RESULTS ACHIEVED IN 1956 AND 1957
249. The Conference examined the results achieved by the Fisheries Division during the past two years, as well as the program of work for the succeeding two-year period. It recorded its satisfaction of the way in which the Division had performed its task within the funds available and was of the opinion that the proposed program of work was sound, adequately balanced and suitably orientated.
250. Regret was expressed regarding the discontinuation of the FAO Fisheries Bulletin and it was hoped that the substitute publications proposed would prove satisfactory.
251. The Conference commended the summary form in which the various Branches of the Division had reported on their work; this resulted in a much clearer picture of the results achieved and projectos proposed. The desirability of circulating such summaries to governments at least two months ahead of future sessions of the Conference was stressed.
252. The progress of the Technical Assistance Program was noted with satisfaction. Recipient countries were urged to make propel preparations before the arrival of experts, to provide suitable working facilities, necessary equipment and counterpart assistance. There was general agreement that every means should he explored to improve the method of recruitment of experts and to make more use of the assistance which national fisheries administrations could provide. It was also recommended that, in the ease of fellowships, tilt maximum of advance information should he supplied to the country to be visited and careful programing be made in good time and adhered red to.
253. The Biology Branch's performance and program as a whole was endorsed. It was agreed that primary attention should be given to those projects having a direct bearing on increased food production and the optimum utilization of aquatic resources. The Conference was glad to note the close co-operation in scientific research which continued between FAO and other agencies and satisfied themselves that there was no duplication in that respect.
254. The program of the Technology Branch and the work performed by it was fully appreciated and approved on account of its direct relation to the improvement of fish production, processing and distribution. It was the general opinion that the meetings which had already taken place on the subjects of fishing boats, fishing gear and fish processing had served a most useful purpose in calling attention to recent developments and in bringing together fishermen, administrators, scientists and representatives from various branches of the industry. It was recommended d that such meetings be followed by other meetings of the same kind and that a six-year period between each seemed reasonable, it being understood that each meeting should he centered around a definite theme. Appreciation of the usefulness of World Fisheries Abstracts, already expressed by previous Conferences, was reiterated and the Conference noted with satisfaction the work being undertaken l taken with respect to the preparation of handbooks and of technological dictionaries. Interested countries stated their willingness to review the drafts of such dictionaries and urged that the project be completed with the utmost celerity.
255. The work accomplished by the Economics and Statistics Branch was highly commended particularly the rapidity with which the Yearbook of Fishery Statistics was now produced and the improvements which had been introduced in the latest edition. It was recommended that the direct contacts established with fisheries administrations in various countries, which had proved of the greatest assistance in this connection, should he expanded. The difficulties still to be overcome in the collection of statistics on fishing boats, manpower and productivity, and in the organization of fisheries censuses were noted. It was recognized that the limitation in these matters rested not only with the facilities available to this Branch, but also with the ability of governments to supply this particular kind of information. The interest in developing fishery co-operatives was noted. While FAO does not normally take the initiative in promoting the development of co-operatives, it will have to study this system to be able to assist governments interested in this field in determining the most appropriate forms of organization and management.
256. It was noted that, with the staff now available, the Branch could not undertake a wider program in procuring commodity information and comprehensive fisheries intelligence.
257. The reports of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council and the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean were received and approved, and the budget proposed by the Director-General for the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council was adopted. The collaboration and cooperation between the Fisheries Division and these councils were reviewed and approved.
258. The work of the Latin-American Regional Office in relation to the formation of a Latin-American Fisheries Council was considered, as well as the results obtained by the various training centers which took place in this part of the world.
259. The Conference was impressed by the activities of the Division since the last session in disseminating intelligence and information on its work, and by the many reports and feature articles written and distributed to the world press, and it was recommended that this work should be continued and improved.
Future trends and developments beyond 1959
260. With the increase in the number and activities of the regional fisheries councils, it was apparent that the cost of servicing them should be studied, and a policy should be recommended which would recognize the extent of FAO's role. Special attention should be given to African territories south of the Sahara, especially in the fields of marketing and co-operatives.
