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Food Processing and Preservation

330. Food processing and preparation activities cover three main fields: (1) the preservation of foods by (a) modern methods such as refrigeration, canning and irradiation, and (b) traditional methods such as drying, salting, smoking and fermentation; (2) the development of protein - rich foods; (3) food additives.

331. Food preservation. It was noted that several Divisions, including those of Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, Plant Production and Protection, were engaged in food technology activities in their respective fields of interest. The Nutrition Division's interest was mainly, in their nutritional implications, in particular in reducing wastage of food, in preventing losses in nutritive value and in conserving or enhancing palatability. In certain fields, there was co - operation with other Divisions in FAO, with UNICEF and WHO, and with certain governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

332. The Conference noted that countries were showing increasing interest in applying modern food technology to their food and nutrition problems. Advice and assistance from FAO had taken a number of forms, being concerned with surveys and food technology, developments in individual countries, the establishment of work programs for food technology institutes, cereal technology, dehydration and canning.

333. The Conference also noted that because of current interest in radiation sterilization, the Nutrition Division was keeping abreast of developments in this field. In co - operation with the Atomic Energy Branch, a regional meeting on this subject had been held in Harwell, England, in 1958; other smaller meetings were under consideration for 1960 - 61.

334. The Conference welcomed the attention given to community processing, which was developing in a number of countries, and noted that a European meeting on community, processing might be held in 1960.

335. The Ninth Session of the Conference had requested the Director - General to collect and disseminate information on indigenous methods of food processing applied on the village or household scale. Because of lack of resources, insufficient attention had been given to this matter in 1958 - 59. The Conference re - emphasized the importance of collecting information on indigenous methods, especially those used for the production of protein - rich foods, so that investigations might be undertaken to improve and extend such methods. Simple and cheap equipment is needed for this purpose. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 35/59

Methods of Food Processing and Preservation


Having noted the request of the 1957 Session of the Conference concerning traditional methods of food processing and preservation, and

Having considered that such methods can he improved and their use extended, thereby preventing wastage of food and losses in nutritive value,

Requests Member Governments to assist the Organization in collecting information in this field, so that studies may be undertaken for the improvement and extension of such methods;

Urges Member Governments to collaborate with the Organization by including such studies in the programs of food and nutrition institutes;

Draws the attention of Member Governments to the need for the dissemination through extension services of information about improved methods; and

Requests the, Director - General to consider expanding the Organization's work in this field to the extent that resources permit.

336. Food technology training in highly developed countries is often not adapted to the needs of developing countries. The Conference considered that FAO should pay greater attention to the training of food technologists in already existing institutes, and emphasized the importance of adapting training programs to the needs of developing countries, due consideration being given to the application of improved traditional methods.

337. Development of protein - rich foods The Conference noted that progress had been made in developing processes for the manufacture of protein - rich foods from cheap protein - rich materials such as defatted oilseed flours (e.g., soy, cottonseed, peanut, sesame and combinations of these'), fish flour, and coconut and leaf protein; that activities in this field were being carried out in co - operation with UNICEF and WHO; and that apart from research problems, many others would have to be solved, e.g., those of marketing and consumer acceptance. The Conference considered that FAO should intensify its activities in this field, which would become of greater and more immediate importance because of the reduction of surplus skim milk supplies in 1959 and early 1960 for supplementary feeding programs.

338. Food additives. The Conference was of the opinion that work on food additives, a joint FAO/WHO enterprise, had progressed along sound lines. Apart from the interest in the subject in developed countries, there was also in many developing countries a growing concern about the increasing number of food additives present in imported foods. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives had held its third session in 1958 and its report on specifications for identity and purity of selected antimicrobials and antioxidants had been published. These specifications were being scrutinized by a number of industries, institutes and experts, and would be published in due course by WHO and FAO in book form, comparable to the International Pharmacopoeia. The joint Committee, at its next session in December 1959, would consider food colors in the same, way.

339. The periodical Current Food Additives Legislation, issued ten times a year in cooperation with the Rural Legislation Branch, now also contained information on legislation on food enrichment and pesticide residues. In accordance with a recommendation of the FAO 'WHO Conference on Food Additives (1955) a beginning had been made with a Food Additives Control series, each issue of which would deal with the relevant legislation of one country, together with comments. The first number, Food Additive Control in Canada, had been published recently; others were in preparation. FAO and WHO would continue the preparation of data sheets on food additives (antimicrobials and antioxidants) similar to those on food colors issued by WHO in 1957, FAO being responsible for the physical and chemical aspects. More attention would be given in the future by both organizations to the pharmacological aspects of food additives.

