E. Land and Water Development
Soil Survey and Fertility
Water Resources and Irrigation
Land Use and Farm Management
Agricultural and Forestry Activities in the Field of Land Use Policies
Agricultural and Forestry Activities in Watershed Management
271. Having reviewed the Organization's work in the field of land and water development during 1958 and 1959, the Conference considered that the program approved at its Ninth Session had been carried out satisfactorily.
272. The Conference noted that the four major types of activity: soil survey, arid fertility, water resources and irrigation, land use and farm management and agricultural engineering, represented a combination of fields which brought together the most crucial areas of knowledge and experience required for the planning of land arid water development programs for increasing agricultural production and raising farm income. The focus was the complex of basic resources of soil, water, farm labor and capital, arid their organization and management under technically and economically efficient systems of production. The work was carried on by, teamwork in which soil scientists, hydrological and agricultural engineers and production economists co - operated in day - to - day contacts and with a common purpose.
273. The Conference also noted that the development of wider and more efficient rise of land and water resources and of the labor and capital associated with them involved two types of approach: first, the improvement of land and water uses and conservation on established agricultural land, better soil management and efficient use.. of fertilizer, better irrigation and drainage practices, improved farm organization and management, use, of suitable farm machinery, and implements, and improved methods of preserving and processing farm products by means of small - scale rural industries; secondly, the opening up of new lands for agriculture involving the planning and development of irrigation and drainage systems, the carrying out of soil and water resources and land use surveys, planning of irrigation projects and farming systems designed to make the fullest use of the available resources, and assistance to governments in establishing pilot and demonstration projects to gain experience and train personnel for larger - scale development programs.
274. The Conference agreed that programs of land and water development required continued attention to the problems of co - ordination in both the technical and economic aspects, both in the FAO Secretariat and in national and regional projects. The Conference also invited Member Governments to give greater attention to the coordination of the work of national agencies for development of land and water resources as, for instance, in the development and management of watersheds and river basins. Several delegations felt it would be desirable to form regional land and water development survey teams to help the governments in each region to assemble and interpret available data on soil and water resources and land use, to suggest country or regional programs to fill in existing gaps of urgently needed data, and to review or help prepare project proposals for the United Nations Special Fund.
275. The Conference noted the substantial expansion of the land and water development activities due to the Organization's serving as executing agency for projects financed by the United Nations Special Fund. The Conference recommends that the closest collaboration be maintained with national and international organizations concerned with these problems.
276. The Conference, therefore, adopted the following resolution aimed at strengthening the Organization's work on soils and water:
Resolution No. 31/59
Soils and Water
Recognizing that soils and water are the basic resources and the foundation of agriculture, whether it be for the production of crops, forestry or livestock,
Considering that an increased agricultural production on a sustained basis will only be achieved by a judicious improvement of soil and water utilization,
Requests the Director - General, whenever possible, to strengthen further the work of the Organization in the field of soils and water.
Soil Survey and Fertility
277. The Conference reviewed the results achieved in the field of soil survey and fertility and emphasized that the rational use of soil resources was the foundation of sustained agricultural production. Freedom from hunger and from malnutrition would depend in large part on the raising of agricultural production by increasing the productivity of soils now in use, and by bringing new land under cultivation. The application of improved soil management practices and the selection of new areas for development must be based on a thorough knowledge of the characteristics, properties and distribution of soils.
278. Although progress had already been made in the field of soil survey and management, only a small fraction of the world's present or potential agricultural land had been surveyed and appraised. Furthermore, the yields of two thirds of the agricultural soils were very low, and the amount of manures, soil amendments and fertilizers being used on those soils constitute only a fraction of the amount of these materials used on the other third.
279. However, man - countries attached particular importance to the need for greater knowledge of the distribution of their soils and their improved management, as evidenced by the increasing number of requests for technical assistance in this field.
280. The. publication Efficient Use of Fertility was highly commended, particularly in that it constituted a synthesis of knowledge oil the subject. It was confidently anticipated that the forthcoming publications Dark Clay Soils and The Red - Yellow, Soils of the Tropics and Subtropics would be just as helpful.
281. Particular attention was drawn to the need for the appraisal of soil resources through soil surveys, not only in the less developed countries, where perhaps it is greatest, but also in the industrially advanced countries. The Conference regarded such surveys and appraisals as fundamental to planning agriculture, forestry, and livestock production and to town and country planning, including the selection of town sites. The information so obtained could be used as the basis for such purposes as the planning of development and irrigation projects, the mare efficient use of fertilizers, and programs of land reform and extension work, but it was essential that such surveys should be followed up, in the first instance, by sound experimental work.
