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IV. Activities and programs of The Organization

A. Activities and programs in the technical fields
B. Agriculture
C. Economics
D. Fisheries
E. Forestry
F. Nutrition
G. Information and education
H. Expanded technical assistance program

I. Selected special problems

A. Activities and programs in the technical fields


104. The Conference reviewed the work of the Organization during the past two years and examined the program and budget for 1954 and 1955 as submitted by the Director General. It expressed special satisfaction regarding the way in which the recommendations of the Sixth Session of the Conference. concerning the work of the Organization and the presentation of the program of work and other basic documents, had been implement ed. As a result the Conference was able to gain a more thorough understanding of the results achieved by FAO and was in a position to discuss in detail the program in each of the major lines of activities under the regular budget and also in connection with the Expanded Technical Assistance Program.

105. Since the Sixth Session of the Conference, both the Regular and the Expanded Technical Assistance Programs have grown to the full limits of the financial means at their disposal. The Conference was pleased to note the close integration that had been achieved between the two programs and that there had been a careful sifting of all lines of work in order to obtain the maximum benefit from necessarily limited resources. A satisfactory balance had been established between the different parts of the Organization as well as between the major forms of its activities. The Conference e, therefore, considered that the Organization had succeeded in rendering the use of available financial and personnel resources increasingly effective.

106. The Conference was impressed by the extent to which the Organization had moved from a phase in which activities were concerned largely with preliminary investigations and initial planning to action programs. This was brought out rather strikingly by a comparison of FAO's work programs in its early years and the proposals submitted for 1954 and 1955 in such fields as control of diseases, plant protection, improvement of crop varieties, conservation and control of water resources, conservation of forestry and fisheries resources and improvement of statistics.

107. The Conference registered with particular satisfaction statements from several member delegations gratefully acknowledging that the activities of FAO had made a tangible contribution toward economic development and progress in their countries. It noted that the impact of FAO's work was now producing substantial results that were being felt not only in individual countries but in wide regions such as the Far and Near East, Latin America, and portions of Africa.

108. The Conference discussed certain aspects of the drawing up of programs of work for future years and in this connection passed the following resolution:

Resolution No. 22

Future Programs of Work

The Conference

Having reviewed and approved the distribution of the regular budget for 1954 and 1955 of the Organization over the different technical fields of activities;

Recommends that the Coordinating Committee should review this distribution in relation to present and future circumstances and conditions and advise the Director-General on the subject so that these views can be taken into account in preparing future programs of work.

109. In addition to a number of special problems and activities, which are dealt with below (see pp. 110-126), the Conference reviewed the work carried out in 1952 and 1953 and examined the program and budget for 1954 and 1955 in each of the main fields of activity of the Organization.

B. Agriculture

Animal production
Plant production
Land and water use
Rural welfare
Agricultural institutions and services
Program analysis and appraisal
Technical assistance

110. The Conference commended the Director-General for the development of a sound program of work in the field of agriculture and for the progress that had been made in the implementation of that program. It examined and in general approved the program of work for 1954 and 1955.

Animal production

111. The Conference expressed its agreement with the program proposed for 1954 and 1955. In so doing it called attention to the following points which should be taken into account in the implementation of the program:

(i) Projects designed to help countries control more adequately animal diseases and parasites should have a high priority in the program; work in the field of animal disease and parasite control, improved livestock feeding and the improvement of production through breeding should go forward simultaneously with appropriate arrangements for timing and coordinating of various aspects of such programs in accord with the circumstances existing in each country or area:

(ii) Although there are obvious difficulties in drafting quarantine legislation adapted to the needs of all countries to prevent the spread of animal disease, a digest of existing quarantine legislation would be useful to countries in drafting revised or new legislation, and as a basis for consideration of an international animal health convention in which certain delegations expressed interest;

(iii) In order that the program in the animal production field be well balanced, increased emphasis on animal nutrition and also on range management is needed; the related problems of making more adequate forage and pasture available to improve livestock feeding were recognized;

(iv) In the further collection and dissemination of information on breeds of livestock, particular attention should be given to the reaction of animals of improved breeds and types to unfavorable environments;

(v) The importance of the joint action with OIE and WHO in the field of animal disease control, and with WHO, UNICEF and the International Dairy Federation on milk production, consumption and distribution, was recognized; such activities should be continued and strengthened wherever possible;

(vi) Projects designed to benefit groups of countries, such as those concerned with the control of epizootic diseases, particularly of the killing type, which recognize no national boundaries, should continue to be stressed, both in the Regular and the Expanded Technical Assistance Programs. At the same time the importance of the debilitating diseases which cause large annual losses in animal production should not be overlooked.