Nutrition services

340. Activities under this heading included the organization of national nutrition services, the promotion of supplementary, feeding programs, the development of education in nutrition, and the training of personnel.

341. The Conference emphasized the importance of national nutrition services in promoting necessary, research and in developing applied nutrition programs. It also stressed the importance of co - ordination at the national level which might be effectively achieved through national food and nutrition committees, and the need for close and permanent contacts between countries and international organizations.

342. The Conference considered it desirable for each country to have an appropriate agency to carry out programs in applied nutrition. It might also be advantageous to group in one regional Institute the responsibilities for research and training services for several countries with a common geographic, economic or ethnological background. Assistance to such institutes should be provided by FAO and other international organizations, within the framework of existing programs and available resources.

343. Supplementary feeding. The Organization had further developed its activities in the field of supplementary feeding during 1958 and 1959, particularly through schools and to a lesser extent through community development programs. During that period two regional school - feeding seminars had been convened and direct assistance provided to a number of countries. Support from UNICEF was making it possible to assist an increasing number of countries in developing programs, particularly in rural areas, to improve family and child nutrition, emphasis being given to education in better habits of diet and the local production and use of nutritious foods, so that dependence on imported supplies would gradually decrease. The Conference recommended that 1 such joint activities should be further extended.

344. The Conference noted that FAO would be co - operating with the United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs and UNICEF in improving the diets in children's institutions, such as kindergartens, crèches and orphanages.

345. The collective feeding of workers is becoming increasingly important in view 1 of modern living conditions, and has given rise to new nutritional, social and economic problems. The organization and functioning of workers' restaurants and canteens could be greatly improved if better trained personnel were available. The Conference suggested that FAO should give greater attention to the various aspects of collective feeding, including the opportunities it offered for consumer education. The offer of Poland to serve as a pilot area was noted with interest.

346. Education in nutrition. The Conference noted that programs of education in nutrition had been organized in many countries with FAO assistance. It was emphasized that, while improvement in diet might result from increased purchasing power, faster and better results could be obtained if at the same time consumers were taught better habits of diet.

347. The Conference noted the work done on methods of teaching nutrition and in developing books on nutrition and school gardens, and audio - visual and other teaching aids. The studies proposed for 1960 and 1961 on the methodology of teaching and on criteria for evaluating educational programs in the nutritional field should be a valuable contribution. Collaboration with UNESCO with respect to teaching methods should be continued.

348. The Conference emphasized the need not only to promote education in nutrition through schools, maternal and child welfare centers, community development and extension programs, but also to develop comprehensive national and regional campaigns to promote appropriate levels of consumption of locally available foods of high nutritive value (e.g., fish, eggs, grain, legumes) as well as new protein - rich food products such as fish flour and defatted oilseed flours.

349. The training of personnel. The Conference agreed that the availability of well trained national personnel is the key to the satisfactory, development of all programs aimed at raising levels of nutrition. The training of personnel in nutrition should therefore remain one of FAO's basic activities in the field of nutrition. FAO had organized both regional and national courses for training personnel. The Conference considered that such activities should be intensified at the regional level, particularly those concerned with training of top level workers in nutrition or in certain specialized related fields. These workers must be the pillars of any national nutrition services and the leaders of applied nutrition programs.

350. FAO should increase direct assistance to countries to promote the training in nutrition both of professional personnel at the university level and of personnel in different disciplines who could contribute to practical programs. This should include the organization of national seminars for both classes of personnel. Full use should be made of all trained personnel. Implementation of this and the preceding recommendation was contingent upon the availability of funds, and in many cases upon governments including appropriate requests in their ETAP and Special Fund proposals.

Home economics

351. The Conference considered the home economics program within the broad context of national and international developments in this field and of other FAO activities directly related to family welfare. It noted with satisfaction the progress made in the various aspects of the home economics work and approved the approaches used in developing them. It welcomed the attention that had been given to furthering home economics education through schools and to reaching out to school youth and adults by means of extension and community development programs. The Conference stressed the important contribution which home economics can make to family welfare and to programs to improve maternal and child nutrition, like those carried out in collaboration with UNICEF, and considered that such work should be extended.