282. Attention was also drawn to the likelihood of much wider use of fertilizers in less developed countries. In this connection the need for fertilizer field experimentation was stressed, as well as the need for the appraisal of the economic returns from the use of fertilizer. The study of the application of fertilizer materials under dry - land farming conditions appeared to be particularly important in the Near East and in Africa.
283. Great benefits had also been obtained in crop and livestock production from the judicious use of trace elements, for instance in Australia and New Zealand. As the information on trace elements was still somewhat limited, it was suggested that the. work might proceed initially on a national or regional basis.
284. Interest was displayed in FAO's undertaking a study of the ways and means of bringing about greater uniformity in laboratory methods of soil analysis, to enable soil scientists in different countries, to understand more rapidly the results of such analysis, particularly by, the use of fertility scales. Soil microbiology had not received much attention in FAO but it was a field in which work could be done that would be, beneficial to agricultural production and therefore should receive more., attention in the future.
285. It was noted that serious loss of agricultural soils was taking place in arid and semiarid areas through salinity and water logging, and it was hoped that FAO would pay a great deal of attention to this important subject. Soil salinity was closely, related to the question of drainage, and the improvement of saline soils often required not only soil amendments but also a supply of good water and efficient drainage.
Water Resources and Irrigation
286. The Conference noted that in the program of work on water resources and irrigation, emphasis had of necessity become increasingly focused on the field program, the supervision of which left the permanent staff little time for other activities: 14 percent of the total FAO Technical Assistance Program was carried on in this field and the trend toward field work would become still more marked; four out of the first five Special Fund projects assigned to FAO were in this field.
287. The Conference emphasized the importance of early dissemination of information collected as a result of the implementation of specific water resource development projects arid urged that as much attention as possible should be given to this matter within the established budgetary limits.
288. Three main types of activity are the survey and appraisal of resources, the design and construction of hydraulic work, and the use and control of water on land. The Conference noted that irrigation teams cooperated with specialists in other fields to assess the potentials of both surface and groundwater resources and to determine the technical and economic feasibility of their development. The integration of planning and the strengthening of government departments supplying basic data are important factors in ensuring the success of water development projects.
289. The Conference recognized that teams of experts are particularly useful in assisting governments in designing hydraulic works for new small and medium - sized schemes, and especially for projects for the improvement of existing hydraulic systems in order to bring about an immediate increase in agricultural production, including water supplies on grazing land. Detailed design and construction of major works could usually be more easily carried out by government offices or consultant firms than by FAO teams.
290. It was emphasized that FAO should play, an increasingly important role in taking fuller advantage of the potential value of irrigation by better control of water and more efficient use of drainage. It was noted that in many countries water was becoming scarcer but was still being utilized in a wasteful manner, while soil salinity, and waterlogging were on the increase. Better use could often be made of existing irrigation supplies by improving distribution and drainage systems, and the irrigator should be helped to make full use of the water on his fields, with particular attention to the field canal and distribution system.
291. The Conference noted that investment in a series of relatively small irrigation projects might be more easily justified than in new large development schemes, and underlined the value of small projects that could be undertaken with limited capital and technical skills. The use of teams covering the range of subjects that had to be considered in the technical and economic planning and appraisal of any project was commended; the economic aspects of water development should receive increasing attention. Water spreading from flash floods in semiarid regions was considered a potentially useful subject for study and action. Information on these problems available in specialized national institutes or research centers should be made known to Member Governments and co - operation with such institutes might be considered in implementing the program. It would be desirable to expand research in the field of rural water supplies. The Organization should promote and coordinate such research and assure the dissemination of the results obtained.
292. Attention was directed to the need for more detailed information on sprinkler irrigation; water losses in canals and means of reducing such losses; the use of water from drainage systems; geophysical surveys for location of groundwater, including the use of new techniques; the development of grazing areas through improved water supplies; the situation of reservoirs and watershed management; methods for determining the allocation of water for different uses; and control of water pollution.
293. The value of following up Technical Assistance projects with appropriate return visits of the experts was suggested for consideration by governments when drawing up their Technical Assistance programs.
