programs would be a full-time task. On the need for full-time country representatives different points of view were expressed. At the same time the Conference stressed that a decision as to whether or not a full-time country representative should be appointed is entirely a matter for the country itself.

408. In the light of its discussion on the question of full-time country representatives, the Conference approved the following resolution for transmission to Member Governments.


Country representatives


Taking note of the growing volume and complexity of FAO's operational programs,

Recognizing that the functions of the FAO country representative as set forth in paragraph 409 below represent, in an increasing number of countries, a full-time responsibility and that they call for a person selected for his ability to carry out these functions,

Recognizing also that the decision as to whether and when provision should be made for a full-time FAO country representative under a country's Expanded Program of Technical Assistance submission to the Technical Assistance Board (TAB) is entirely one for the country itself, and

Recognizing further that the proper qualifications and personal characteristics are an essential condition for the success of a country representative and that these qualifications must include an appreciation of the need in economic development planning for a balanced approach which takes into account both present technological and economic factors and also forward estimates of the effects of new scientific knowledge and the changing demographic and economic pattern,

Draws the attention of member countries in receipt of substantial aid from or through FAO, to the desirability of considering provision, in their submission to TAB, for a suitable full-time country representative who could carry out the functions outlined above and co-operate with the TAB Resident Representative in the whole field of food and agriculture in his over-all task as representative of the United Nations family;

Further draws the attention of countries to the fact that as the program for the biennium 1963-64 is to be prepared in the first half of 1962, any such provision to be effective for the next several years would have to be included in the forthcoming submissions to TAR.

Functions of country representatives

409. The Conference considered that the functions of the FAO country representatives referred to in the foregoing resolution might include the following:

(i) to serve as the representative of and spokesman for FAO in the country as requested;

(ii) to assist the government, in collaboration with the TAB Resident Representative insofar as the functions of the latter are relevant, to formulate and implement the most effective programs through which FAO can assist the government under EPTA, the United Nations Special Fund, the Freedom from Hunger Campaign, the Utilization of Surplus Food Program, etc., bearing in mind the work being done by other agencies, multilateral, bilateral or private;

(iii) to pay special attention, in consultation with the TAB Resident Representative, to the follow-up as regards the implementation of the recommendations of experts and the use made of fellows and other trainees;

(iv) to endeavor to ensure that, in the planning and implementation of the various aid programs, first priority is always given to the training of nationals;

(v) to be responsible for the day-to-day coordination of the various assistance programs channelled through or provided by FAO;

(vi) to maintain liaison with any country representatives of other agencies, multilateral, bilateral or private, giving aid in the field of food and agriculture and to represent FAO in matters concerning the co-ordination of aid programs of other United Nations agencies under the general guidance of the TAB Resident Representative;

(vii) to advise the government, on request, with regard to its economic and technical planning for food and agriculture development within the framework of its general economic development, and to the establishment of national machinery for this purpose;

(viii) to keep the government, the TAB Resident Representative and the other agencies informed of the activities of FAO under the Regular Program, especially those concerned with long-term analyses and studies which might throw light on the problems being encountered by the country in formulating its development program for agriculture.

410. The Conference considered that the qualifications of the appointees were of overriding importance in the appointment of full-time country representatives and that such appointments should not outrun the availability of fully qualified personnel and should only be made at the request of governments.

Group-country appointments

411. In reaching the above conclusion, the Conference was fully conscious of the great differences that can exist between one country and another: for instance, countries with a more developed administrative machinery may have less need for the assistance of an FAO country representative. It was also noted that the Director-General's proposals provided as an alternative in some cases the possibility of appointing a representative for a group of countries, as is done in some instances with TAB Resident Representatives. The Conference considered that the possibility of using a group-country approach should be explored, as a means of saving funds, to the maximum extent compatible with the effectiveness of the work of the country representative. The decision on this would again be a matter for the country or countries concerned.

Budgetary implications of a system of full-time country representatives

412. Some apprehension was expressed by a number of delegations regarding the possible long-term budgetary implications of a system of full-time country representatives, and the Conference asked the Director-General to provide further information on this matter to the Program Committee as part of the data to be supplied in accordance with paragraph 414(b) below.

Co-ordination of programs

413. The Conference particularly underlined the fact that the responsibility for harmonizing programs, including programs of international aid, is essentially a national responsibility and that, in the final analysis, it can be carried out only by adequate administrative machinery within the country itself.

414. On the broader problem of reorienting FAO's activities, the Conference considered that, in view of the great importance and implications of the Director-General's proposals and the fact that they had been received by governments only at a late date, decisions should not be taken at this time but rather that the whole problem should be studied carefully as a basis for re-examination of it at the Twelfth Session of the Conference. The Conference therefore requested:

(a) that the Council and its Program Committee make a thorough study of the proposals for reorientation and their implications for the work of the Organization as a whole;

(b) that the Director-General supply to the Program Committee basic data on the recent and probable future growth of the operational programs and their impact upon the activities under the Regular Budget, including the areas and degree of overload and the types of adjustment that might be contemplated to bring about a desirable reorientation of activities, with particular reference to the need for maintaining those activities which are part of the essential service FAO provides to all its members, and to the need for strengthening its ability to give advice on short and long-term planning to developing countries; and

(c) that the Council, after reviewing the findings of the Program Committee, place before the Twelfth Session of the Conference its analysis of the problem, and proposals for its solution.

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