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f) Programme Objective 5.7: Publications

241. The Conference noted that the total funds available for publications and documents work, amounting to $8 405 000, were distributed, except for a small residual amount, among all sub programmes, but would be pooled and managed centrally on behalf of all divisions. The Publications Division would be accountable to the users for the funds and the execution of the programme. The capacity of the Organization to issue publications and documents would remain substantially stabilized in 1972-73. The Arabic translation programme of 1.8 million words planned for 1970-71 had been fully carried out and about the same volume of Arabic translation was planned for 1972-73.

242. In line with the guiding principles governing FAO policy on publications and documents, adopted by the Council at its Fifty-Fifth Session (November 1970), the Director-General had placed more emphasis on publications of lasting value, especially for the transfer of knowledge at the farm, village and teaching levels. The Conference approved the proposed publications and documents programme as set forth in C 71/3-Sup. 1 (including its corrigendum) noting also that the Publications Division would supply the necessary documentation services for sessions, conferences, etc., as listed in C 71/3-Sup. 2, Rev. 1.

243. In connexion with observations made about the cost of Ceres, about the proposed new Quarterly FAO Animal Review and the possible discontinuation of the forestry quarterly Unasylva (listed in the publications programme under the heading ''If resources permit'' ), the Conference requested the Council and its Programme Committee in 1972 to review the Organization's policy concerning the publication of periodicals, taking into consideration the many expressions of support for the continuation of Unasylva and all relevant factors such as the purpose, readership, periodicity and cost of the various periodicals issued.

244. In accordance with Financial Regulation 6.9, the Conference approved the estimates presented for expenditure to be borne by the Publications Revolving Fund in 1972-73, out of revenue. These estimates included $70 000 to cover the reprinting of publications for which a sales demand existed, $50 000 for personal services for sales promotion purposes, $60 000 for other sales promotion expenditures, and $329 000 for the development of Ceres, subject to the condition previously laid down in Conference Resolution 7/69 that expenditure financed out of income from Ceres must be kept within the amount of firm advertising commitments and firm sales.

245. The Conference approved the programme and budgetary proposals presented in this chapter.

Chapter 6 - General Support

246. The Conference noted that this Chapter covered under three programme objectives such supporting services as Administration (6.1), Audit (6.2) and Common Services (6.3) and contained practically no increases in programme resources. Exceptionally, $50 000 was provided for management training. This was more than counterbalanced by the Director General's action to deduct $100 000 from the original estimates for General Operating Expenses. The Conference endorsed the continuing emphasis on the role of management training, as well as other aspects of programme-related in-service training activities, as essential to achieving increasingly effective operations.

247. The Conference was informed of the action being taken by the Director-General to improve staff/management relations in the light of the recommendations of the Special Committee chaired by Ambassador Brynolf Eng of Sweden, dealing with such varied aspects as staff participation in programme activities, career and promotion policies, staff evaluation, staff development and training, rotation between Headquarters and the field, and special field staff problems.

248. The Conference also noted that, in Programme 6.3.1-Computer Services, computer costs were being budgeted under, and allocated directly to, all pertinent 1972-73 programmes and sub-programmes and that only a residual amount of $39 617 was provided directly to the Computer Services under the Regular Programme. Three other programme objectives administered by the Administration and Finance Department were covered in other chapters namely Programme Objectives 4.3 Fellowships, 4.4 Junior Professional Training, and 5.6 Language Training.

249. The Conference approved the programme and budgetary proposals presented in this chapter.

Chapter 7 - Miscellaneous Expenditure

250. The Conference noted that the additional funds provided under this chapter, which concerned primarily the direct costs of FAO participation in institutions of the United Nations common system, covered only increased costs. It concurred with the proposal of the Director-General to reduce the original estimate for one of these activities (the Inter Organizational Board on Information Systems and Computerization) from $100 000 to $50000 by assigning existing FAO staff to a special task force.

Chapter 8 - Contingencies

251. The Conference agreed with the Director-General that the $350 000 originally proposed for Contingencies in 1972-73-the same as for 1970-71-should be reduced to $200 000 in order to achieve essential savings.