352. It was considered important to develop home economics in universities and other institutions of higher learning where the technical aspects of home economics could be associated with, and strengthened by, the social, biological and physical sciences. The Conference endorsed the importance attached to this by the Subcommittee on Extension in Agriculture, Home Economics and Rural Youth of the European Commission on Agriculture and supported FAO's efforts to promote home economics education at higher levels.

353. Increased collaboration with international governmental and nongovernmental bodies had been a feature of the FAO Program of Work for 1958 - 59. FAO had participated in a number of conferences organized by such bodies, at which an examination was made of the nature of home economics and its contribution to family and community welfare, especially in countries undergoing rapid social and economic change. The Conference emphasized the importance of such collaboration, which has as its objective the study and support of family life. FAO has assisted governments in examining and assessing their current home economics programs in relation to family needs, and a number of national seminars had been held.

354. Programs which demonstrated the relation of home economics to agricultural extension and other FAO services had been strengthened. The Conference laid emphasis on the need to expand home economics extension services and, in particular, on the. need to study, and develop such services in Africa; it considered that such a study, was essential as a basis for future work in that region and should be undertaken without delay. A consultant might be employed to make it. The development of home economics in Africa would, however, require the services of a full - time regional home economics officer.

355. The decrease in the number of ETAP requests from governments in the home economics field was noted. Concern was expressed that the nature of FAO's home economics program had to date received insufficient attention in the FAO publications program. The Conference recommended that more attention should be given in future to the interpretation of home economics and the contribution of home economics to the improvement of nutrition and family and community welfare. The many aspects of consumer education of concern to the home maker call for special consideration. Interpretation of the subject matter included in home economics is also needed, as well as of the methods used in developing home economics work in schools, and extension and community development programs. Home economics programs generally are handicapped by the dearth of research or special studies which specifically and comprehensively describe living conditions, particularly of rural populations. This is true not only with respect to nutrition but also to clothing, housing, health and hygiene, education, work and working conditions, and other factors. The Conference endorsed the emphasis given by the Home Economics Advisory Committee to the need for more research as a basis for sound educational and extension programs, and especially on evaluation research. Assistance to Member Governments in evaluating their home economics programs had, however, been handicapped by inadequately developed research methods. Special note was taken of the study on Methodology in Home Economics Extension now being undertaken, and of the plan to hold a European seminar on this subject in 1960.

356. The relation of the home economist to the social worker in helping to raise levels of family living is an important question, especially in countries where specialists in various family services cannot as yet be provided. The Conference noted the plans made for an FAO/UN study of this relation - ship, and for a joint seminar in 1961 which would consider the "Role of Social Workers and Home Economists in Meeting Family Needs.

357. The dry skim milk situation. The Conference considered at length the situation created by the interruption in October 1959 of donations of dry skim milk from the United States and in particular the effect of the prospective reduction in supplies on the distribution of dry skim milk through UNICEF, UNRWA and various voluntary agencies for the supplementary feeding of mothers and children. It noted that in 1958 some 282 million kilograms of dry skim milk had been distributed through these and other channels, benefiting many millions of people, and expressed gratitude to the donor countries, in particular the United States, which had generously provided the great bulk of supplies for making this widespread distribution possible.

358. UNICEF hoped to be able to meet the most urgent of its presently planned feeding programs through June 1960. The originally planned rate of feeding in the assisted countries for the 12 - month period ending June 1960 was to use about 60 million kilograms of dry skim milk, over half of which would go to mothers and children in the maternal and child health centers. The position after 1 July 1960 was subject to future milk availabilities and to policies to be determined by, the UNICEF Executive Board.

359. It was emphasized that, while efforts would be made to continue programs, the distribution through UNICEF, UNRWA and the voluntary agencies would be more limited, at least for a temporary period, and school - feeding programs seriously curtailed. The halting of free milk supplies even for a short period would have serious repercussions on programs depending on such supplies, as it impeded planning and disrupted arrangements for national supplementary feeding. The majority of countries now receiving free milk for supplementary feeding would not be in a position to supply milk or to purchase it from exporting countries, at least not in quantities needed to maintain programs by these means at anything like their current level. Plans for future programs depending on free milk should be made on the basis of firm supply commitments.

360. The Conference regarded the outlook as most serious from the standpoint of nutrition, in view of the extent of malnutrition and the deficiency of protein - rich foods in many countries. It was informed that in certain countries the interruption of supplies might mean an increase in malnutrition and have social, economic and even political implications. It recommended the following action on the part of FAO:


1. A study should be undertaken immediately to indicate the programmed needs and current position in individual countries with respect to stocks of dry skim milk on hand and in transit, the extent to which foods other than milk were being used in supplementary feeding, and to determine the possibilities of expanding local production and conservation of milk. Attention should also be given to the extent to which milk now utilized for other purposes could be used for human feeding.