Land Use and Farm Management
294. The Conference reviewed the program of work in the fields of land use policy, soil conservation, farm management and farm development, and emphasized in particular the need for work on farm management problems and on soil conservation. The Conference stressed the need for work on soil conservation problems especially in Africa, where general surveys are first required in order to delineate the problems and provide a sound basis for planning action programs. Substantial progress had already been made in some African countries but progress would be greatly accelerated by systematic surveys and an exchange of experience among the various countries.
295. The Conference approved the recommendation of the Fourth FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (a) that the Director - General, in consultation with the governments of the region, should establish a Regional Working Party on Farm Management to stimulate and coordinate farm management research and extension activities and to serve as a clearinghouse for the exchange of information and experience among the member countries concerned; (b) that national training centers should be held to promote and improve farm management work; and (c) that a farm management officer should continue to be stationed in the region to serve the Working party and assist member countries in organizing national training centers. It was also agreed that farm management work should be extended as soon as possible by holding other regional training centers particularly in Latin America.
296. The Conference noted that the work on land and water development provided the basis for agricultural production increase but considered that technological improvements should be recommended and applied only. if they raised the income of the farmers. The Conference thus proposed that FAO should examine the profitability of improved techniques, so that only those Would be recommended to member countries which were acceptable from an economic and social viewpoint. Similarly the economic. aspects of fertilizer use, irrigation systems and machinery applications deserved more study and attention.
297. The views of the Conference in regard to closer relationships between agriculture and forestry in the fields of watershed management and shifting cultivation are contained in paras. 308 - 317 of this report.
298. The Conference, in reviewing the program of work in this field, recognized the important part that agricultural engineering plays in many aspects of agricultural production and in the storage, processing, preservation and handling of farm products, and noted the important role of small - scale rural industries in preparing primary, agricultural products destined either for local consumption or for marketing.
299. The Conference commended the work done for the improvement of indigenous farm tools and animal - drawn implements and for the introduction of improved types of suitable implements and machines for newly developing areas. There was strong support for the increased emphasis given by the Organization to the development of its work in this field, particular attention being drawn to the vital necessity for testing of agricultural machines to determine their suitability under local soil and climatic conditions. The need for adequate servicing facilities for agricultural machinery was stressed.
300. In recognizing that increased cereal production in areas of marginal rainfall depends largely, on the application of proven dry land farming methods and machines which would conserve and utilize natural precipitation to the. fullest extent within economically feasible limits and farm relatively large areas at a low production cost, the Conference noted with satisfaction that a technical meeting and demonstration on cultural practices and machines for crop production and soil and moisture conservation under semiarid conditions would be organized for participants from countries of North Africa and the Near. East The Conference also recommended that the Organization, within the limits of its budget, c should assist in the establishment of a Dry Land Farming Center in Jordan for demonstration purposes and for training of agricultural workers from the region, bearing in mind that the Government of Jordan was prepared to participate in its establishment and management.
301. The Conference showed great interest in the problem of storage of grains and other agricultural products at the country level, especially in tropical and subtropical areas, and urged that information should be made available on suitable types of service structures and building materials that could be used under these conditions.
302. Stress was laid on the need for improving techniques and machines for pasture and fodder production, hay and silage conservation and processing, and the reduction of costs in this field. It also drew attention to the scope for using processed animal by - products in enriched poultry feeds and urged close co - operation between the work in agricultural engineering and animal nutrition in this respect.
303. The Conference recognized the necessity for improved storage, processing, preservation and handling of primary agricultural products, and urged that emphasis should be given to the planning, organization and development of agricultural industries for the processing of these products, either on the farm or through groups of farmers and farmer co - operatives.
304. The Conference emphasized the need for further information on available methods and machines, for example for land clearing and subsequent tillage, land leveling, rice transplanting, and particularly on the economic use of powered machinery on small farms.
305. The Conference strongly supported the intention to hold two Development and Demonstration Centers in the 1960 - 61 biennium: one for participants from countries in Africa on methods and equipment for the storage, processing and preservation of primary agricultural products predominant in the area and on the improvement of indigenous farm hand tools and animal - drawn equipment for the peasant farmer; and the other for participants from countries in Latin America on problems relating to the selection, operation and maintenance of agricultural and land development machinery.
306. The Conference recommended the continuation of the publication of bulletins dealing with the description, method of utilization and trial results of agricultural equipment.
307. The Conference approved the program of work for land and water development for 1960 - 61, and requested the Director - General to take account of the suggestions made in the preceding paragraphs in formulating future programs of work.
Agricultural and Forestry Activities in the Field of Land Use Policies
308. The Conference fully recognized the importance as well as the complexity of the problems involved in seeking to achieve better co - ordination between forestry and agricultural activities as regards land use policies.