261. The program of work in biology should continue to give primary attention to those projects having a direct bearing on increased food production, and the optimum utilization of aquatic resources; emphasis should be laid on giving support to the efforts of individual countries in discovering and forecasting, stocks.
262. FAO should intensify its work in matters of water pollution, pollution of the sea by oil and by radio-active wastes. The closest possible collaboration should be established with other international bodies dealing with these matters.
263. Every effort should be made to continue to improve the circulation of World Fisheries Abstracts.
264. The convening of technological meetings or congresses was recommended, in order to keel) abreast with the latest developments.
265. The paramount importance of problems related to boat construction was confirmed, and special attention should be given to all questions of general interest in this field, such as the question of scantlings of wooden boats.
266. The collection and publication of statistics should be continued and intensified but every effort should be made to simplify the reporting of statistics by individual countries to FAO and other international agencies.
267. Assistance in the study of the economic aspect of the rational exploitation of fishing grounds should be emphasized.
268. Note was taken that the increase of fish production would lead to development of international trade and to problems of adjustment. Countries would therefore appreciate being supplied with the necessary commodity information which would facilitate trade expansion, but care should be taken not to duplicate work already in progress.
269. Particular attention should be given to the work relating to co-operatives and work on marketing should be emphasized.
270. In view of the difficulty in recruiting experts, it would be of great assistance to all concerned if arrangements could be made to grant long-term appointments to them.
271. Attention was drawn to the advisability of granting more fellowships, to the selection of the regions where the fellows were to be trained and to permitting countries which were not eligible for Technical Assistance to benefit from this scheme.
272. The encouraging results obtained warranted an increase in the number of suitably selected training centers. A system of study tours for groups should be considered.
Program of work for 1958 and 1959
273. The Conference reviewed FAO's work in forestry since its last session. It considered that FAO's objectives and work had become more widely known and understood at all levels in member countries. This helped to give impetus to national efforts towards forestry development.
274. The Conference felt that the Director-General was to be specially commended for the emphasis placed on the many-sided interrelationships between forestry and agriculture, and for his insistence on the ways in which forestry could contribute to the wellbeing and incomes of rural populations and forest workers.
275. One development which had specially proved its merit over the past years was the organizational machinery represented by the Regional Forestry Commissions and other subsidiary bodies. The Conference formally took note of the reports of the Ninth Sessions of the European Forestry Commission, including that of the Fifth Session of the Mediterranean Forestry Sub-Commission, and of the Fourth Session of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission and asked the Director-General to take into account the views of the Commissions as expressed in these reports when preparing the Program of Work and Budgets of the Organization, for instance in regard to including a regional training center on aerial survey techniques in the Far East and a dipterocarp study tour among the Category I regional projects under ETAP in 1959. He should draw the attention of Member Governments to recommendations in the reports which suggested action at the national government level.
276. The Conference also heard informal reports of TAO forestry activities in the Near East and other regions.
277. The Conference commended the organizing of the World Eucalyptus Conference in 1956 and expressed the hope that another conference along the same lines might be included in a future program of work. It was glad to note the work proposed on tropical pines and strongly supported holding a study tour on Mexican pines. The pelt played by the International Poplar Commission in developing new sources of raw materials and protective services to agriculture, was appreciated. The work of this Commission as well as that of the International Chestnut Commission, should be continued.
278. The Conference was glad to note the progress made in the ease of the Latin-American Forest Research and Training Institute in Venezuela, and with the Regional Forest Research Center and Forest Rangers School for the Near East in Syria. The organization of the Training Center on Watershed Management in India in 1957 was pointed up as an example where a regional project could afford training to better advantage than a national project.
279. In discussion on FAO's phased program of " Timber Trends Studies " for the various regions of the world, the Conference agreed that the closeness of the regional for e casts of requirements and consumptions in the European study to the data now available on the actual course of events, furnished supporting grounds for continuing these analytical studies.