Chapter 9 - Special Budgetary Authorizations

252. The Conference noted that this chapter reflected certain special items which were applicable during the 1970-71 biennium, to cover a proportion of the anticipated increased costs for staff remuneration, as well as expenditure entailed in implementation of the management improvement measures programme, but that no funds were necessary under this chapter for 1972-73. The Conference was informed that moat of the amounts shown for 1970-71 under this heading had already been distributed over user-chapters, thus reducing considerably the provisions indicated under Chapter 9.

Chapter 10 - Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund

Budgetary Appropriations 1972-73

253. The Conference reviewed the budgetary implications involved in the establishment of the Tax Equalization Fund as of 1 January 1972, in line with the earlier authorization of the Eleventh Conference Session (1961) and its relation to the Staff Assessment scheme, in effect since 1 January 1964. It noted in particular that while the amount of $14 300 000 being transferred to the Tax Equalization Fund was included in the ''gross'' 1972-73 budget, this would have no effect on the contributions payable by Member Nations which do not levy taxes on FAO emoluments.

254. The Conference approved the programme and budgetary proposals presented in Chapters 7 through 10.

Budget Level

255. The Conference noted that in C 71/3 the Director-General had originally proposed a working budget level of $87 090 000; that the Programme and Finance Committees had recommended adjustments to the Fifty-Sixth session of the Council involving a reduction of $405 800; and that the Fifty-Seventh session of the Council had recommended acceptance of the Director General's proposals for further reductions of net $686 200. The combined reductions of $1 092 000 reduced the working budget level to $85 998 000 and the assessment budget to $79 618 000 (rounded to $79 620 000 for assessment purposes). This increase amounted to a working budget increase of $13 780 000 over 1970-71. Of this $12 619 970 or 17.5 percent was for cost increases and $1 160 030 or 1.6 percent for programme increases. In addition to the latter, shifts of resources amounting to about $1.6 million from lower to higher priority activities had been proposed in C 71/3.

256. The Conference was informed that current estimates of additional salary and wage increases for 1972-73 amounted to about $4 755 000, but that the Draft Programme of Work and Budget included only $1 963 000 for this purpose so that a potential amount of around $2 792 000, plus an estimated $756 000 in exchange losses (estimated as at 1 November 1971), totalling about $3 550 000, was unbudgeted.

257. The Conference approved the Draft Programme of Work and Budget for 1972-73 as amended by C 71/3-Add. 2 and the amended budget level of $85 998 000. The Conference further approved the Director-General's proposal to reduce the budgetary appropriations by the amount of $4 338 000 to be included in a consolidated UNDP Agency Costs Budget.

258. The Conference accordingly adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 5/71

a) Budgetary Appropriations 1972-73


Having considered the Director-General's Programme of Work and Budget and the conclusions reached by its Commissions,

Approves the Programme of Work proposed by the Director-General for 1972-73;

Resolves that for the financial period 1972-73:

1. Appropriations are voted for the following purposes:

Chapter 1 -General Policy and Direction $ 5 129 740
Chapter 2 -Technical and Economic Programmes $ 37 773 476
Chapter 3 -Field Programmes and Development Support $ 16 968 984
Chapter 4 -Special Programmes $ 2 900 330
Chapter 5 -General Programme Services $ 5 819 000
Chapter 6 -General Support $ 16 798 470
Chapter 7 -Miscellaneous Expenditure $ 408 000
Chapter 8 -Contingencies $ 200 000
Chapter 9 -Special Budgetary Authorizations
Total effective Working Budget
$ 85 998 000
Chapter 10 -Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund
Total Appropriations (Gross)
$ 14 300 000
$ 100 298 000

2. The appropriations (gross) voted in paragraph 1 above, shall be reduced by the amount of $4 338 000, which amount shall be included in a consolidated UNDP Agency Costs Budget; and, accordingly, the above Chapter totals shall be amended by the Director General, as appropriate;

3. The appropriations (gross) voted in paragraph 1 as amended by the Director-General in accordance with paragraph 2, shall be financed by assessment on Member Nations after deduction of Miscellaneous Income in the amount of $2 340 000, thus resulting in assessments against Member Nations of $93 620 000;