309. Unquestionably, many land use problems cannot be adequately solved unless there is a common approach to them by agriculturists and foresters. Examples of such problems are those arising out of land use planning, soil conservation practices, watershed management, land settlement, landscape planning, and the readjustment in the way of life of farmers in regions where afforestation or soil conservation measures have to be carried out in the overriding interests of society as a whole; special mention was made of the importance of the problem of shifting cultivation in the tropical regions. It was noted that the need for co - operation between foresters and agriculturists was being still more keenly felt since new forms of land use, involving simultaneous tree planting and agricultural cropping on the same land were assuming increasing importance.
310. The Conference felt that the progress made in promoting such co - operation had been somewhat slow throughout the world, with the exception of a very few countries. It was recognized that one of the main reasons for this had been the lack of adequate liaison in the training of foresters and agriculturists and that another contributing factor in many 9 cases had been the lack of suitable arrangements in the national administration.
311. The Conference considered, however, that co - operation between foresters and agriculturists involved not merely a problem of administration or education but also a problem of team work on specific technical questions. In this respect, there were cases where more technical knowledge would be required to facilitate such co - operation, e.g., the determination of the rate of afforestation in the light of local circumstances of particular watersheds or of the problems peculiar to each watershed.
312. With these considerations in mind, the Conference approved the initiative taken by the Director - General to promote closer co - ordination of agricultural and forestry activities in the field of land use, of which the Mediterranean Development Project was a good example, This project constituted a co - ordinated approach to land use problems with a view to concrete achievements.
313. The Conference felt that the initiative taken at the international level would be of great help to the member countries in achieving such co - ordination at the national level. Of special importance in this respect was the joint study tour organized by FAO in Turkey for members of the committees and working parties of the European Forestry Commission (EFC) and the European Commission on Agriculture (ECA) interested in land and water use problems. The discussions between foresters and agriculturists on that occasion had paved the way for the agreement reached between EFC and ECA, whereby the Officers of EFC and the Executive Committee of ECA would constitute a standing committee to follow land use policies relating to joint agricultural and forestry activities and to make sure that from an economic and social point of view such policies were consistent with the achievement of the objectives of a general development policy.
314. The Conference realized the importance of extending this sort of procedure to, or of devising a new one for, other regions where problems common to forestry and agriculture are no less important than they, are in Europe. The Conference emphasized, however, that the possibility of establishing such co - operation in other regions required further study and that the results of such studies should be submitted for the consideration of the governments concerned at the earliest opportunity.
315. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 32/59
Co - ordination of Agricultural and Forestry Activities in the Field of Land Use Policies
Realizing that there are many problems of common interest to agriculturists and foresters,
Recognizing that inadequate liaison between agricultural and forestry activities can lead to unbalanced patterns of land use,
Faking note with satisfaction of the efforts made by the Director - General to ensure better co - ordination at the national and international levels of agricultural and forestry activities especially as regards land use policies, and
Approving the procedure adopted for ensuring such co - operation in Europe as decided upon at the joint meeting of the Officers of the European Forestry Commission and the Executive Committee of the European Commission on Agriculture, held on 16 October 1959 in Rome, and also the selection of the first two problems to be studied jointly by the two Commissions: the problems of land planning and smallholdings,
Requests the Director - General to promote this kind of co - operation on a Permanent basis and by methods appropriate to the other regions, and to continue to give full attention to such problems.
Agricultural and Forestry Activities in Watershed Management
316. The Conference reviewed the work of FAO in the field of watershed management and paid special attention to the analysis of the conclusions drawn from the FAO Seminar and Study Tour on Watershed Management, held in the United States from 10 August to 5 October 1959. The Conference underlined the following points:
1. The growing awareness of the feasibility of managing watersheds. The technical possibilities for improving the quantity and quality of water and for controlling floods through combined programs of land treatment and engineering structures were now widely appreciated.
2. The growing awareness of the physical unity of a watershed and of the area served by its waters. Water development should no longer be considered as an isolated technical operation; on the contrary, erosion control, reforestation, channel improvement, reservoir construction, and even groundwater development ought to be regarded as parts of an over - all water and watershed management activity.
3. The relative lack of technical knowledge relating to watershed management. Clear and precise conclusions on certain issues were still lacking and there seemed to be a need for further technical research on watershed management.