2. Priorities should be established for distribution of available supplies of dry, skim milk among population groups within assisted countries. This could be done in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF, taking into account recommendations previously made by expert nutrition committees and recommendations contained in the Report on UNICEF - Assisted Programs of Dry Skim Milk Distribution.

3. Advice should be provided to governments, upon request, regarding the reorientation of school - feeding programs, so that available dry skim milk supplies might be supplemented to the greatest possible extent by other foods, particularly local foods. Special attention should also be given to the possibilities of continuing such programs, largely, on the basis of local foods.

4. Further efforts should be made to encourage the local production and to achieve the fullest local utilization of such foods as milk, fish and pulses, that are important sources of protein and other nutrients and are thus of great dietary value, especially in the feeding of mothers and children. In this connection it would be necessary to intensify the development of jointly - assisted projects under Expanded Aid to Maternal and Child Nutrition; these projects include efforts to develop the local production and consumption of an assortment of foods that can provide nutritionally adequate diets, and education in nutrition. The FAO UNICEF - assisted program of milk conservation should also be intensified.

5. Intensified efforts should be made to promote the development and use of processed protein - rich foods other than milk. Among the important foods of this type are groundnut, sesame, cottonseed and soybean preparations and fish flour, several of which have already been investigated by, FAO, WHO and UNICEF with respect to their nutritive value, methods of processing, consumer acceptability and availability. Increased attention should be given to the feasibility of using such products to supplement or replace dry skim milk in the different countries concerned. The importance of providing for calcium and other nutrients, of which milk is a rich source, required careful consideration.

6. Governments should be urged to expand the local production of milk where domestic shortages existed, FAO providing increasing assistance for this purpose through its various technical services, including those services rendered in connection with UNICEF supported milk plants.

7. FAO, UNICEF and other international organizations should assist governments to draw up long - term plans for supplementary feeding, which would make it possible for such programs to be developed on a permanent basis, independent of donations.

Future Development of Program

362. One important feature of the nutrition program noted by the Conference was the relatively small proportion of ETAP funds devoted to projects in nutrition and associated fields. This meant intensifying the provision of advice and assistance to countries directly through the regular staff and through consultants. In 1960 - 61, assistance through consultants should be increased to the extent that resources allow, thereby making it possible for the regular staff to concentrate on basic activities, on providing leadership, and on ensuring satisfactory liaison with governments. Increasing emphasis should be placed on the training of personnel at all levels. In view of the importance of this subject, the Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 36/59

Training of Personnel in Nutrition and Associated Fields


Having examined the programs of FAO in the fields of nutrition, food technology and home economics,

Having considered the important contribution which these are making to economic and social progress in developing countries,

Emphasizes that lack of suitably trained personnel is a serious handicap in most countries to the development of satisfactory work in these fields;

Draws attention to the lack of facilities for providing training adapted to the needs of each particular country;

Urges Member Governments to give increasing attention to the establishment of suitable training facilities and to make full use of the available trained personnel;

Requests the Director - General to intensify assistance to Member Governments in the development of training programs in the broad fields of nutrition, food technology and home economics through regional and national training courses and the establishment of permanent higher training facilities, within available resources.

363. With regard to the future program, the Conference expressed approval of the plans for 1960 - 61 contained in the Program of Work and Budget. Various points at which the work in food consumption and planning, food processing and preparation, nutrition services and home economics could profitably be expanded have been indicated in the preceding sections. With respect to the more remote future, the Conference was in general agreement with the expansions assigned to work in food and nutrition, home economics and associated fields in the Forward Appraisal, with due regard to budgets approved by future sessions of the Conference. The further development of activities carried out jointly with UNICEF and WHO, relating to the improvement of the nutrition of mothers and children and concerning many aspects of the Nutrition Division's program, should be a prominent objective in future years.

G. Plant Production and Protection

Crop Production and Improvement
Crop protection

364. The Conference approved the work of the Plant Production and Protection Division carried out during the biennium 1958 - 59 and studied its program of work for 1960 - 61. It noted with satisfaction the balance achieved between long - term work on certain fundamental aspects of plant science and work on practical aspects of great and immediate importance in crop production, improvement and protection.

