AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON URBAN FORESTRY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
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Rome, 1995 © FAO
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INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY
Main List by Reference Number
With growing awareness of the social and environmental problems associated with rapid and uncontrolled urbanization in many parts of the developing world, ensuring the provision of basic human needs to city dwellers is likely to become a focal development issue for many years to come. With current demographic shifts, many of yesterday's rural poor are becoming today's urban poor. Among other things, they require fuelwood, low cost construction materials and other wood products, easily accessible and affordable foods, and an adequate supply of clean water for drinking and for household use. There is a need to ensure not only that these people's demands for such products are met, but also that settlement patterns and land use changes do not result in environmental problems that affect the urban population at large. In addition to these goods and services, urban forestry provides amenity, recreational opportunities and other benefits for improved quality of life.
The FAO Forestry Department, until now focused almost exclusively on rural forestry issues, recently launched a programme in urban and peri-urban forestry. The programme has concentrated initially on examining the potential role of urban forestry in developing countries, on increasing awareness of the issue, and on improving documentation and accessibility of information on the subject. An issue of UNASYLVA, FAO's forestry journal, was published on the topic in early 1993, and the document, “The Potential of Urban Forestry in Developing Countries: A Concept Paper”, was released in early 1994. A number of case studies on urban and peri-urban forestry currently are being written to document experiences and approaches in the various regions of the world.
This annotated bibliography has been compiled to address the lack of easily accessible information on urban and peri-urban forestry in tropical and developing countries. Such bibliographies exist for temperate, industrialized countries, but as far as we are aware, this is the first one that focuses on developing countries. We hope that it will prove to be a useful reference and that it will also help to raise awareness of this increasingly important field.
J. P. Lanly
Forest Resources Division
We are grateful to the large number of people who made the publication of this bibliography possible. Those mainly responsible for preparing annotations were Carla Koppell and Lee Ann Jackson, who worked as consultants to FAO, and Guido Kuckelmeister, who graciously contributed a number of annotations which he had written in an independent effort. Ms. E. Jane Carter, Ms. Sharon Murray, Mr. Jack Stevens, and Ms. Jean Albrecht provided us with a number of useful references. We are especially grateful to the Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI) for allowing FAO to include in the bibliography a number of CABI abstracts, for which it is copyright holder. We thank Mr. C.P. Ogbourne of CABI and Mr. K. Richmond of FAO for arranging this agreement.
We are most appreciative of the considerable effort and most able assistance of Mr. Stephen Swan who compiled and edited the annotated bibliography.
The preparation of the bibliography involved various FAO units and was carried out under the overall coordination and supervision of Ms. Susan Braatz, Land Use and Agroforestry Officer of the FAO Forestry Resources Division. The list of FAO staff members who contributed to the work is long. Mr. E. Samaha, Mr. G. Sterigiou and many other staff of the Library and Documentation Systems Division assisted the compiler with AGRIS, ISIS and background information; Mrs. Franca Monti and Ms. Annalisa Casponi of the FAO Forestry Library Service Point provided invaluable and unstinting assistance in locating references; and Ms. Tiiu Jaansoo-Boudreau and Ms. Stephanie Stella-Ayazi of FAO's David Lubin Memorial Library assisted with compact-disk and modem downloadings. Messrs. G. Pace and S. Bucciarelli of FAO's Computer Services Centre assisted in the use of the ISIS computer software programme, including import and export of the text files and preparation of the indexes. Mr. Bucciarelli provided his expertise and considerable time in helping with these tasks.
Compilation of the Bibliography
The bibliography was compiled from references collected and annotated by the FAO Forestry Department and from two data bases: the TREE data base of the Centre for Agricultural and Biosciences International (CABI); and AGRIS, the International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology, compiled by FAO. TREE and AGRIS were searched using the following keywords: urban, peri-urban, park, wildlife, recreation, fuelwood, town, city and any words with these as prefixes. The results were downloaded to disk text files. As all three sources had different presentation formats and keyword groupings, they had to be converted to a standardized format to make the compilation of the bibliography possible. The material was then screened manually in WordPerfect to select relevant references. Those in English, French or Spanish (the main United Nations languages) which were most relevant were retained (along with a few exceptionally in other languages). Each reference indicates the original language and other language(s) in which summaries are available. References related directly to urban and peri-urban forestry in developing and tropical countries have been included in the bibliography, along with more general references universally relevant irrespective of the country. The results of the screening were imported as text files into a specialized data base programme called Micro CDS/ISIS® which was designed by UNESCO for bibliographic use. Various indexes were then generated to facilitate use of the bibliography.
Each reference has been allocated an index number related only to the order in which the information was imported into the data base (and not related to the author/s). References are printed sequentially by this index number. References extracted from AGRIS and CABI sources have accession numbers and cross-references to other sources within AGRIS or CABI. This information, included in the bibliographic reference, will be useful where the reader has access to either CABI and/or AGRIS either on compact- disk, by modem or as written material.
The way to use the bibliography is through the index section. There are four indexes which are useful in the location of reference material of interest:
Keywords index. Keywords for all the references are listed in this index. The index enables the user to locate references on a particular subject.
Geographic index. The cities/towns, countries and continents/regions pertaining to the references are indicated, enabling the user to search geographically for places of particular interest.
Author or Corporate Author index is useful in locating material by particular authors.
Conference index. There are many conferences, seminars and symposia for which proceedings have been published. They represent useful sources of information. An index has been generated of those which we feel are most relevant in this rapidly growing field of interest. They are listed in order of the date of publication. When the list of contributing authors and their works is available, these references are also indexed separately in the bibliography under the author(s).
Comments Invited for Future Editions
The reader is asked to be tolerant of the formatting differences between references in this bibliography which occur as a result of formatting differences between the various sources used to compile the bibliography. This edition is a first attempt at gathering together useful references. We recognize, however, that it most certainly can be improved and that important sources of information not included in the AGRIS or CABI data bases may have been missed. We would welcome comments on the bibliography and suggestions of additional references which the user feels would contribute to the usefulness of future editions of the bibliography.