Plant production

112. The Conference noted the progress in the administration and operation of the International Plant Protection Convention, and urged that where necessary signatory governments expedite ratification to ensure its fullest effectiveness and that other governments adhere with the least possible delay. It recognized, however, that the Convention had been in operation for only a relatively short time and may be found to contain certain imperfections. It therefore suggested convening a panel of technical experts to consider amendments to the Convention and questions relating to its operation, prior to their submission to the Eighth Session of the Conference.

113. The Conference, in expressing its appreciation of progress made in the establishment of the World Reporting Service and the publication of the FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, suggested that further consideration be given to the system of reporting occurrences of diseases and pests with a view to distinguishing between those intercepted at point of entry, new introductions which have been suppressed, minor outbreaks which are under control and those which have become established in the country. The usefulness of the Digest of Plant Quarantine Regulations in facilitating exchange of information and promoting improved legislation was emphasized. It was also suggested FAO should participate, through the Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, in an advisory capacity in the general supervision of a regional plant protection agreement for South East Asia which will shortly be considered at a technical meeting in Singapore.

114. The importance of the recently initiated project on olive fly control in Mediterranean countries was recognized and its continuation recommended. Attention was also drawn to the need for work on the control of the senn pest in the Near East as soon as finances and personnel available to the Organization permit.

115. The value of work undertaken on the control of infestation in stored products was recognized and its continuation requested.

116. The Conference expressed satisfaction with the results thus far obtained in the regional crop breeding programs and recommended that activities in connection with rice improvement in Asia be strengthened The value of the expert advisory service on rice breeding provided in Asia was particularly recognized.

117. The Conference recognized the importance of research on rusts and of the breeding of rust resistant wheat and barley varieties in the Near East, as recommended by the Third Regional Meeting for Food and Agricultural Programs in that region, and called upon the Director-General to assist in the establishment and operation of a training center in the Near East region preferably in Egypt, for research on rusts in co-operation with other inter-national organizations which may be interested.

118. The need for the projected monograph covering all phases of rice production was recognized, and the active prosecution of this project recommended.

119. Plans for increased assistance to governments in the development of policies and programs for the production, certification and distribution of improved seed were welcomed. It was considered that the compilation and publication of information obtained from Member Governments with experience in this field would be a valuable service. The Conference was pleased to note that the informal 6-points understanding between the International Seed Testing Association and FAO covering their relations and respective responsibilities had received the approval of the 1953 Dublin meeting of ISTA, and added its endorsement thereto.

120. The Conference, although noting that much activity in tropical and sub-tropical crop production is already in progress under the Expanded Technical Assistance Program, recorded its opinion that such work should be intensified under the regular program, and requested that particular attention be given to the production of food crops and particularly horticultural crops in these regions, in view of their dietary significance.

121. The importance of grape production and the wine industry were stressed. It was noted that the International Wine Office had requested FAO to assist in the preparation and publication of an English section of a glossary of terms published some time ago by the International Wine Office in four other languages. The Conference recommended that the Director-General give sympathetic consideration to co-operating with the International Wine Office in revising the glossary and preparing an English version of it and in publishing it provided joint financing can he arranged and FAO's share met from the existing budget.

Land and water use

122. The Conference, in expressing its agreement with the work accomplished thus far and the work planned in the field of land and water utilization, laid particular stress on close integration of work on problems related to land, water and man, and recognized that technically sound programs find their ultimate justification in improvements in the levels of living. The Conference expressed its general agreement with the amount of emphasis being given to work in the various aspects of land and water use, covering soil classification and improvement, water utilization including irrigation and drainage, land administration including land tenure and settlement, farm management, farm machinery and small tools. and the appraisal of the land and water resources. It placed particular stress on:

(i) The work of the FAO International Rice Commission's Working Party on Fertilizers and the Permanent European Working Party on Land and Water Conservation;

(ii) The continuation of existing cooperation with other international agencies having some interest in certain aspects of the land and water use field, particularly the United Nations Secretariat, the International Labour Organization, the Organization of American States, the Colombo Plan, the Inter-Governmental Committee for European Migration. and the Advisory Committee on Arid Zone Research sponsored by UNESCO;

(iii) The need for greater attention by Member Governments to the coordination of activities of various national agencies for development of land and water resources and the use of water resources of international river basins; in this connection, the pertinent recommendation of the Fifth Session of the FAO Conference concerning intergovernmental land and water problems was strongly re-affirmed (Report of the Fifth Session of the Conference page 23);

(iv) Results obtained by the Seminar on Land Problems for Latin American countries and the desirability of holding seminars of the same type in the Wear East and in Asia and the Far East;

(v) Adequate soil survey in areas recommended for agricultural development.

