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Trinidad and Tobago

Vegetation description

Mangroves are found along most of the coastline of the island of Trinidad, and include Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora harrisonii, Rhizophora racemosa, Avicennia germinans, Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. The most widespread is Rhizophora mangle. R. harrisonii and R. racemosa are also very common. The marsh forest includes the Calophyllum-Palmae associations.

Beard, J.S. 1946. The natural vegetation of Trinidad. Clarendon Press. Oxford, Great Britain, 152 pp.
2001. Trinidad mangroves

National level mangrove area estimates







5 400

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.


Map analysis. Scale 1:150 000.


4 000

FAO, UNEP. 1981. Los Recursos Forestales de la America Tropical. Proyecto de Evaluación de los Recursos Forestales Tropicales (en el marco de SINUVIMA). FAO, UNEP, Rome 349 pp.


Estimation and updating based on: Forestry Division, MInistry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, nd. Progress Report 1966-1972. Prepared for the 10th Commonwealth Forestry Conference- Port of Spain; Giacottino, J.C. 1975. Trinidad and Tobago, étude géographique. Thèse de doctorat d'Etat - Université de Bordeaux III. Talence France.


9 000

Snedaker, S.C. 1991. Personal communication.


Cited in: Fisher, P and Spalding, M.D. 1993. Protected areas with mangrove habitat. Draft Report World Conservation Centre, Cambridge, UK. 60 pp. The “Year” is the year of the communication.


7 150

Bacon P.R. 1993. Mangroves in the Lesser Antilles, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. In: Lacerda L.D. 1993. Conservation and sustainable utilization of mangrove forests in Latin America and Africa regions, Part I - Latin America Mangrove Ecosystems Technical Reports vol.2 ITTO/ISME Project PD114/90. p. 155 210


Ground survey.

Trends in mangrove area extent over time

The estimates for 1980, 1990 and 2000 have been calculated applying the FRA 1990 (FAO, 1995) annual forest cover change rate for 1980-1990 (-2.6 percent) and the FRA 2000 (FAO, 2001) annual forest cover change rate for 1990-2000 (-0.8 percent) to the most recent, reliable figure.

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