Forest-products research and utilization

Collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of information
Scientific, technological, sociological, and economic research
Improvement of education relating to fisheries and fishery industries
Conservation and development of fishery resources
Improvement of the processing, marketing, and distribution of fishery products
Adoption of policies for the provision of adequate fishery credits, national, and international
Adoption of international policies regarding commodity arrangements for fishery products
Advisory committee on fisheries

Forest-products research has indicated a great variety of new and promising fields for development in wood utilization, and a few nations have made important advances, but in many countries with extensive forest resources, utilization of timber is still very primitive. FAO may help stimulate progress in the use of wood by assembling, analyzing, and disseminating information on new techniques in wood utilization.


1. For early action
(a) FAO should assemble, analyze, and disseminate data on recent progress and new techniques in wood utilization.

(b) FAO should assist in extending the knowledge of the utility of little known woods, especially tropical species, and foster the establishment of standard methods of testing the mechanical and other properties of wood species.

2. Other recommendations
(a) FAO should assemble information regarding the technical properties of the various materials in the world, especially in the tropics, suitable for the manufacture of pulp. paper, and related products.

(b) F. NO should encourage research in the use of forest products in the construction of houses and of farm and other structures, as a part of a program for full employment and the raising of living standards.

(c) FAO should foster improvement in packaging and transporting food and other commodities for export.

(d) FAO should assemble technical and statistical data on world production of minor forest products as a basis for the development or expansion of their uses.

Integration of forest industries and reduction of waste

Wood waste is a term loosely applied to material from logging or manufacturing operations which is put to no commercial use, and also to material burned for fuel which might be used in the manufacture of products of higher value. In some countries there is practically no waste; in others where timber is more abundant, waste may be as high as 75 to 80 percent of the volume of a forest stand.

Much waste could be eliminated by integration of forest management and utilization, and by better integration of wood-using industries.

Recommendations (for early action)

1. FAO should assemble data regarding the utilization of wood for industry and for fuel, especially from countries where a high degree of integration in forest industries has been achieved.

2. FAO should encourage increased efficiency in logging and manufacturing by the use of equipment best adapted for the purpose, and should foster research in techniques suitable for particular regions.


If FAO is properly to fulfill its functions in the fields of forestry and forest products, it must have at its disposal up-to-date and accurate information respecting the extent and capacities of the forest resources of the world and the supply of and demand for forest products. International statistical series, instituted by several organizations before the war, should be resumed and consolidated by FAO at the earliest possible moment to serve the organization itself, forest authorities, and the forest-products industries of the world. These series covered production, distribution, and consumption in the major wood-using countries, but there were many gaps as to production, and information on stocks was not entirely adequate. During the war greatly improved information has been collected and it is highly desirable that such statistical series should not be discontinued. It will be necessary to make arrangements whereby corresponding information will be made available for other regions where it is lacking. Attention is called to the fact that in some countries very valuable statistics, notably those concerning industrial output, stocks, and prices, are compiled by trade associations rather than by governments, and it is hoped that suitable arrangements can be made whereby these will become available to FAO through the proper governmental channels.

Through international cooperation centered in FAO, it is expected that general agreement can be reached on the most suitable framework for a body of world-wide forestry statistics. While it is recognized that different terms and units of measurement established by preference and long custom in different countries will continue to be used, each country should be asked to submit definitions of terms and to recommend suitable factors for the conversion of its units to whatever units may be adopted by FAO for regional and worldwide compilations.

Recommendations (for early action)

1. FAO should give priority to the resumption of statistical series interrupted by the war, and to the continuance for peacetime purposes of new series instituted during the war. This will involve an early approach by FAO to the governments concerned.

2. FAO should compile a catalog of all kinds of statistical series relating to forestry and forest products.

3. FAO should at an early date initiate consultations preparatory to a world survey and inventory of forest resources and industries. It should encourage governments to undertake national surveys according to an agreed pattern and should assist by assembling, analyzing, and making available information on techniques, costs, equipment, and names of available statistical experts.

4. FAO should lose no opportunity to encourage and assist governments in improving the extent and comparability of forest statistics.