280. The Conference hoped that the Director-General would take appropriate steps for coordinating the forestry statistics of FAO with those compiled by countries of the British Commonwealth.
281. In general, the Conference commended the quality and amount of FAO's achievement in the forestry field, especially in view of the smallness of the funds available.
Program of work for 1958 and 1959
282. The Conference adjudged the Director-General's whole proposed Program of Work in forestry for 1958 and 1959 to be well-proportioned and balanced between the various technical and also regional claims. The Conference commended the " pruning " of projects undertaken in 1956 with a resultant concentration of effort. It noted that, even under the Director-General's proposals for expansion of effort in 1958-59, the staff working capacity at Headquarters as regards forestry would only be increased by one post and this would still not allow several useful and requested actions being initiated or expanded, as expressed in the discussion of the Conference.
283. The Director-General's Interim Report on Mediterranean Forestry Programs in relation to agricultural rehabilitation and economic development and his proposals related to this project were the subject of discussions, in respect to their forestry aspects, in which representatives of many member countries took part. Suggestions were made regarding aspects to be stressed more fully. These included a number of technical problems requiring further study, in particular costs of establishment and maintenance of new forests, selection of species, choice of proper tools and equipment and techniques in general, which were regarded as being matters of importance. The delegates also stressed the desirability of establishing and implementing specific projects. The Conference was assured that the technical comments made in the discussion would be fully considered in any further work to be undertaken. Conclusions will be found in paragraph 378 of this Report.
284. With regard to the other "major expansions" proposed by the Director-General in his Program of Work, the Conference regarded as of the highest priority the strengthening of the regional staff structure by adding one officer each to the Bangkok, Cairo and Santiago regional offices. to support FAO's forestry activities in the field under the technical assistance program and to service the regional forestry commissions and their subsidiary bodies. It noted that the regional approach has always he en basic to FAO's work in forestry; it should be continued and strengthened. Extension to Africa should be introduced at the earliest possible opportunity.
285. The expansion of FAO's actions in the field of pulp and paper development as set out in the document C.57/5 ranked among the proposed expansions second in priority to the strengthening of the regional organization. The holding of a conference of pulp and paper experts in the Asia and Far East region, as proposed by the Director-General, was indispensable to promoting such industries and forestry development in general in that region. This had been already acknowledged by the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission and by the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East.
286. On the subject of documentation, the Conference rated the publications of FAO in the forestry field as of high importance. Consequently, it was strongly felt that ways and means must be found to reduce the present backlog of publications and to prevent such accumulations in the future.
287. The expansions, in the order given in paragraphs 284, 285 and 286 and as they affect FAO's forestry program, should take priority over some of the less urgent portions of the basic program.
288. The Conference wished to stress that technically the basic program had its fullest approval. Yet if the total funds available to the Director-General were insufficient to implement his Program of Work as originally submitted, so that cuts had to he made in all sectors of FAO's fields, the forestry contribution towards such savings might be found within the basic program, in the same way as the Conference would expect savings to be made in the programs of other Divisions in the light of discussions of the Conference. Specifically, the following projects, though desirable, might be rated of lower priority: preparation of a directory of forest schools, a catalogue of dry-kiln manufacturers, a summary of national research programs in forestry and forest products, cost accounting analyses, and studies of forest taxation. The necessary arrangements in this connection should be left to the Director-General since savings could only materialize by appropriate adjustment of the over-all Program of Work and assignment of officers.
289. While agreeing that the Organization's present main lines of activity in forestry should be maintained, the Conference suggested for the future some shift of emphasis toward projects which have as goals increased forest production at reduced costs and improvement of the living standards of rural populations. The latter objective can be attained only through steady efforts to teach people how to make the best use of the natural resources on which they must depend. FAO can contribute through wider promotion of forest extension services and increased participation in community development movements.