4. In establishing the actual amounts of contributions to be paid by individual Member Nations, the assessment of each Member Nation shall be reduced by any amount standing to its credit in the Tax Equalization Fund; provided that the credits of a Member Nation that levies taxes on the salaries, emoluments and indemnities received from FAO by staff members who are nationals of such Nation, shall be reduced by the estimated amounts of such taxes to be reimbursed to the staff member by FAO

5. The contributions due from Member Nations in 1972 and 1973 shall be paid in accordance with the scale adopted by the Conference at its Sixteenth Session; which contributions, after the deduction of amounts standing to the credit of Member Nations in the Tax Equalization Fund, result in net amounts payable totalling US $79 620 000 as set out in Appendix E to this Report.

(Adopted 22 November 1971)

259. The Conference further approved the proposal to deal with the problem of unbudgeted costs firstly, by withdrawing $1 million from the Working Capital Funds, immediately after January 1972, to be reimbursed from the 1970-71 cash surplus provided that Member Nations paid their contributions in good time; secondly, by further savings of $600 000 the sources of which would be determined by the Director-General; and thirdly, if necessary, and on approval by the Council, by further withdrawing of approximately $2 million from the Working Capital Fund.

260. In reaching these conclusions, the Conference expressed its serious concern with the continuing problem of rising costs, both as regards the immediate effect on the budget level, particularly as regard the very small amount available for an increase in programme activities, and as regards the implications for the future.

261. The Conference emphasized the need to increase efficiency and improve management in order to reduce costs and to provide more resources for strengthening certain programme activities recommended by the Conference, and to be more selective in the definition of objectives and choice of priorities so as to avoid duplication of activities internally and with other international organizations, and to concentrate resources on effective execution of high-priority activities of benefit to Member Nations.

262. In this connexion, it wee felt that the Council, with the advice of the Programme and Finance Committees, should closely consider the question of priorities at its future sessions. Reference was also made to the desirability of reducing the costs of travel, meetings and certain general operating expenses (on which it wee noted, the Director-General had received recommendations from a consultant which he would shortly be studying and, as far as possible, implementing in the light of the views of the Conference). Reference was made to the need to control more closely the creation of new posts and upgrading. The Conference gave general approval to the initial recruitment of more staff members on fixed-term appointments as a means of creating greater flexibility and avoiding unnecessary continuing commitments.

263. In approving the Draft Programme of Work and Budget for 1972-73 there was further discussion of the Director-General's proposal for strengthening the Regional Offices.

264. The Conference welcomed the new programme budget format which considerably facilitated a better review of the work of the Organization and the determination of priorities. The Conference noted that further development of the programme budgeting system was already in hand and recommended the implementation of the steps necessary to provide in the Programme of Work and Budget 1974-75 a clearer definition of objectives, improvement in the narratives, and fuller information on cost and other increases. In view of the greater flexibility afforded by the new system, it was felt that in the interest of control of the use of resources the Annexes should be retained and should be more informative on proposed organizational, grading and other changes. The importance of providing adequate information on the breakdown of objects of expenditure was stressed.

265. As regards the budgetary situation, the Conference recognised the difficult situation in which the Director-General had been placed by circumstances beyond his control and appreciated the efforts he had made to mitigate these. Reference wee made to the effect of the recent currency changes on the real coat to Member Nations of their contributions. Regret wee expressed at the departure, involved in withdrawals from the Working Capital Fund, from the principles of full budgeting, and it was considered that the budget level should have been increased. The Conference re-endorsed the principle of full budgeting, which should be implemented in future, but considered that in view of the exceptional circumstances there was no practical alternative on this occasion but to approve the proposed level of $85 998 000 and to have recourse to the Working Capital Fund if and when necessary.

C. Medium-term plan

266. The Conference welcomed the Medium-Term Plan as a major advance in the medium-term planning of the Organization, as requested in Conference Resolution 9/69, and as a valuable instrument for determining the global role, policies and planning of the future activities of FAO, in line with the objectives of the Second Development Decade and FAA's competence and capacities.

267. The Conference endorsed the value of basing the Medium-Term Plan on the same general format as that of the Work of FAO and the Programme of Work ant Budget 1972-73, since this provided a concrete and practical structure for appraisal of past, present and future use of resources and an instrument for deciding priorities, but considered that some flexibility in the structure of presentation of the Medium-Term Plan might be desirable in future.

268. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's intention to improve the content and presentation of the Medium-Term Plan in its biennial revision. It requested that consideration should be given to the possibility of more sharply defining strategies and the proposed FAO activities related thereto, providing better and more selective indications of priorities, and, if possible, some variants related to different levels of resources. The Conference also stressed the need for regular evaluation of the effectiveness of both the Regular Programme and extra-budgetary activities, and recommended the development of such evaluation within the framework of the planned system of Programme, Planning and Budgeting as soon as possible.

269. As regards the projections in the Plan, the Conference considered that having regard to the problem of continuing cost increases and doubts about the availability of extra-budgetary funds at the projected rate, the projections and gradings should be regarded as trend indicators and not as financial targets.

270. The Conference stressed the need for concentration of effort and more rigorous selection of priorities. In this connexion, it noted that only one sub-programme wee expected to diminish. The Conference considered that unless many more activities were reduced or even eliminated, the limited amount of resources would be too thinly spread, and that it wee accordingly essential to select priorities rigorously both as regards the balance between Areas of Concentration and between the various sub-programmes and programme elements contained therein.

271. It was stressed that while FAO must retain the flexibility to respond to the requests of Member Nations, many activities were national priorities which were not necessarily the highest priorities for FAO action under the Regular Programme. A number of suggestions were put forward for improving the determination of priorities by the Conference. Others felt, however, that given the interests of different countries and different regions, it was unlikely that a clear consensus could be reached by the Conference and that it wee not only the duty of the Director-General, but it wee inevitable that the responsibility for proposing priorities should rest with him, subject to adjustment in the light of recommendations and suggestions by the Governing Bodies. It was also considered that the Regional Conferences had an important role in the consideration of priorities in a regional context for aggregation and rationalization in the global Conference document.

272. A large number of suggestions were made in discussion concerning the concept of Areas of Concentration, individual programmes and sub-programmes, mainly for selective strengthening of activities within Areas or within sub-programmes. The Conference requested the Director General, to take these suggestions into account in revising the Medium-Term Plan and in shaping the Draft Programme of Work and Budget for 1974-75. The Conference expressed the hope that the Director-General's initial suggestions for revision of the Medium-Term Plan would be available for review by the Fifty-Ninth Session of the Council.

273. In the field of Mobilization of Human Resources the Conference stressed in particular the importance of education and training and agrarian reform. As regards Increasing Fields, mention was made of a number of crops requiring attention and stress was laid on the rational development and use of soil and water resources. In the Area dealing with the Protein Problem, the importance of nutrition activities in general and the production and equitable distribution of protein sources were emphasized. As regards Environment and War on Waste, the importance of FAA's activities within its fields of special competence and capacity was stressed. Particular emphasis was given to the priority of control of diseases and pests and improvement of storage. Full support was given to the work under Earning and Saving of Foreign Exchange and Agricultural Development Planning in view of their importance to national planning, intra-regional cooperation, and the solution of trade problems.

274. In general and with particular reference to special problems of the environment and of employment, the Conference stressed the need to avoid duplication with the role of other Agencies but also the necessity for organization-wide consciousness of the importance of these problems to successful development in qualitative as well as quantitative terms.

275. The Conference generality endorsed the proposals in the Medium-Term Plan concerning FAA's role in the field of research.

276. As regards paragraph 188 of the Medium-Term Plan, the Conference endorsed the view that the determination of political, economic and social systems wee the responsibility of individual Member Governments. It also considered that on request the Organization should provide valuable positive advice and assistance to governments in the context of their individual circumstances and FAA's experience elsewhere.

277. With regard to Part IV of the Plan, considerable stress was laid on the need for strengthening investment and pre-investment activities in the developing countries. The Conference stressed the implications of the strategy for food and agricultural development within the strategy for the Second Development Decade, particularly as regards the overall problems of international trade.

278. In conclusion, the Conference emphasized the necessity for FAO to achieve greater impact by concentration of its efforts, and adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 6/71

Medium-Term Plan


Welcoming the measures adopted by the Director-General in compliance with Resolution 9/69.