Crop Production and Improvement

365. The Conference stressed the work on improvement in rice, wheat, barley and maize, and recommended that this should be extended to other crops of tropical and subtropical regions, which contribute to better balance in human nutrition, and to diversification of farming, maintenance of soil fertility, and better feeding of livestock. This need was greatest in grain legumes, sorghums and millets, root, oil and fiber crops, and pasture and fodder crops, all of which could be grown in crop rotations.

366. The catalogues of genetic stocks of rice, wheat and barley and the tabulated list of varieties of grain legumes are of value to breeders in general, particularly in locating useful breeding material. Doubt was expressed as to the need to publish supplements so frequently; longer intervals were suggested. The Director - General was requested to investigate whether this type of catalogue was the best way of distributing information on genetic stocks. With regard to the registration of varietal names of crops, the Conference agreed that information should be collected and collated, and that a report should be made to its Eleventh Session; it could then be decided whether FAO could be responsible for acting as a registering authority.

367. The Conference recognized the value to the Near Eastern countries of the regional wheat and barley project, with its emphasis on the provision of the services of breeding experts, the training of technicians through fellowships and national training centers, and the convening of biennial technical meetings. These activities had facilitated exchange of information on seed stocks, the adoption of improved cultural practices, and the introduction of adapted disease - resistant varieties. The Conference approved the preparation of a long - term project on wheat and barley for the Near East region.

368. Plant exploration and introduction was recognized as an appropriate field for international collaboration. There was great need and scope for the provision to plant breeders of new genetic material, particularly, of wild species and primitive forms. It was agreed that many existing crops had too narrow a genetical basis, that the genetic resources in the main areas of origin and maximum variability, had not by any means been fully tapped and, most urgent of all, that the natural vegetation and primitive cultivated forms were being rapidly eliminated through overgrazing, burning, Cutting for fuel, clearance for new cultivated land, and the introduction of superior varieties. It would be highly desirable that countries in regions containing important centers of origin of crop plants should collaborate, under the Organization's ecological program, by establishing protected areas in critical regions, to ensure the preservation in situ of important native material for future use.

369. The Conference agreed that the Organization should continue to act as a clearinghouse of information on plant exploration and introduction, commended the Plant Introduction Newsletter, and requested the Director - General to do everything possible to provide further assistance to Member Governments, especially in co - ordinating plans for plant exploration, in order that collections should be efficiently organized and serviced, and the proceeds shared equitably among interested parties. The Conference recommended that the Organization assist toward international co - operation and co - ordination by convening an international meeting of specialists in plant exploration and introduction to meet as soon as possible.

370. The Conference learned with approval that plans had been made to commence, early in 1960, an Inter - Agency Project on Agroclimatology, involving collaboration between FAO, WMO and UNESCO. Basic projects of this nature are of the greatest importance for all aspects of the work in plant production but particularly for general ecology, land use planning, plant exploration and introduction, seed exchange, and the activities of regional officers and working parties.

371. The Conference approved the program on tropical crops in general. Recognizing the severe limitations of agricultural systems based on one or a limited number of crops, for both subsistence and export, the Conference emphasized the need for increased attention to crop diversification and the integration of crop and animal husbandry in balanced systems of land utilization. This would contribute greatly to an improvement of human diets, higher total production, and distribution of economic risks, at the same time providing a balance in local agricultural systems as between food and cash crops.

372. The Conference acknowledged the significance for the cacao - producing areas of the first FAO technical meeting on cacao, and stressed the need for the early implementation of its recommendations.

Resolution No. 37/59

Working Party on Cacao Production


Considering the steadily increasing importance of cacao for the improvement of living standards of a large number of smallholders in many areas of the tropics,

Convinced that many technical problems concerned with the production and processing of cacao can best be solved through international co - operation,

Having examined the resolutions contained in the Report of the First FAO Technical Meeting on Cacao (Doc. FAO/59/4/2269) held in Accra, Ghana, in February 1959,

Supports the request made to the Director General of FAO by that meeting for the establishment of an FAO Technical Working Party on Cacao Production; and

Recommends that, within this Working Party, a Technical Advisory Committee, com posed of highly qualified cacao workers, be set up to assist the Director - General in the implementation of its program on cacao production and processing.

373. As regards industrial crops such as rubber and cotton, which represent important sources of income in a number of tropical and subtropical areas, and which are facing strong competition from synthetic products, the Conference indicated the necessity for more work on varietal improvement and the development of better cultural practices, with the objectives of improving the quality of crops and the resulting products, as well as reducing production costs.