290. More emphasis should also be laid in future programs on activities leading to a wider application in Member Countries of modern silvicultural practices, for instance, in the tropical regions now being developed. As expressed earlier in this Report (see paragraphs 193-202) attention should be focussed also on the origin and quality of forest seeds and a comparative analysis made of the pertinent legislation on this matter in various countries and of the results so far obtained.
291. The Conference recognized that wood is meeting increasing competition from alternative materials. Action should everywhere be promoted to reduce costs, improve utilization, create better marketing organizations. The efforts of FAO in these directions should be expanded.
Fifth World Forestry Congress
292. World Forestry Congresses are essentially non-governmental gatherings, even though sponsored by FAO. The Conference recorded its gratitude to the Government of the United States of America for having assumed the responsibility of organizing the Fifth World Forestry Congress to be held at Seattle (Washington) from 29 August to 16 September 1960. IL was also pleased to hear that the Government of Canada would he glad to arrange field trips to British Columbia either prior to the opening of the Congress Or after its conclusion, if requested.
293. At its Eighth Session, the Conference had suggested that the topic of world wood resources and requirements should be a major theme for the Fifth World Forestry Congress. In view of the fact that FAO's regional Limber trends studies will not have been completed in time' it was agreed that the suggestion could not be carried out.
294. A number of useful suggestions were made by delegates in regard to the organization and program of the Congress for the consideration of the Organizing Committee to be set up by the Government of the United States of America, and the following Resolution was adopted:
Resolution No. 21/57
Fifth World Forestry Congress
Receiving with great appreciation from the United States Government information on the preparations already in hand and the contemplated arrangements for the Fifth World Forestry Congress, due to he held at Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., from 29 August to 16 September 1960;
Having communicated to the delegation of the U.S.A. its preliminary views in regard to a desirable organization and program for this Congress;
Requests the Director-General to give to the Organizing Committee to be established by the United States Government whatever assistance may be required and a appropriate in connection with preparations for the Congress;
Invites Member Governments to give every support to the United States Government in securing broad participation by national and non-governmental services, institutes and agencies and by representatives of industry, and also in facilitating the attendance of individuals;
Suggests that National FAO Committes where these exist be called upon to render help in this connection;
Calls upon all Member Governments to take the opportunity offered by this Congress to conduct widespread national campaigns, through the medium of the press, radio, television films and postal services, for imparting to the public knowledge and understanding of the role of forestry in national economic and social development.
Food consumption and planning
Food processing and preparation
Program and budget for 1958-59
Future development of program
Collaboration with UNICEF - FAO/UNICEF policy committee
295. The Conference, having reviewed the nutrition work of FAO, considered that excellent progress had been made in implementing the program approved by the Eighth Session of the Conference. The major segments of the nutrition program relate to food consumption and planning; organization of nutrition services, programs of nutrition education and training and supplementary feeding; food processing and preparation; and home economics. The program is characterized by the fact that many activities are carried out in close association with other Divisions of FAO and in collaboration with other international organizations, particularly WHO and UNICEF, as well as the UN Bureau of Social Affairs and UNESCO.
296. The Joint FAD/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition held its Fifth Session in Rome in October 1957. This Committee, consisting of five nutrition workers appointed by each organization respectively, co-ordinates the work of FAO and WHO in the field of nutrition and brings to the attention of the two Organizations problems requiring special action. Reference to various findings in its report was made in the discussions of the Conference.
297. In view of the rapidly growing program in the home economics field, an Advisory Committee on this subject was convened prior to the Ninth Session of the Conference. Its report, providing the advice and constructive criticism of a group of well-known home economists from different parts of the world, should be of great value to the Organization in orientating and developing its work in this field.
298. The fourth in a series of FAO/WHO Regional Nutrition Conferences in the Far East and Latin America were held in 1956 and 195, respectively. The first Regional Nutrition Meeting in the Near East will be convened jointly with WHO in 1958. Only one technical meeting on home economics, namely that in Southeast Asia (1956) has been held. A similar meeting proposed for the Near East was postponed.