Rural welfare

123. The Conference, while recognizing that rural welfare, in its widest sense, is dealt with by many sections of the Organization, agreed that, within the more limited field covered by the program in agriculture, special attention should be paid to:

(i) Intensifying work on co-operatives, with particular attention to the development of land-use co-operatives;

(ii) Assistance to governments in the planning of adequate systems of agricultural credit designed to increase production;

(iii) Work in rural processing industries, owing to the importance of improving processing of agricultural production in under-developed areas;

(iv) The sociological approach to rural welfare problems including the organizational problems involved in the application of improved agricultural techniques on small farms and the need for appraisal of rural welfare conditions through adequate surveys and attention to community development projects;

(v) Close collaboration between FAO and other agencies working in the social field with regard to problems of common interest.

Agricultural institutions and services

124. The Conference emphasized again the basic importance of research, training and extension in any long-term program to increase agricultural production and to improve the level of living of rural people. Particular attention was drawn to the following points, which should be considered in implementing the program of work:

(i) Work in the field of agricultural administration, which should be expanded to provide a more adequate basis for examination by member countries of their agricultural services, with a view to increasing the efficiency of these services in aiding all classes of farmers;

(ii) The value of a regional approach to the development of agricultural extension services and the contribution that regional extension development centers, such as the Near East Extension Development Center held in Lebanon in 1952, had made in making governments extension minded and in stimulating interest and enthusiasm for the establishment and strengthening of extension services in member countries; the territory served by each such center should be restricted in extent to regions where agricultural conditions, problems and the status of extension services development are comparable; three types of training are needed, i.e. pre-service training in extension methods and philosophy in schools and colleges, induction training of new extension personnel, and in-service training of agricultural officers with field experience in modern extension techniques; there is a special need for training of agricultural leaders who in turn could train personnel in their respective countries, thus increasing the number of trained people at a faster rate and hastening the adoption of modern agricultural techniques in all areas;

(iii) The establishment of pilot villages and farmer-owned and operated demonstration farms which have contributed a great deal to agricultural improvement in countries such as the Netherlands and France; such activities were commended for consideration by other governments and by FAO in advising on the possible application of this technique in under-developed countries;

(iv) The work to facilitate the coordination of agricultural research, which is already under way in Europe; this should be expanded to other regions as fast as resources and staff limitations permit; the use of regional panels of scientists to guide this activity was commended;

(v) The important field of agricultural education, which should be given greater emphasis in the program of FAO, as well as the need for more widespread education of rural people in basic agricultural knowledge, in order that they might be able to apply the improved methods brought to them through extension services, information services and by other means; more attention should also be given to the development of colleges of agriculture and of co-operation between colleges in member countries.

Program analysis and appraisal

125. The Conference expressed its satisfaction with the work concerning the analysis and appraisal of programs in the field of agriculture.

Technical assistance

126. The Conference expressed its appreciation for the manner in which FAO had carried out its Expanded Technical Assistance Program in the field of agriculture and for the work which had been accomplished in many countries up to the present time.

C. Economics

Economic analysis
Technical assistance

127. The Conference noted with satisfaction the progress which had been made in the field of economics and statistics since its Sixth Session in response to the Resolutions then passed, and expressed its general agreement with the program proposed for future work. Some suggestions were made regarding the emphasis which should be placed on the various activities in this field, should any changes occur in the Organization's financial resources. The Conference concluded, however, that the general balance of the program, as presented, was well conceived and that its various parts interlocked into a coherent whole.

128. The Conference endorsed the emphasis placed by the Director-General on the need for selectivity and flexibility in planning the program, with special reference also to priorities which might arise from the constantly and swiftly changing pattern of economic developments. In view of the importance of economic criteria in determining the direction of agricultural expansion on a selective basis, the Organization would be called upon to pay increasing attention to work in the economic field.

129. Recognition was given to the advantages of the closest possible co-operation not only within the Organization but also with other national and international agencies working in related fields. The Conference was informed by the Director-General of the steps taken toward ensuring the best possible division of labor in these respects and noted with satisfaction the progress which had been made since its last Session.