4. The unsatisfactory status of economic evaluations in respect of watershed development. There was still no well - defined methodology that could be used in guiding decisions as to the expenditure to be incurred in watershed development. It was agreed that any, attempt to determine the cost - benefit relationship should take account of the social and economic conditions in each country.
5. The need for enlisting the support and active participation of land users in the implementation of watershed management programs.
317. Finally, the Conference took up the suggestions of the participants in the above - mentioned Seminar and Study Tour and approved the following resolution, for implementation to the extent that the budgetary resources available for the 1960 - 61 Program of Work permitted:
Resolution No. 33/59
Agricultural and Forestry Activities in Watershed Management
Considering that watershed management is a relatively new method of planning
rational development of a country's national resources,
Requests the Director - General
(a) pending the development of an FAO publication of international scope and specializing in the various aspects of watershed management, to devote one issue a year of Unasylva to this question, such issues to include articles and bibliographies of the most important books, articles and reports relating to the subject published during the preceding months;
(b) to follow the development of research and of particular projects in member countries and, if it appears that results obtained can be useful on a regional or world basis, to arrange for them to be made known to other countries by such means as:
(i) dissemination in the official FAO languages of the national reports published on these results;
(ii) facilitating the travel to other interested countries of technicians who has concluded such research or Project in their own country
(c) in order to study the problems of watershed management, under economic and social conditions different from those of the United Stales, to organize similar seminars and study tows in other regions, and particularly in Europe, where various countries have also acquired valuable experience in this or closely related fields;
Suggests that the Director - General take all appropriate steps to draw the attention of Member Governments to the concept of watershed management to stimulate the research still needed on this problem
Food Consumption and Planning
Food Processing and Preservation
Future Development of Program
318. The Conference, having reviewed the nutrition program of FAO in its general aspects, gave special attention to its different segments under the heads of food consumption and planning, food processing and preparation, nutrition services and home economics. It considered that substantial progress had been made in implementing the recommendations of the Ninth Session of the Conference and that the contribution of nutrition to FAO's total program was of central and increasing importance.
319. With regard to staffing, three new regional posts sanctioned by the Conference in 1957 had been filled during 1958 - 59: namely, a regional home economist and a regional food technologist for Latin America, and a regional nutrition officer for Africa. A nutrition officer specialized in education in nutrition had been added to the Headquarters staff. In 1959 three new posts on a fixed - term basis until 31 December 1959 were established, these being concerned with collaboration with UNICEF and charged to a UNICEF grant; but actually, owing to difficulties in recruitment, only one of the three posts was filled in 1959. The budget for 1960 - 61 includes provision for the continuation or these posts on a permanent basis.
320. The Conference noted that interdivisional collaboration was a prominent feature of the nutrition program, there being close links between nutrition activities and those carried out under the heads of animal production and health, fisheries, plant production and protection, rural institutions and services, economic analysis and statistics.
321. The Conference stressed the importance of continuing collaboration with WHO and noted that the Sixth Session of the joint FAQ/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition would take place in 1960. Collaboration with UNICEF had increased during 1958 - 59, and in 1960 - 61 a very considerable part of FAO's nutrition program would be concerned with joint FAO/UNICEF activities carried out as a result of UNICEF'S expanded aid to maternal and child nutrition. The FAO/UNICEF joint Policy Committee, which had been established by - Conference action in 1957, and held sessions in 1958 and 1959 respectively, had proved most valuable as a co - ordinating body,. A third session was planned for 1960. The Conference noted that the reduction in supplies of surplus skim milk for distribution through supplementary feeding programs (paras. 357 - 361) would substantially increase the need for collaboration with UNICEF in various fields, including the promotion of the production and use of protein - rich foods other than milk, supplementary feeding, education in nutrition, and jointly assisted field projects to improve the nutrition of mothers and children. The increase in collaboration between FAO and the International Children's Center, more particularly in the training of personnel in nutrition, and of the collaboration with other organizations was also noted.
322. The Conference considered that nutrition should occupy a central position in the Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign. In this connection, the view was expressed that associations with nongovernmental organizations which were likely to play, an important part in the Campaign, should be strengthened. Apart from the Campaign, co - operation with nongovernmental organizations should be increased on most aspects of the program and, in particular, education in nutrition, food technology and home economics.
Food Consumption and Planning
323. The Conference considered that the work on food consumption and planning, which was of basic importance to the work of FAO, should be developed further along two main lines: (a ) collection and appraisal of data on food consumption; and (b) application of the results for the raising of nutritional levels, particularly through sound food plans and policies. The Conference noted that both lines of work would receive continued attention during 1960 - 61 and recommended that they should be expanded considerably in subsequent years if funds permit.