299. Additional funds provided by the Eighth Session of the Conference have strengthened the program by providing for the following appointments: In 1956 a full-time FAO nutrition officer and a part-time FAO nutrition consultant to UNICEF Head-quarters, as well as some short-term consultants and field workers for joint FAO/UNICEF activities in 1956 and 1957; an additional Headquarters staff member for work on food consumption and planning (1956); a food technologist to help carry responsibilities with WHO on problems of food additives (1957); a nutrition officer for work in Africa (1956): and a second nutrition officer in Latin America (1957). The appointment of a regional home economics officer in the Far East in 1956 was accomplished by the transfer of a Headquarters post.
Food consumption and planning
Food Policy and Plans
300. The Conference attached special importance to the work of FAO which assists member countries to formulate and carry out national policies and programs concerned with the production and consumption of food, taking full account of the nutritional requirements of the people. Some countries have made progress in this direction, a few with assistance from FAO. The Conference hopes that many other countries will follow suit and that FAO will increase substantially its activities in this area.
301. National food balance sheets make possible a first approximation of a country's dietary situation, but provide information only on average supplies available for human consumption at the retail level, thus concealing vital differences in consumption among different section of the population. Detailed information on these differences is often essential and can be obtained only through dietary surveys of representative samples of the population concerned. Such surveys among family groups are now being made more extensively in many countries, and there is growing recognition of the need for surveys of diets of individuals for specific nutritional objectives: e.g., protein intake of mothers and children in relation to protein requirements; the nature and kind of fat consumed by men and women beyond middle age in connection with health problems; main sources of dietary calcium among different population groups in relation to Strontium 90 fall-out. FAO assistance is being sought more frequently in organizing dietary surveys, and in training survey personnel. The Conference noted with interest and supports the plan to convene a European Nutrition Conference in 1958 which will consider food consumption problems.
302. A second expert committee on calorie requirements, as well as an expert committee on protein requirements, have been convened by FAO. The Conference commended FAO for its work in the field of dietary requirements and urged that it be continued.
303. Efforts are being made in a number of countries to extend and improve data on the composition of foods. However, further knowledge of the distribution in foods of a number of nutrients other than those customarily reported in food composition tables is essential for the study of many important nutritional problems. FAO should encourage these necessary investigations and keep actively in touch with developments in this field.
Food Shortage and Surpluses
304. While the solution to problems of food shortages, food reserves and food surpluses are primarily economic and financial in nature, the nutritional aspects should be recognized. The role of foods, especially those in surplus supply and of value in safeguarding the nutrition of vulnerable groups should be constantly kept in mind. FAO nutrition specialists have participated in missions sent to study the few emergencies which have occurred recently. The latest was a mission to Morocco in March 1957.
Food Appraisals and Related Studies
305. One of the most important applications of data on food consumption levels in relation to nutritional requirements is the appraisal of the food situation on a global, regional or national basis. The special studies appearing in the annual State of Food and Agriculture are useful examples but more detailed appraisals once in about five years are important. The Conference regrets. therefore, that the Third World Food Survey, which was scheduled to appear in 1957, could not be prepared owing to lack of resources. Studies on population and food supplies, levels of family living, world social situation and similar studies, often undertaken in cooperation with the UN and specialized agencies, call for careful interpretation of food consumption data. The Conference recommended that FAO should continue to cooperate in such studies to the maximum extent possible.
Food processing and preparation
306. The Conference noted the increasing, interest in the underdeveloped countries in the adaptation and application of modem developments in food technology which can enable better use to be made of available food supplies and food wastage to be reduced. Food preservation surveys have been made or are under way in several countries to assess the possibilities of improving or expanding local food industries or to ascertain whether more research is needed. Assistance provided under the ETAP program has taken a variety of forms, such as milling and baking, manufacture of cereal foods, food preservation, improvement of canning practices. The Conference supported the proposal to appoint in 1958 a regional officer in Latin America to assist governments with food technology problems.