130. The Conference reviewed in detail the work program in the field of statistics and commended the progress made in the coverage and quality of the statistics published by the Organization and in its assistance to Member Governments in improving their statistical systems. It emphasized the importance of continuing such direct technical help to governments in improving their statistical services, particularly through training centers in sampling and in census taking, and adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 23

Improving Statistical Services

The Conference

Recognizing the need for adequate current agricultural statistics as a basis for sound policy formulation in member countries, and the need for timely reporting by Member Governments to FAO of national statistics without which accurate and up-to-date revisions in the statistical series published by the Organization are not possible;

Recommends that member countries take all possible steps to improve their own systems of statistical reporting, and improve the accuracy and promptness with which they supply their latest revised data to FAO for republication;

Requests the Director-General to continue to provide aid to member countries, troth from the regular program and ETAP, in carrying these recommendations into effect.

131. While recognizing that the statistics work now carried out by the Organization and proposed for 1954-55 is of basic character and serves essential needs, the Conference felt that projects such as compiling and publishing a regular statistical series of data on world stocks of major agricultural commodities, and publishing food balance sheets for all countries, should be expanded if resources permit.

132. Attention should be paid by FAO to the study and use of all available methods, including probability sampling, in furthering statistical work; in particular, the Conference stressed the need for many countries to improve their basic statistical services as a first step in undertaking such improvements. The Conference also urged the need to tabulate the results of the world census of agriculture to establish bench-marks as a means to improve current statistics.

133. The Conference commended the new project for review and development of international standards for methods of experimental design, and of survey methods for assessing the results achieved from the application of improved measures by farmers in actual practice, and for assistance to member countries in this connection, and reiterated the need for continued close coordination with work in the field of agriculture in these respects.

134. The Conference felt it would be useful for FAO to undertake the compilation of a catalogue of nationally applied definitions and classifications to improve the comparability of data from various countries, but noted that this work would become fully effective only as Member Nations developed their statistical reporting systems to the point where they would apply and use such standards.

135. The Conference affirmed the need for the provision of mechanical tabulation equipment both to improve the efficiency of the work of statistical compilation and analysis, and to serve the whole Organization

Economic analysis

136. The Conference expressed its appreciation of the progressive nature of the work carried out since the last Session of the Conference, and in particular for the high quality of the publication entitled The State of Food and Agriculture. The projects proposed for 1954 and 1955 were generally approved and it was agreed that they were directed tow arcs the main agricultural problems. The Conference noted with satisfaction the increased attention being given to the regional study of agricultural development. The Conference considered that other related problems not yet covered by other international organizations could also be usefully considered on a regional basis, e.g. in the fields of price analysis, farm accountancy, the development of trade, and agricultural investment and credit. In the new situation now arising, such types of economic analysis would become increasingly useful, particularly in relation to the selective expansion of agricultural production.

137. The Conference also emphasized the need for governments to improve their economic services to agriculture e as a means of assembling sufficient data to assess the overall situation and to provide adequate guidance and assistance to farmers. It endorsed the proposals for aid to governments in improving services to agriculture in the field of economics, recognizing, however, that this was a long-term program which would take many years to develop.

138. It recommended that, with the resources available, greater emphasis should be given to work on price analysis, including studies on price policies in different regions and their influence on the level of production, trade and consumption, on distribution margins, and on factors affecting farm income. Stress was laid on the importance of further work on farm accountancy, particularly budgetary studies and input-output analysis as a means of increasing efficiency and productivity of agriculture and possible applications in less developed parts of the world .

139. The work accomplished for the regional meetings on agricultural programming and development was commended. Progress in implementing the production programs should be reviewed from time to time, and FAO should give assistance on agricultural planning to member countries within the limits of its resources. Interest was expressed in the proposed handbook on agricultural planning.

140. The Conference, recognizing the great importance of adequate investment funds to the development of the less developed countries, approved the continuation of work on investment in agriculture and on farm credit, and suggested that more attention might be given to supervised credit.


141. In its examination of the work done by FAO in the field of commodities, the Conference noted with satisfaction the substantial progress achieved since the last Session and emphasized the importance of this type of work. It commended in particular the timely and useful reporting services on commodity developments and the valuable work accomplished by means of selective basic studies into commodity trends and interrelationships and policy developments, both under the regular publications program and in connection with services performed for the Committee on Commodity Problems. Stress was laid on the usefulness of the work done on rice for the 1953 Bangkok Special Conference and other Far Eastern meetings. The Conference also noted with satisfaction the development of close co-operation with specialized inter-governmental commodity bodies and other international organs concerned with commodity questions.