Considering that the objectives, general guidelines, and order of priorities among the requirements of the Medium-Term Plan (C71/15), deserve the support of the Member Nations,

1. Approves the Medium-Term Plan as a general framework for the planning and programming of the activities of the Organization by the Director-General, and for review of those activities by the Council and its committees, subject to the extent to which the programmes of work and budget for the biennia 1974-75 and 1976-77 are approved in the then prevailing circumstances;

2. Requests the Council to have its committees re-examine the trend indicators for the programmes and sub-programmes and the flexibility of the various modes of action in order to arrive at an economical and effective use of the resources of the Regular Programme and the extra-budgetary funds in keeping with the recommendation to be included in the report of the Sixteenth Session of the Conference;

3. Urges Governments to limit their requests for the creation of new sub-programmes inside the coming Programme of Work and Budget for 1974-75;

4. Requests the Director-General to submit to the Committee on Agriculture, the Committee on Fisheries, the Committee on Forestry and the Committee on Commodity Problems, preliminary sub-programme proposals in a form which firstly, will permit each of these Committees to make recommendations on the priorities which should be accorded to the sub-programmes coming within their terms of reference, and secondly, will result in marked elimination of low priority activities for consideration in preparation of the 1974-75 Programme of Work and Budget;

5. Further requests the Director-General to bring together these recommendations in a form which will allow the Regional Conferences to be held during 1972 to express effective judgments on the priority recommendations;

6. Also requests the Director-General, in consultation with the Programme and Finance Committees, subsequently to present to the Council a balanced and coordinated presentation of programme priorities for inclusion in the Programme of Work for 1974-75 in a form that will permit the Council to indicate to the Director-General where readjustments should be made;

7. Also requests the Director-General after these consultations to continue to adjust objectives, priorities and needs, and to present to the Sixtieth Session of the Council and to the Seventeenth Session of the Conference a revised medium-term plan for the period 1974-79;

8. Also requests the Director-General to draw to the attention of all Member Nations the importance of the procedures envisaged in the resolution with a view to ensuring effective participation of Member Nations in the work of the four standing Committees of the Council.

(Adopted, 22 November 1971)

D. Relations and consultations with international organizations on PROGRAMME matters of common interest

Matters Arising from Discussions in the UN General Assembly. ECOSOC and ACC
Progress Report on Cooperation between FAO and UNDP
FAA's Participation in the UN Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972
UN Joint Inspection Unit
FAO Activities Related to International Agricultural Research
Relations with Intergovernmental and International Non-Governmental Organizations

Matters Arising from Discussions in the UN General Assembly. ECOSOC and ACC

279. The Conference took note of the report of the Director-General on matters arising from recent discussions in the General Assembly, ECOSOC and ACC which indicated developments on important inter-agency matters, and the manner in which the Director-General was cooperating with other organizations of the UN System.

280. In response to a request made during discussions of the Programme of Work and Budget for a statement on the present status of cooperation between FAO and UNIDO, notably in the fields of fishery and forest industries, the Conference wee informed that UNIDO, which had been consulted, would prefer to respond to the request by a joint statement of the two Organizations and that it was not possible to prepare such a statement at short notice.

281. In the absence of a UNIDO representative the Conference felt that meaningful discussions were not possible. A suggestion was made that there should be an intergovernmental committee or a request to the UN Joint Inspection Unit to look into the obstacles still hampering effective cooperation. At the same time, the Conference was reminded that in view of the complex nature of the whole industrial development process in which UNIDO was involved, it would be desirable to have a Joint statement prepared before considering any other action.

282. The Conference accordingly requested the Director-General to arrange for the preparation of a joint statement in cooperation with the Executive Director of UNIDO on the subject in time for submission to the Programme Committee at its Spring 1972 Session and, subsequently, to the Fifty-Ninth Session of the Council. The statement should indicate the present status of the working of the Agreement setting out guidelines for cooperation between FAO and UNIDO in the field of industrial development and identify problem areas in which respective responsibilities of the two Organizations still required clearer definition. The statement should also indicate whether it would be helpful to have the relationship between the two organizations reviewed by the Joint Inspection Unit or perhaps by an intergovernmental committee. In this regard, the Conference recalled the earlier request made at its Fifteenth Session urging that outstanding issues, notably in respect of an integrated approach to forestry and forest management and the production, processing and marketing of forest products, be resolved expeditiously in a pragmatic manner, having regard to the considerable expertise built up over many years by FAO in this field.