307. On the request of the FAD/WHO/ UNICEF Working Group on Milk and Milk Products, a monograph on the contribution of these products to human nutrition is being prepared. Increasing attention has also been given' in close collaboration with UNICEF and WHO, to protein-rich foods other than milk, which will improve the nutrition of children in countries where adequate milk supplies cannot be produced. The Conference recommended that FAO continue its activities in this important field.
308. The Conference also considered that FAO should continue to collect and disseminate information on indigenous methods of processing foodstuffs applied on the village or household scale in many countries, such as pickling salting. drying and fermentation. 'These are of importance in relation to various aspects of FAO's work in applied nutrition as. for example, in community development.
309. In line with a recommendation of the Eighth Session of the Conference, work on intentional food additives has been initiated and is being carried out in close collaboration with WHO. 'The subject has important implications for international trade in agricultural products. as well as for consumer interests and health..
310. Following an FAO/WHO Conference on Food Additives held in 1955, the two Organizations convened two technical meetings in 1956 anti 1957 and two further ones are scheduled for 1958 and 1959. Important data sheets on food colors have been published and a periodical, Current Food Additives Legislation, is being issued in collaboration with the FAO Legislation Service. Both Organizations ate now collaborating on data sheets for antimicrobials and antioxidants. The Conference commended FAO for its work in this field and recommended that the plants to issue a second periodical dealing with food additives legislation in a number of countries be implemented FAO should keep abreast of development in the problem of pesticide residues and of nutritive substances added in the processing of foods.
311. The Conference noted that the nutritional aspects of the preservation of foods by radiation are often overlooked. FAO might act as a center for exchange of information on this subject, thereby assisting in the co-ordination of relevant research.
312. Work under this head is concerned with the organization of national nutrition services, the planning and development of supplementary feeding programs, the promotion of education in nutrition and the training of personnel. The Conference stressed the importance of national scientific and technical nutrition services in developing practical programs and of appropriate national services to co-ordinate activities to improve the nutrition of populations.
313. Education in nutrition has been given special attention during the last two years. Opportunities for expanding assistance in this field are great. FAO, in collaboration with UNESCO, WHO and UNICEF should encourage and assist governments to develop suitable teaching methods and materials. To help determine both the content and methods of nutrition teaching, studies of practices and social values in each culture are needed. In cooperation with WHO and UNICEF, governments will be encouraged to take greater advantage of the opportunity which school feeding programs and maternal and child health centers afford for teaching nutrition. FAO will likewise co-operate with the UN Bureau of Social Affairs to promote the inclusion of nutrition in the programs of community development now being initiated in a number of countries. The Conference supported the proposal to appoint in 1958 a specialist in nutrition education and short-term consultants for nutrition education work in various countries and recommended that work in this broad field be intensified.
314. Increasing assistance has been given in planning and organizing supplementary feeding programs and related educational activities. Since such programs benefiting school children, mothers and pre-school children, are often initiated with dried skim milk made available temporarily by UNICEF, simultaneous attention is given to developing local resources of foods which can replace the imported milk. Increasing attention will be given, in cooperation with WHO, to supplementary feeding programs for mothers and pre-school children. Further study will be made of various practical aspects of school feeding and of possibilities of extending programs into rural areas where nutritional needs are often great. Two regional seminars on school feeding and related activities are planned in 1958 in South America and Southeast Asia. respectively. The Conference welcomed the interest now being expressed in the feeding of workers and hoped that FAO would assist governments seeking aid in developing such programs on a sound nutritional basis.
315. The continuation of any nutrition program after international aid has been withdrawn is largely dependent on the formation of a group of national leaders and local workers suitably trained in nutrition. Through regional training courses, seminars and fellowships, FAO provides assistance for this purpose. With respect to national training, the Conference noted with appreciation the financial assistance which UNICEF is now prepared to give' thereby expanding FAO's opportunities for providing assistance to governments.