142. The proposed program of work for 1954 and 1955 was considered to be soundly conceived and well balanced in the relative emphasis placed on the three broad divisions of the work - current reporting and commodity outlook statements, basic studies and commodity policy services. The growing importance of marketing problems arising from the appearance of surpluses was recognized, with special reference to the effects of price margins and distribution costs on consumption. The increased attention to be given to basic studies, particularly in the selective elucidation of trends in commodity supplies, trade, consumption, prices, and interrelationships, was also considered to be a commendable aspect of the program. It was agreed that the continuing reporting and analysis of developments in inter-governmental commodity policies and the study of techniques of inter-governmental policy arrangements and their effectiveness in varying circumstances formed a most valuable part of FAO's work.

Technical assistance

143. The Conference reviewed the activities of FAO in the field of economics under ETAP and approved the lines along which the work had been conducted. The strict limitation of ETAP funds had made it possible to meet only a small portion of the requests received for technical assistance in the field of economics and statistics. The Conference felt, however, that projects intended to improve government services in economics and statistics and marketing methods should be given special attention. Emphasis was placed on the importance of not restricting the technical assistance program of FAO to questions of a purely technical nature. Broader economic issues should be given due weight as a framework necessary to ensure an appropriate balance in the technical assistance work of FAO as a whole.

144. The Conference noted the technical assistance rendered in the field of programming for agricultural development and endorsed the importance of continuing this activity on a selective basis. Special help should be given to less developed countries in evolving their agricultural development programs and projects on a sound and realistic basis, taking into account not only the technological but also the financial and economic aspects.

D. Fisheries

Fisheries biology
Regional activities

145. The Conference commended the Director General on the implementation of the program to date and expressed the view that it had contributed materially to increasing the world's supply of animal protein and other foods. It recognized the difficulties, and noted the impossibility in many respects, of measuring in precise figures the increase attributable to the work of the Organization, but the hope was expressed that by the time of the next Session of the Conference some progress will have been made in overcoming these difficulties. It was noted that an extended description of the rationale on which the program is based had been given in an article published in the FAO Fisheries Bulletin Vol. 6, No. 5, September/October 1953, entitled "Improving the Fisheries Contribution to World Food Supplies". The Conference considered this document to be valuable to Member Governments and to the fisheries industries and services throughout the world and the hope was expressed that it would be reprinted in both the scientific and the trade journals devoted to fisheries. The Conference wished to draw special attention to the following aspects of the program of work for the next two years.

Fisheries biology

146. Work in the field of fisheries biology during 1952 and 1953 was carefully reviewed. The Conference considered that there were two phases of activity in this field which could contribute tangible results in a short time towards relieving shortages in protein deficient areas, namely, the improvement of fish culture practices and the management of inland fisheries. Experience in these areas indicated the urgent necessity of continued guidance to Member Governments in their management programs.

147. The Conference noted that special circumstances had led to the under-staffing of biologists responsible for this section of the program and considered it of the utmost importance that the establishment should he brought up to full strength as soon as possible. The Conference emphasized the value of the preparation of a world series of fisheries maps in connection with the Survey of Marine Resources and suggested that this work should he given high priority.

148. The importance of the development of fishery surveys which are of interest and benefit to all nations was recognized; the development of an international approach to this very important subject might best be advanced by action initiated by the Organization with a view to international cooperation in the conduct of survey operations, especially in unexploded areas. It was accordingly recommended that proposals for such international action be placed before the Meeting on Fishery Resources, which it is proposed to convene in 1955.

Fisheries technology

149. In examining the program of work for fisheries technology, the Conference commended the procedure which had been followed of bringing together experts and technicians in international meetings, as for example in the recent successful Fishing Boat Congress held in Paris and Miami in late 1953. It was gratified to learn that the Congress Report, the first of its kind, would be published in 1954. The work of coordinating an stimulating continued research on fishing boats, especially on the subject of sea behaviour, and of consultations on hull design and small boat mechanization was considered valuable. The co-ordination of the work of fish processing technologists though the FAO Interim Committee on Fish Handling was found effective. The full report on the FAO Meeting on Herring Technology (Bergen 1950) had been published by the Norwegian Board of Fisheries under the title The technology of Herring Utilization. The continue collaboration with the Nutrition Division in the work of exploring uses of fish flour in human nutrition was highly commended.