324. Food consumption. The Conference approved the joint proposals of Nutrition and Statistics Divisions to intensify work on the collection of data on food consumption, especially through food consumption surveys. Such data were urgently needed as a basis for various action programs, particularly in connection with the Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign. While food balance sheets continue to be of value in indicating patterns and trends in overall food supplies, the consumption levels of various socio - economic groups of the population, such as those of the lower - income groups, can be ascertained only through food consumption surveys. High priority should be given to the following: the preparation of manuals on methods of enquiry applicable to the special conditions prevailing in different regions; the organization of regional meetings to consider such methods and other related problems such as wastage of food at different stages; and the establishment of training centers for survey personnel. The Conference therefore adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 34/59
Food Consumption Surveys
Reaffirming the importance of food consumption surveys for providing basic data for programs with nutritional, economic and social objectives,
Recognizing that such surveys will be an integral Part of action programs in connection with the Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign,
Recommends that Member Governments make further efforts to organize comprehensive surveys of the food consumption of different sections of their populations;
Requests the Director - General within available ,funds, to:
(a) prepare a draft program for food consumption surveys along the lines adopted in the 1960 World Census of Agriculture;
(b) organize regional technical meetings of nutritionists, statisticians and economists to consider such a draft program and methods of enquiry applicable to special conditions in different regions and other related problems such as the extent of food wastage at different stages prior to consumption;
(c) prepare suitable manuals on the methodological and organizational aspects of food consumption surveys;
(d) organize training centers for survey personnel at different levels; and
(e) provide Member Governments with all practicable assistance in organizing food consumption surveys.
325. Knowledge of food consumption is not, however, by itself sufficient for appraising nutritional situations and needs to be supplemented by data on the nutritional status of the population concerned, and on relevant socio - economic conditions. Thus, co - operation was essential not only between FAO and WHO, which had responsibility for the study of nutritional status but also with the United Nations and ILO, which were concerned with general socio - economic conditions.
326. Food composition. Since knowledge of the composition of foods is essential for computing the nutrient content of diets, work in this field should be expanded and governments should be encouraged to undertake further research. Special attention should be given to specific nutrients, such as calcium, amino acids and fatty acids, currently, receiving considerable attention because their nutritional significance.
327. Nutritional requirements. Adequate knowledge of human requirements for essential nutrients is equally basic for nutritional appraisals. The Conference approved the proposals for expanding work in this field, particularly the proposed meeting of experts to consider calcium requirements. Although no specific budgetary provision had yet been made for this meeting, it was hoped that suitable arrangements could be made within available funds and in co - operation with WHO and other interested organizations, to convene it as early as possible, preferably early in 1961.
328. Food policies and plans. The main objective of all the above activities is to provide the basic knowledge needed for adequate nutritional appraisals and the development of sound food policies and plans oriented toward better nutrition. The Conference therefore approved the extension of work on food consumption and planning. The proposed regional meetings on nutrition in relation to food policy, and planning in Asia and the Far East and also in Latin America during 1960 - 61 would be useful in implementing the Resolution on Nutrition and Food Policy adopted at the Ninth Session of the Conference (No. 12/57). In this connection the Conference reviewed the Director - General's progress report on this problem and noted that, while progress to date was limited, the prospects for the future were more favorable. The hope was expressed that Member Governments would increase their efforts to achieve better nutrition for their peoples and that substantial progress could be reported at the next Session of the Conference.
329. The Conference noted that apart from world - wide appraisals for The State of Food and Agriculture and the. Third World Food Survey to be published in connection with the Freedom - from - Hunger Campaign, periodic regional appraisals were needed for the FAO Regional Conferences and regional nutrition meetings. Moreover, there were many specific aspects, such as studies on standards and levels of living in co - operation with the United Nations and other interested specialized agencies, investigations on diet in relation to cardiovascular disease in cooperation with WHO, and the food consumption aspects of the radioactive contamination of food in co - operation with the Atomic Energy Branch. The Conference felt that all such activities deserved to be continued but studies on the "geography " of food consumption and needs should receive particular attention. The most important application of food consumption studies was, however, related to the basic problem of population and food supply. The Conference, therefore, felt that continuing attention should be given to various aspects of this problem, especially, those related to the existence of food surpluses in some regions and the occurrence of food shortages in others.