283. The Conference considered the special report on the ''Green Revolution'' which provided a mutually acceptable framework for inter-agency cooperation to further the introduction and extension of the application of new varieties of high-yielding food crops and the complex range of measures required to support it. The Conference recalled its discussions on the substantive aspects of the paper when it considered the Director-General's proposals for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1972-73 and his Medium-Term Plan, and the importance which it attached to the suggestions made to sustain and promote the Green Revolution.

284. The Conference noted the continuing nature of the action on this subject in cooperation with other organizations and taking into account the suggestions it had made. It further endorsed the proposal that the report on the Green Revolution be a major item for discussion at the 1972 FAO Regional Conferences, especially since the spread of the new technology to new areas and its adaptation to other crops would have to be determined within the context of specific and varying local situations and needs.

285. The Conference also considered a document on the production and use of edible protein, which contained relevant chapters of the Strategy Statement on Action to Avert the Protein Crisis in the Developing Countries, prepared by a panel of experts and submitted by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Fifty-First Session of ECOSOC.

286. The Conference also heard a statement by Professor Bo Vahlquist, a member of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System (PAG) who, in accordance with a recommendation contained in ECOSOC Resolution 1640 (LI), had been invited by the Director-General to participate in the discussions. Professor Vahlquist expressed appreciation of the positive response of FAO to the ECOSOC resolution mentioned, and outlined the origins and activities of PAG with an indication of the manner in which it would assist the members of the UN System in solving the problem of malnutrition. In paying tribute to FAO's contribution to progress in the protein field, he stressed the need for continued and expanded cooperation among the agencies of the UN System, with a view to solving increasingly urgent problems such as those of the pre-school child.

287. The Conference attached great importance to an intensification of the measures necessary to solve protein malnutrition, and in this connexion recalled the suggestions made in the course of the discussions of the Programme of Work and Budget and the Medium-Term Plan.

288. The Conference was also informed of the Director-General's proposal that the problem of closing the protein gap should be the subject of another major item for discussion at the 1972 FAO Regional Conferences. This would bring the subject, which was of basic importance to social and economic progress, more forcibly to the attention of national planning officials at the highest level.

289. The Conference agreed that the FAO Council should undertake a comprehensive review every year of the contributions being made by the FAO towards a solution of the malnutrition problem, within the framework of certain broad guidelines.

290. The Conference then adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 7/71

Increasing the Production and Use of Edible Proteins


Recognizing FAO's leading role and constitutional responsibility in raising levels of nutrition and standards of living of the populations of the world,

Recalling Resolution 2/69 of its Fifteenth Session on closing the protein gap,

Noting with satisfaction the further developments in various other intergovernmental bodies designed to intensify measures in this important sector and notably the recent ECOSOC Resolution 1640 (LI) on edible protein,

Noting in particular the substantive chapters of the report of the Expert Panel on ''Action to Avert the Protein Crisis in the Developing Countries'', submitted by the Secretary-General to the Fifty-First Session of ECOSOC,

Noting further the close correlation between these substantive recommendations and the broad lines of action of FAO envisaged in its Programme of Work for 1972-73, in the Medium-Term Plan, and the Director-General's statement of intent to intensify further FAA's work, notably in fields of nutrition surveys, semi-conventional proteins and special feeding programmes,

Welcoming the action taken by the Director-General in cooperation with others, in promoting the expansion of PAG to serve the UN System as a whole, and in accordingly having it renamed the "Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System",

Noting with satisfaction the recent decision of the IBRD to become a sponsor of the PAG, which also reflects its interest in including action to improve levels of nutrition in its future programme,

Recalling finally the importance given to the need for raising further the levels of nutrition, food production (particularly protein foods) and food utilization in the goals of the Second Development Decade,

1. Decides that the FAO Council should undertake a comprehensive review every year of the progress being made by the Organization, in its contribution within the overall UN effort, to solve the protein problem and to provide it with appropriate recommendations;

2. Invites the Council for this purpose to consider setting up a body of seven members to review the work of the Organization in this field;

3. Commends to the Council the following draft statement of recommendations for consideration:


1. General Approach

(a) The solution of the protein problem should be sought as part of the answer to the malnutrition problem as a whole, in the context of economic and social development.

