The key requisites for satisfactory quinoa production are soil, pH of soil, climate, water, precipitation, temperature, radiation and altitude.
Preparation of the soil is an important activity that determines the future success of the crop. This must therefore be done with care, at the right time, with proper tools and using techniques, methods and characteristics that are appropriate to the crop, given the small seed size and the type of soil to be used.
Where the land used has previously been planted with other crops, it is advisable to rotate with crops that are not of the same family and preferably to use land previously given over to potato or another tuber to benefit from the crumbly soil and residual nutrients.
Sowing should be done when weather conditions are most favourable, with an adequate temperature of 15-20ºC and soil moisture equivalent to at least 3/4 of field capacity to facilitate seed germination.
Quinoa is a plant that has a high demand for nutrients, principally nitrogen, calcium, phosphorous and potassium. It therefore requires good manuring and adequate fertilization.
Like any other plant, it is also vulnerable to competition from weeds, especially in the first stages of growth, so early weeding is recommended to avoid competition for water, nutrients, light and space, in addition to the presence of pests and diseases from host vectors, which will impact on the future production potential and the quality of the quinoa seed.
Pests and diseases needed to be controlled in a timely manner, when sufficient damage has been done in the case of insects and as a preventative measure against diseases.
Harvesting is an important activity in the production process as it determines success in obtaining commercial quality grain.
The yield potential for quinoa grain can reach 11 t/ha under optimal soil, humidity and temperature conditions. Commercial yield is at about 6 t/ha.