Marketing has both national and international aspects. There is known to be great diversity in methods of grading closely similar species used for the same purposes and in acceptable sizes of products of forest industries as between different countries. These are of long standing, and uniformity will not easily be reached; but confusing trade names and lack of well-conceived standard series of sizes and grades result in high costs of production, inefficiency in the use of wood as a material, and unnecessarily high costs to consumers. The first step for FAO will be to act as a clearinghouse for the collection and distribution of all available information on grading practices and units of measurement. Subsequently, progress toward standardization for improved utilization may be possible through international conferences to be organized by FAO.

Much useful work is being conducted by research organizations and other bodies in various parts of the world on the development of new uses for wood and in the utilization of unfamiliar species of timber. This provides a wide field in which FAO could act as a center for the collection and distribution of information and thus provide a basis for a scientific study of consumers' needs.

It could also act as a source from which trade organizations interested in extending the use of forest products could obtain authoritative and reliable information.

The Committee has reviewed paragraphs 104 to 107 of the Report of the Technical Committee on Forestry and Forest Products l dealing with international trade in forest products and in general endorses the views expressed. In this connection it is stressed that the compilation and publication of adequate estimates of international supplies and requirements of lumber and other forest products would of itself exercise a stabilizing influence upon the market, as well as facilitate adjustments in production and demand.

Recommendations (for early action)

1. Governments should be invited to establish national forest-products balance sheets. These should then be collected and collated for the world.

2. Provision should be made from the first for the collection and distribution of information respecting measurement and grades of forest products, and of information relating to the efficient use of forest products and the introduction of unfamiliar species, in such a way as will permit the progressive development of these activities through FAO.

Third world forestry congress

FAO should follow the precedent set by former World Forest Congresses in 1926 and 1936 by taking steps to call the Third World Forest Congress in 1946 or as soon as possible thereafter.

Implementation of recommendations

These recommendations have been kept to a minimum, but it may not be possible to carry out all of them during the formative period of FAO. The Committee on Forestry and Forest Products urges the appointment of a strong advisory committee on forestry and forest products at the earliest possible moment to help the Director-General in applying the recommendations of this Conference and putting into effect the Committee's suggestions for a world forest policy, which is outlined in the pages that follow.

A world forest policy

The principles of a world policy together with a specific program for FAO have already been considered by the Interim Commission and laid down in a Report of the Technical Committee on Forestry and Forest Products accompanying the Interim Commission's Third Report to Governments as well as in the report published as one of the five Technical Committee reports of the Interim Commission. The Forestry Committee approves and endorses the former as well as the general principles and recommendations contained in Parts I and II of the latter. The recommendations in Part III of the Technical Committee's report are replaced by the recommendations for early action contained in the report to Commission A by the Committee on Forestry and Forest Products.

Delegates from many nations have presented before the Forestry Committee reports dealing with conditions and problems in the forests and forest industries of their countries as well as in a number of dependent areas. These reports have suggested the following broad groupings:

(1) Countries which forests have not the capacity to supply domestic wood needs and which are forced to manage their forests more intensively and expand their forest area in order to increase their wood production and improve the quality of forest products.

(2) Countries still endowed with vast forests which should control cutting in order to ensure the continued use of their forest resources at a high level, since the experience of the last twenty years has amply demonstrated that forests once considered inexhaustible can rapidly be exhausted.

(3) Regions now suffering acutely from the results of deforestation with its attendant disastrous influences on climate, soil, and rural economy and which therefore need afforestation policies.

(4) Countries, especially in the tropics, having vast and dense forests which constitute a very important reserve of forest products and which must be improved by means of proper silviculture and managed efficiently in order to check serious deterioration in their composition, avoid excessive waste in their utilization, and ensure their future productivity.

It is clear that each nation must set its own forest policy, but FAO should define for forestry and forest products certain basic principles worldwide in application. In order to achieve such a world policy, it will be necessary to determine periodically both the annual productive capacity of the world's forests and the annual wood requirements of the world's peoples. The war has created a special problem of rehabilitation of forests which have been damaged in the course of the last few years. This is particularly urgent and calls for immediate recommendations leading to remedial action.

It is equally' desirable that the social problems involved be given full consideration. Measures to improve working conditions in the forests and in forest industries should be studied with the purpose of establishing a basis for general policy recommendations by FAO.