316. Training activities have always been an important part of the FAO program. Of particular value in developing practical nutrition wolf; in Africa have been the FAO/ WHO training courses for workers in French-speaking territories in Africa south of the Sahara, the second of which took place in the last three months of 1955. A similar course for workers from English-speaking territories was organized in Uganda in October/November 1957. Trainees from these three earlier courses will be invited to attend a seminar for appraising nutrition problems in Africa to be convened jointly with WHO in 1959. An FAO/WHO seminar on nutrition and health education in Central America is also planned in 1959, similar to the one held for South and East Asia in 1956. The Conference noted the plans to convene, in association with WHO. a Nutrition Conference in Europe in 1959 which will give attention to the training in nutrition of workers from various disciplines, including doctors, other medical personnel, and teachers.
317. Home economics, concerned as it is with family welfare in all its important aspects, can contribute significantly troth to the improvement of nutrition and to the raising of levels of living particularly of rural populations. The Conference noted with satisfaction the rapid development of the FAO home economies program.
318. The Conference approved the broad social interpretation being given to FAO's home economics programs and the various approaches being used to develop them. Particular stress was laid on the importance of beginning the work in each country or region with comprehensive studies or surveys troth of conditions of family living and of existing programs in home economics and related fields. The findings from the first type of study may he used by governments in developing national plans for improving levels of living: for determining the content of home economics programs and the methods to he used for briefing FAO, UNESCO and ICA home economists. The findings from the second are necessary for the proper coordination of work undertaken by various groups - national, bilateral and international.
319. The special services which home economies can provide within community development programs should he furthered. Several countries and territories in Africa have requested assistance from FAO in training women for participation in community development. Until a full-time home economics officer can he appointed to service the African region' this work will be continued by Headquarters staff.
320. Since the Eighth Conference, joint activities with the Agriculture Division have further increased. In approving this trend the Conference stressed that both home economics and agricultural extension workers should jointly approach the family as a social and economic unit. FAO should encourage the co-ordination of all rural extension services to promote the wellbeing of families as well as increased agricultural production.
321. The Second Home Economics Conference in the Caribbean to be held in March 1958 will provide an opportunity to review progress in the area during the past five-year period and lay long-term plans for future development. A Conference on Problems of Family Life may he held in Nigeria within the next two-year period. The Conference considered that governments should be encouraged to organize regional and national conferences or met sings which will provide opportunities for administrators and other workers in the home economies field to exchange information and discuss the development of the programs.
322. Increasing emphasis is being given to training in home economics. Governments are requesting FAO assistance in organizing seminars and training courses in various specialized branches of home economies and for many types of workers, including teachers, extension workers, specialists and village leaders. Such activities should he expanded. The contribution that home economics can mate to training programs for social welfare and health workers needs further attention.
323. Since to date no work has been initiated in Latin America, the Conference supported the appointment of a home economies officer to this region in 1958.
Program and budget for 1958-59
324. The Conference found that the FAO Program of Work in nutrition and home economics is dynamic and flexible. Changes in emphasis have been made in recognition of developing needs and no field of activity has remained static. The approach to any given problem may and does alter without necessarily involving increases in staff and new budgetary proposals.
325. The 1958-59 Program represents a development of previous lines of work, with such changes in emphasis as are in keeping with scientific advances in knowledge and the needs for their application by FAO and Member Governments. In making these changes, FAO has been guided by expert committees and by FAO Conference.
326. In the light of its review of the proposed 1958-59 Program of Work, and having regard to the repeated emphasis placed by previous conferences on the need for expanding FAO's work in nutrition. the Conference recommends that the 1958-59 Program of Work and Budget for the Nutrition Division as presented by the Director-General. be approved in its entirety, including the budgetary provision for an additional specialist and consultants in education in nutrition and two additional regional officers - one for food technology and one for home economics.
327. With respect to the program as a whole, the Conference emphasized the need for more training of workers through fellowships. These are particularly valuable for countries in which suitable individuals for advanced training are available and administrative machinery exists for making full use of fellows after their period of training abroad. An increase in the number of fellowships should not, however, be accomplished at the expense of providing experts to countries where these are most needed.