150. The Conference considered that amongst the deterrents to fisheries development is the lack of general knowledge of improved types of fishing gear and it's use and attached high priority to the work proposed. The Conference emphasized that the present attention to the needs of particular regions for specialized technological should be continued, since only in this way can the work be the most effective. The World Fisheries Abstracts was considered to be most valuable publication, well suited the requirements of technologists everywhere. The Conference noted with satisfaction that the stayed on Commodity Standards of Fisheries Products had been augmented and published; it considered it to be of great value to all Member Governments as a guide to legislation on fisheries commodities and fish inspection.

Fisheries Economics

151. The program relating to fisheries economics and statistics was carefully considered and the close relationship of this work with that of the rest of the fisheries program was fully recognized. The Conference was of the opinion that member countries should do more to assist in the provision of comprehensive and detailed information and statistics in order to enable the work of FAO to be carried still further in this field. It emphasized that the solution of marketing problems and the organization of more efficient distribution arrangements were of an importance equal to increasing production , in view of the urgent need in many areas to provide the incentive for expanding fish production , and consumption. It hoped that the documentation resulting from the Hong Kong Fish Marketing Training Center to be held in 1954 would afford material assistance in this respect. The value of the Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics was stressed and it was considered desirable that the first opportunity should be taken to produce this work annually instead of biennially as at present; it might further be, improved by the provision of information on the sources of statistics available even if such sources had not been used in the compilation of any particular edition of the Yearbook.

152. The Conference considered that the time was ripe for the production of a brief guide indicating the simplest way of collecting statistics and preparing then in the for m most suitable for general use in the various countries, particularly those in which further development of fisheries statistics was needed.

Regional activities

153. The Conference reviewed the program drawn up for regional activities. It was emphasized that whole similar bodies are not already in existence Fisheries Councils provide an excellent means off establishing contacts between fishery experts and advancing the development of the fisheries in their particular areas. The difficulty of financing these Councils with their extending activities was appreciated and it was considered that in the future the participating countries might reasonably be asked to contribute part of the costs incurred by the Organization in its role as Secretariat to these bodies.

Fisheries Bulletin and other Documentation

154. The Conference commended the Director-General on the progress which had been made in developing the FAO Fisheries Bulletin and hoped that careful consideration would be given to every possible means of expanding the existing distribution. The Conference considered various proposals for further improving the content of the Bulletin; among these it was urged that wherever possible the more important papers presented in the course of meetings should be given the maximum publicity by reprinting them as articles in the Bulletin. It also recommended that some space in every issue should be devoted to a short review of outstanding events of international significance in the fisheries field. It considered that the Bulletin deserved the widest distribution and that the possibility of augmenting the circulation by reducing the price to outside subscribers should be explored. The Conference wished expressly to commend the Director General on the high standard which had been attained in fisheries publications gene rally.

General Conclusions

155. The Conference carefully examined each of the projects and their financial implications as set out in the Program of Work and Budget for 1954 and 1955, and came to the conclusion that these were well balanced and that they presented a coordinated and systematic approach towards the objective of the Organization in the field of fisheries. It recognized that there exists a high degree of integration between the different aspects of the program and that, therefore, it would be difficult to introduce significant amendments or alterations without a careful appraisal and recasting of the financial details of the whole program, but agreed that in the event of any revision of the program becoming necessary in the course of 1954 and 1955, due to unforeseeable circumstances, any modification should be left to the discretion of the Director-General. In such cases the Conference wished him to take into account its view that projects likely to effect quick results, such as the promotion of fish cultural practices, improved management of inland fisheries, work towards the improvement of fishing boats, landing, marketing and distribution facilities, fishing gear and methods, especially in countries where there is need to increase protein food supplies for the population, should be given preference.

E. Forestry

Forest policy and conservation
Research and technology
Forest economics
Technical assistance
Fourth World Forestry Congress
Near East Forestry Commission
Joint Sub-Commission on Mediterranean Forestry Problems
Oxford system of decimal classification for forestry
General conclusions

156. The Conference was of the opinion that the activities of the Organization in this very broad field showed an admirable pattern of useful and positive actions spread throughout the world. A measure of the stimulus given to world forestry by the Organization was provided by the results achieved in recent years by member countries acting concertedly on the international plane and by the marked progress apparent also in many individual countries. The degree of international collaboration enlisted by the Organization, both at the policy and technical level was commendable.

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