(b) The prime responsibility rests with the government of the country suffering from malnutrition, and should be expressed in the formulation of a national food and nutrition policy as part of planned development.

(c) The long-term solution to protein/calorie malnutrition will be found in the increase in purchasing power of the populations affected, especially those in the lower income groups, supported by effective programmes for nutrition education and other long-term action.

(d) To improve the present situation without delay, immediate action is required on the part of governments to initiate and implement special programmes directed to improving the protein/calorie nutrition of vulnerable groups of the population: namely, expectant and nursing mothers, infants, preschool children and school children.

2. Long-Term Activities

(a) To provide a firm basis for formulating food and nutrition policies, food consumption and household budgetary surveys designed to relate existing consumption patterns to the economic status of the household and to standards of nutrition are necessary.

(b) At national level increased production of foodstuffs, particularly protein foods, to meet energy requirements and needs for protein, minerals and vitamins is urgently needed to improve existing standards of nutrition and to provide for population increase.

(c) Government planners should be trained in food policy and food economics.

(d) To increase purchasing power and to achieve redistribution of income every effort must be made to raise levels of employment, this leading to better levels of nutrition and augmented production capacity.

(e) To improve the use of available food, nutrition education of the general public and nutrition training for agricultural personnel and school teachers is of mayor importance.

3. Short-Term Activities

(a) The most important way to reach the low income groups in developing countries requiring supplementary feeding is through feeding programmes using both conventional foods and semi-conventional foods as appropriate. These feeding programmes must be designed and directed specifically to the particular groups concerned. FAO should assist governments in setting up such programmes using local foodstuffs and foods contributed by the World Food Programme and UNICEF.

(b) To reach the vulnerable groups themselves it is necessary to prepare foods specially formulated so that energy, protein minerals and vitamins are concentrated into a bulk which can be consumed to meet nutritional requirements. Such foods should be prepared on a commercial basis from locally available raw materials, possibly with initial assistance from WFP.

(c) Governments, having responsibility for improving nutritional status, can help in the commercialization of formulated protein foods by purchasing them for inclusion in nationally supported feeding programmes conducted through ministries of health, labour and social welfare and departments of education in school feeding programmes.

(d) With the advice of the Protein Advisory Group, means to incorporate new and unconventional sources of food acceptable to the population needing them should be studied and implemented where possible. Single-cell protein and amino acid fortification are examples.

(e) Programmes need to be developed to prevent waste of foodstuffs through control of diseases in plants and animals; through improved storage, processing, distribution and marketing; and by the development of food legislation and food quality control.

(f) Since most of the food distributed by WFP goes to recipients in most need of improved nutrition, the enlargement of its resources, especially in protein foods, will make a substantial contribution to reducing malnutrition.

4. Action by FAO

FAA's activities, taking into account the report of the Expert Panel, will place particular emphasis on the following points:

- assistance to Member Governments in the development of food policies and plans by conducting food consumption and household budgetary surveys;

- the organization of seminars or short courses in food policy and food economics for government planning staff;

- assistance in stepping up the production, processing and distribution of conventional high-protein food stuffs (legumes, meat, milk, fish and cereals of high-protein quality);

- help to countries in the formulation, commercialization and promotion of protein-rich foods for the vulnerable groups;

- support for government feeding programmes for school children, workers and others at risk of malnutrition;

- assistance in nutrition education and the best use of family resources through such programmes as Planning for Better Family Living;

- urgent attention to the design and application of measures to increase awareness of the problem and of its far reaching consequences on the well-being of present and future generations in all countries;

- intensification of cooperation with other members of the UN System, especially the financing organizations, namely UNDP, UNICEF, IBRD and WFP and possible bilateral sources of assistance in order to increase the resources necessary for implementing practical programmes of action.

(Adopted, 22 November 1971)

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