374. The progress made in connection 3 with the production and improvement of the coconut was commended, and further action 1 was indicated in the following resolution.

Resolution No. 38/59

Working Party on Coconut Production, Protection and Processing


Considering the great importance of the coconut as a cash and subsistence crop, primarily in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands,

Noting the increased interest shown by several Member Governments in the solution of technical problems of production, protection and processing through co - ordinated joint action,

Supports the establishment of an FAO Technical Working Party on Coconut Production, Protection and Processing.

375. It was noted that the First FAO Technical Meeting on Coffee Production would be held in 1960 and that a long - term program for the improvement of this crop would be prepared. Similar work was considered highly desirable with regard to maize, millets and sorghums in the tropics, particularly in Africa South of the Sahara.

376. The Conference recognized the excellent progress with the work on rice production, improvement and protection in Southeast Asia, requested that this work should be intensified and, if possible, extended to other regions, particularly Africa South of the Sahara, for which purpose it is recommended that the International Rice Commission's Working Party on Rice Production and Protection should intensify its activity in Africa, particularly by holding periodic meetings in that region. It was noted with approval that a long - term project for rice production, improvement and protection was under preparation.

377. The Conference reaffirmed the importance of fruit and vegetable crops, both for human nutrition and in the diversification of farming systems, particularly in tropical areas. High priority should be given to the convening of technical meetings on fruit and vegetable production in the Latin American and Far East regions in 1960 - 61, and possibly later in Africa, in addition to the banana meeting planned for Africa in 1960. Approval was also given to the publication of a World List of Living Collections of Fruit Species and an Agricultural Study, Date Palm Growing, as well as for the preparation for subsequent publication of further studies on Vegetable Growling in the Tropics and The Ecological Requirements of Fruit Species. The Conference emphasized the need to assist member countries in the Near East region in vegetable seed production, through the work of the regional horticulturist and the organization of national training centers.

378. The Conference noted with approval that the joint project of the Plant Production and Protection Division and the Nutrition Division on grain legumes in agriculture and human nutrition had made good progress, particularly through the convening of the joint FAO/CCTA Technical Meeting in Bukavu, Belgian Congo, in November 1958. The plans to hold similar meetings in other regions, and first in Latin America, and to publish a joint review on grain legumes in agriculture and human nutrition in Africa were approved.

379. The continuation of the Working Parties on Pasture and Fodder Development in the Mediterranean area, the Near East and Central America was approved, provided Member Governments in these regions gave greater support and agreed to take part in long - term programs of research and development. The Conference welcomed the extension of the regional approach in this field, particularly the plans to convene a meeting of a new Working Party, for Grassland and Fodder Development in Tropical America in 1960, as a counterpart to the FAO Inter American Livestock Meetings. The Conference requested that account should be taken of the resolution of the FAO /CCTA Technical Meeting on Legumes in Agriculture and Human Nutrition in Africa (Bukavu, 1958), and recommended that a Working Party on Grassland and Fodder Development in Africa South of the Sahara should be formed and should hold its first meeting as soon as possible. The Conference commended the cooperation between plant, forestry, animal and dairy specialists in the development of joint approaches to the over - all problem of providing grazing and fodder in optimal quantities and qualities for livestock throughout the year.

380. Noting that most activities on seeds would be covered under the World Seed Campaign, approval was given to the continued efforts to promote seed certification, and to the following resolution:

Resolution No. 39/59

Certification of Herbage Seed


Recognizing the importance of the widest possible use of high - quality seed for increasing crop production and improving quality, as well as the desirability of facilitating international trade in seeds, and

Having been informed that all member countries of the Organization for European Economic Co - operation (OEEC) have adopted, for an initial trial period of five years and on a voluntary basis, a " Scheme for Varietal Certification of Herbage Seed Moving in International Trade, " which has been developed in co - operation with FAO, the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), and the Fédération internationale du commerce des semences (FIS),

Urges FAO member countries outside the sphere of operation of OEEC which are interested in international trade in herbage seed to adopt this scheme or its equivalent and apply it in practice on a voluntary basis for an initial trial period of five years as suggested in a note verbale (G/A - X/461 ) of 30 June 1959 from FAO to all countries concerned; and

Requests the Director - General to report to the Conference at the end of this period the extent to which the scheme has been in operation in all FAO member countries, and whether participating countries have found it feasible, in the light of experience gained, to adopt the scheme on a permanent basis, with such amendments as might have been found desirable during the trial period.

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