With the information now available it is believed possible to enunciate fundamental principles for a broad policy in the field of forestry and forest products; it should deal with physical, demographic, and economic factors.

Forest conservation

Forest management presents essentially different aspects in different parts of the world. In temperate regions - Europe, for example - forest management no longer presents any great technical difficulties; but there remain problems of economics, especially with regard to private forests. In many countries public action has been necessary in order to protect forests adequately against the disruptive consequences of fluctuations in supply and demand and of changing prices for forest products.

In the more newly settled countries, forest management still involves a number of technical problems which forestry research must solve. Here too the economic factors are of great importance because the opening up of undeveloped forests usually involves a preliminary phase of extensive utilization and crude methods of exploitation that are wholly incompatible with good forest management. In this situation both educational and administrative action is indispensable, as demonstrated by the examples of Canada, the United States, and South Africa. Even in forest stands that have not been disturbed by felling operations, the forest is often exposed to destructive agencies which can imperil its existence. These agencies are:

Forest fires. Forest fires cause grave losses, especially in the vast areas of resinous forests of Canada, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. Fire fighting is essentially a technical problem calling for proper equipment and well-trained specialized personnel. In addition it involves an administrative problem since the government is usually forced to assume responsibility for organizing adequate fire protection and for bearing all or part of the costs of protection.

Insects and disease. Here, additional scientific research and the development of new techniques are the prime concern.

Grazing. In some types of forest, grazing of livestock gives a supplementary income and is not incompatible with good forest management. In other situations livestock grazing is a serious threat to forests, especially in arid countries as in some Mediterranean and subtropical regions where during parts of the year forests provide the only reserve of moisture and green vegetation. Forestry Committee members from Greece, India, and China emphasized the seriousness of the grazing problem and stressed the necessity of educational and administrative measures in dealing with it.

Nomadic agriculture (shifting cultivation). In many subtropical and tropical regions, the people who practice shifting cultivation continue to destroy the forest in order to clear land for their primitive agriculture and then move on and destroy new areas of forest. The solution of this problem requires a broad policy involving agriculture, forestry, and land utilization based on a clear classification of land best suited for agriculture and land which should in the general interest be maintained or brought under forest crops.

Forest improvement

In temperate countries, improvement of the forest growing-stock is an inseparable part of forest management, since the large-scale introduction of new species with attendant higher yields is not entirely indispensable. However, highly intensified silviculture involving large-scale plantations and even the use of fertilizer, as well as the application of modern techniques in genetics and plant breeding has been used successfully - as demonstrated by reports from Belgium and Denmark. In equatorial regions, forest improvement is particularly important because the more valuable species are usually widely dispersed. Here silviculture should be directed toward building up forest stands composed of economically useful trees.

Here again, the technical aspect is the prime consideration, but administrative action - e.g., tax reduction - has also been recommended since it may encourage private forest owners to adopt measures for improving their forests.


Afforestation of land suitable for agriculture and for the protection of agricultural crops can be greatly encouraged by public action. In this connection examples have been quoted from France (subsidies), Norway and certain newer countries (afforestation loans), and China, where small agricultural communities are under legal obligation to create forest nurseries and establish plantations.

Soil conservation

This is one of the most serious problems that foresters face because it involves not only economic consequences but the actual maintenance of populations and has a direct influence on living conditions and rural life. In this work foresters join hands with soil experts and develop programs to their mutual advantage.

War damage

War damage to the forests has been particularly serious in Greece, where one fourth of the forest area has been destroyed by war operations or enemy action. To a lesser degree similar damage has been suffered by many countries in Europe and in the Far East. This situation will call for the three following measures:

(1) Reduced cuttings in certain countries coupled with increased imports of forest products.

(2) Better utilization of forest products, especially the use of small and low-grade woods previously neglected by industries and the processing of waste heretofore discarded. Such utilization has become possible through technical improvements which should now be generally introduced and applied.

(3) Afforestation on forest soils damaged by war operations. This involves treatment similar to that suggested for the denuded areas.

Forest utilization

Proper forest management is based on the removal of growth at periodic intervals. The harvesting of forest products should aim at securing their maximum utilization. In certain temperate countries, it is estimated that only 25 percent of the standing tree volume is industrially used. This enormous waste is in great part due to the fact that logging operators and forest industries sacrifice maximum volume utilization in order to operate at a profit. To achieve efficient forest utilization, the following should be suggested by FAO to Member nations:

(1) Adoption of measures encouraging industries to make maximum use of the wood they cut.

(2) Technical education in order to make industries and other wood users realize that a higher degree of wood utilization is to their interest.

(3) Technical forest products research in specialized laboratories.

(4) Integration of forest industries to reduce waste in logging and processing.

It is stressed that research should concern itself not only with the properties of wood but also with new wood-using techniques.

Closer wood utilization is even more important in tropical and equatorial forests. Here, utilization has been mainly confined to trees of the more valuable species widely dispersed throughout the forest. This highly selective form of felling makes the whole operation very expensive and definitely limits its possibilities and leads to progressive degradation of the forest stand itself as well as reducing its economic value. Utilization of a greater number of tree species would greatly reduce production costs and make it possible for these regions to contribute more importantly to world requirements. This has not been done so far because there is a market for only a few tropical species. They are little known by the consumers and are handicapped by prohibitive transportation costs.

Where these tropical areas suffer from manpower shortage, intensive mechanization of logging operations is necessary in opening up forests. Industries must be developed within the forest itself in order to process on the spot all species and those parts of the tree which otherwise could not carry transportation charges. All these measures of mechanization and industrialization should be accompanied by the application of silvicultural methods designed to transform low-grade forests into high-quality stands. This might be done with a view to such definite uses as the manufacture of veneers and plywood, or the production of pulp, paper, and textiles.

Distribution of products

In order to avoid obstructions to the orderly distribution of forest products, as well as extreme price variations, FAO should make it a major task to keep governments constantly informed concerning import requirements for and export supplies of forest products. This should be done on a world scale, and to that effect it might be advisable to develop further the recommendations contained in paragraph 107 of the Report to the Interim Commission by the Technical Committee on Forestry and Forest Products.

The foregoing problems, or groups of problems, are basic considerations in the formulation of a world forest policy. In certain respects work towards these objectives was being conducted by a number of international organizations prior to the war. In accordance with decisions taken at this conference, FAO will carry on the activities of these organizations in so far as their purposes fall within its scope.

E. Fisheries

FISHERIES have been one of the first food-producing industries to be affected by the sudden ending of the war. The war thrust upon one half of the world's fish-producing nations the burden of attempting to maintain production levels formerly achieved by the whole world. Now the sudden reversion - the liberation of the seas and the liberation of effort - has sharply emphasized the problems of distribution and focused attention on faults in the distribution mechanism.

Yet, despite the potentiality of so-called surpluses owing their existence to maldistribution, it is a fact that in some parts of the world deficiencies in protein could be eased by a well-planned development of fisheries resources within roach of the people. Often the reason that this is not already being done is due to lack of knowledge and ignorance of technique.

The Food and Agriculture Organization is young - its beginnings foreshadow its ultimate achievements. Therefore suggestions for the initial activities of the Organization in relation to fisheries have been framed with caution. They have been limited to those activities that are within the competence of FAO during its early stages and are at the same time desirable and practical from the point of view of Member nations.

In general the proposals in this report embody broad principles which will allow sufficient flexibility of action by governments that wish to apply them under local conditions. There are, however, certain fields in which uniformity of action is desirable. Among them are the adoption of uniform methods of collecting and reporting basic fisheries data and the standardization of quality, packaging, weight, and designation of fish commodities. Lack of uniformity in these respects constitutes a form of restriction upon the free flow of commodities between nations which injures the interests of both producer and consumer.

On the other hand, FAO has direct responsibilities. Among them are studies contributing to fisheries knowledge in its international aspects, as well as the distribution of such information in usable forms. FAO should also be directly responsible for bringing about such degrees of cooperation among international organizations as may be necessary to ensure the optimum yield from fisheries in the high seas. It is estimated that the sea fisheries yield over 30 thousand million pounds of food fish each year in areas where, in accordance with international law, every nation has the right to fish. It is also true that fisheries can be exhausted to below economic levels and that, unless agreement can be reached among nations upon a mode of behavior that will assure adequate protection, stocks of fish which are now so plentiful will once again rapidly become depleted. For this reason international action on this problem, such as could be obtained by FAO, is regarded as of great importance.

There are also parts of the world where fisheries could be developed to a much greater extent by the use of the proper techniques to catch fish in greater quantities or in new places, or by improving the conditions for fish reproduction and growth. In this way long-term production is enlarged by exploring new avenues, including the full use of lakes and ponds. Progress in this direction would be largely through national rather than international action but could be greatly facilitated by the exchange of information and expert advice and the encouragement of research by FAO.

These and other considerations, which are more fully dealt with in the Report to the Interim Commission by the Technical Committee on Fisheries, have led to the following proposals, in which the term "fish and fisheries products" means any products of the aquatic flora or fauna as the context may require.

Collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of information

The collection of information on fisheries of various nations is of great importance, and the establishment of systems for the collection and publication of fishery data should be encouraged in all countries. Furthermore? Member nations and institutions concerned with fisheries should have knowledge of all published reports the summaries of which would be valuable to research workers

In general? reports of the physical and nutritional sciences are available in standard publications. Economic and sociological publications and those dealing with fish-handling techniques? however, al e not so widely distributed. There is no doubt that both administrative officials of various governments and policy makers would be greatly assisted if they had available, in some form digests of significant contributions to the knowledge of world fisheries.

Fishery statistics are so vital that a special effort should be made to encourage the collection and publication by Member nations of basic fishery data. Such data are more easily understood if collected and reported in a uniform manner.


FAO should, therefore,

1. encourage provision for exchange of fisheries publications between various countries;

2. arrange for the publication of a classified catalog of existing fishery data to be supplemented from time to time;

3. encourage agencies publishing reports relating to fisheries to print summaries so that the reports may be more easily utilized by research workers;

4. eventually arrange for the publication of digests of new and important contributions to the knowledge of fisheries;

5. encourage the collection and publication by Member nations of basic fishery data;

6. arrange for the early publication of a recommended nomenclature and synonyms of economically important species of fish; and

7. arrange for a conference looking toward a uniform method of collecting and reporting statistical data.

Scientific, technological, sociological, and economic research

Fundamental to the intelligent consideration of fishery resources are investigations to determine (1) the natural history, distribution, migrations, and environmental relationships of fishery species; (2) the size, extent, and annual and seasonal variations in abundance of fish populations; (3) the effect on abundance of continuing fishing operations; (4) the most efficient methods of obtaining maximum production without endangering future supply; and (5) effective methods of artificial propagation, stocking! and disease and pollution control.

The methods and results of these coordinated phases of biological and hydrographical research had begun to attain exactness and fruitfulness immediately prior to the war. The scope and magnitude of such research varied considerably among the various primary fishing nations of the world. and some conducted none at all. In no country was the extent of such research commensurate with the magnitude of the fishery resources.


FAO should, therefore,

1. encourage, as soon as possible, the resumption of suspended or curtailed biological and hydrographical research in fisheries and the establishment of such new research as is necessary to keep pace with fishing activity;

2. emphasize the need for continuous investigations to maintain at all times knowledge of the condition of the resources as a basis for perpetuating sustained production;

3. encourage exchange of information on current activities and cooperation in research by nations that share the same resources;

4. stimulate the provision of better research facilities; and

5. encourage the exchange of students and research workers among nations in order to promote better opportunities for scientific training as well as to ensure the coordination of activities and the improvement of research techniques.

Research done heretofore, designed to identify and appraise the nutritional components of fishery products, appears to be fairly adequate with respect to protein, fat, mineral content, certain of the essential vitamins, and digestibility. large volume of this information is available, and scientists continue to investigate all new phases in this field as advances in international knowledge and techniques are made. Fish are an excellent source of proteins, minerals, and certain of the essential vitamins which would contribute to the well-being of the people in many countries. Better knowledge of the preparation of fish for culinary purposes would increase the consumption of fish.

Research done on the development of pharmacological fishery products is less adequate, but such development contributes to diversification of the uses for fishery products.

FAO should, therefore,

6. encourage the use, to the fullest extent, of present information on the nutritional value of fishery products and the results of new studies as they are completed, in order to popularize fish as an excellent source of protein, minerals, and certain of the essential vitamins;

7. encourage studies to bring about increased consumption of fish, particularly where the present diet consists largely of cereals and pulses;

8. encourage the exchange of information on the most satisfactory and attractive means of preparing fish for culinary purposes; and

9. encourage research on the development of pharmacological products in order to diversify further the uses for fishery products.

In recent years a great mass of information has been assembled on the technological phases of fish production and processing covering the handling of fish aboard the boat or vessel; the preparation of fish for market by icing, freezing, salting, drying, canning, etc.; and the warehousing, storage, and transportation of fishery products. Much work has also been done in the field of fishery by-products, such as fish meal and oil, and in the development of mechanical devices for their preparation. While much still remains to be accomplished in this field, it is believed that existing knowledge is far in advance of application.

FAO should, therefore,

10. direct its efforts toward securing the adoption of improved methods which have been or will be developed, possibly achieving this end through the establishment of some form of clearinghouse for periodic reports on research and on relevant patents, thus making available up-to-date information on the scientific handling of fishery products; and

11. sponsor periodic international conferences of fishery technologists to discuss the problems arising in the various countries. This would enable workers who are actively engaged in fishery research to become more widely acquainted with the problems confronting workers in other countries and to exchange ideas that could contribute to the solution of such problems.

Existing facilities are inadequate for the needs of fishery research if it is to be prosecuted on a scale which will develop fishery resources to the full. Further development of centers for all phases of fishery research is required.

FAO should, therefore,

12. encourage, through cooperation with the interested international, national, or private bodies, further development of existing research centers and the establishment of new centers in the major producing regions and in areas where fisheries might be more fully developed. Among other activities, these institutions could serve as the focal points for conducting systematic fishery exploratory work to locate virgin fishing grounds and for demonstrating newer techniques of producing, processing, and marketing marine products. They could also study biological and hydrographical, economic, and technical problems of special concern to the areas in which they are located; and they could function in cooperation with existing fishery councils. The operation of research vessels would form an important part of such work.
Since, in many instances, fishermen and shore workers are in the low-income group of labor, more attention should be given to helping them improve their general well-being. The problem of full employment is also vital to the postwar world. Very few studies have been made in the field of fishery economics, but the solution of many fishery problems must depend upon such knowledge.

FAO should, therefore,

13. cooperate with such international bodies as those concerned with labor, health, and education to encourage the initiation of studies on such subjects as the relation of fishery methods to production and employment, to the general well-being and public health, to occupational hazards and diseases, and to opportunities for education and community life; and

14. encourage the primary fish-producing and fish-consuming nations to undertake studies in the field of fishery economics which should extend not only to the economics of production, processing, and distribution (involving studies related to costs' prices, and investments) but also to consumption. These should include problems of collective bargaining and labor organization, recruitment, and labor exchange social security, employment under "lay systems" or fixed wages, living conditions and adequacy of income, insurance laws, credit unions, and cooperatives.

Improvement of education relating to fisheries and fishery industries

Available facilities for the training of fishery personnel in all phases of production, processing, and distribution are very limited, and improvement of education relating to fisheries and fishery industries is important to the full development of fishery resources.


FAO should, therefore, encourage the establishment of fishery schools and suitable fishery courses at appropriate institutions. As in the case of agricultural schools in many countries, these could serve as training centers for persons specializing in fisheries. The schools should also be centers for specialized fishery courses and for extension work for the dissemination of information to fishermen and shore workers on all phases of production, processing, and distribution.

Conservation and development of fishery resources

Fishery conservation problems on the high seas are international in character, but because the problems of conservation are different in the many areas involved, it is considered preferable for any international action for conservation and management to be established on a regional basis. There should, however, be a free interchange of ideas and information between such regional authorities in order to assist in bringing about a wider degree of coordination and interest.


FAO should, therefore,

1. stimulate interest in fishery research in the field of conservation;

2. encourage international forms of cooperation and management with a view to greater future utilization of fishery resources;

3. cooperate for this purpose with other international bodies concerned with fisheries;

4. explore the possibility of eventually coordinating the activities of these organizations under the auspices of FAO;

5. invite Member nations to consider the desirability of arranging periodic conferences between regional: authorities, including established national and international councils for the study of the sea; and

6. lend all possible support to the development of international programs of cooperative research, and, wherever necessary, of joint regulatory action on a regional basis to conserve and bring about the proper management of fishery resources.

The full use of fishery resources depends to a large degree on the development of fishery techniques best adapted to the many different conditions prevailing. Progress in such development might be accelerated by a better exchange of information.

FAO should, therefore,

7. encourage the full exchange, directly or through FAO, of information regarding advances in the design of fishing craft and of fishing gear; and

8. encourage practical demonstrations of modern fishing vessels and gear. The vessels and equipment could also be used to determine the potentialities of virgin areas.

The full use of fishery resources depends not only on the management of fisheries to obtain the maximum yield in perpetuity and improvement of fishing techniques, but also on the improvement of conditions for fish reproduction and growth.

FAO should, therefore,

9. encourage the adoption of suitable techniques of fish culture wherever facilities and conditions for the propagation of fish render such programs practicable.
Improvement of the processing, marketing, and distribution of fishery products

The fundamental problem of irregularity of supply should be the concern of all nations. More efficient methods of catch must be employed and, above all, work must continue on the application of newly developed methods of preservation which can act as a buffer against fluctuations in the supply of raw material. These, coupled with improvements in transportation and distribution systems, would mean a more regular Row of fishery products to the consumer one of the factors essential to any considerable expansion in consumption.

Processing covers the entire field of fish preservation, including freezing, canning, drying, salting, smoking, and the manufacture of fish byproducts. As has already been mentioned, a wealth of information is available on newer and more efficient methods of processing fishery products.


FAO should, therefore,

1. encourage the assembling of this information in usable form for dissemination to Member governments; and

2. where the need exists, encourage Member governments to demonstrate to their peoples the newer processing methods and techniques. This might be accomplished by the assignment of qualified experts to Member countries upon request.

There is a wide spree-d between the landed value of fish and its retail price. Fish, one of the least expensive food products at the point of production, becomes one of the more expensive foods in the retail store. Many reasons have been advanced for this situation, but the fact remains that it retards consumption. Some studies of causative factors in the chain of marketing and distribution have been made but they have not led to a solution of the problem. Thus further studies might be undertaken to ensure the production of wholesome products, standardized, where possible, with respect to quality, packaging, weight, and designation.

FAO should, therefore,

3. encourage the extension of these studies for the purpose of acquiring knowledge and recommending procedures that will bring fish within the reach of low-income consumers. In this connection qualified experts might be assigned to Member countries upon request.
Adoption of policies for the provision of adequate fishery credits, national, and international

Fishery industries in general are undercapitalized; however, technical advances should go a long way toward removing some of the great risks that have militated against the investment of capital. The pursuit of technical progress will be national in scope. On the other hand, countries where lack of protein is an outstanding national deficiency may stand in need of international credits in order to develop their fisheries.


FAO should, therefore,

1. encourage governments to grant credits to assist technical advances;

2. be prepared to give expert advice when it is required; and

3. offer to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development services regarding credits in the case of fisheries similar to those contemplated for agriculture.

Adoption of international policies regarding commodity arrangements for fishery products

Commodity arrangements can be successfully applied to fishery products, especially to preserved or nonperishable types.


FAO should, therefore,

1. study the possibilities of commodity arrangements as they affect fisheries, particularly as they promote or hinder better orientation of production and as they may be effective in providing opportunities for supplying consumer markets from the most efficient sources of production;

2. study, as an integral part of this program, the effects of tariffs and other international barriers on world trade, as well as the effect of abnormal fluctuations in the exchange rates, which restrict the production, distribution, and consumption of fishery products; and

3. furnish such information to the governments of producing and consuming countries and to other interested authorities.

Advisory committee on fisheries

In dealing with the many problems likely to arise, particularly during the initial stages of organizing FAO, the Director-General and his deputies would benefit from consultation with an expert committee on fisheries.


FAO should, therefore, appoint an advisory committee on fisheries.