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Guidelines on logging practices for the hill forest of peninsular Malaysia

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Overview of forestry in peninsular Malaysia
3.0 Overview of environmental management in peninsular Malaysia
4.0 Forest harvesting and management in peninsular Malaysia
5.0 Logging guidelines and practices
6.0 Conclusion
7.0 Recommendations

Capt. Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Faculty of Forestry
University Pertanian Malaysia
Serdang, Selangor

Nik Mohammad Shah Nik Mustafa
Forestry Department Headquarters Peninsular Malaysia
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
Kuala Lumpur


There has been a growing concern among policy makers, forest industrialist, loggers that at least one-third of the damage to soil and vegetation caused by selective logging in the hill forest of Peninsular Malaysia can be reduced by careful execution of well-planned logging operations. All that is required is to enforce and implement into practice what has already been so far rarely implemented. This paper attempts to provide a guideline on logging practices with minimal environmental disturbance for the hill forest operations in Peninsular Malaysia.

1.0 Introduction

Any form of timber removal will involve construction of access roads and tracks. The cheapest alternative may well be to follow the current practice of using tractors and winch-lorries as much as possible and of pushing the roads in the direction need without attention to gradients and the stability of roadcuts. In certain areas where landslides occur after logging operation has ceased such a policy is likely to lead to further mass movements and the creation of devegetated, bare landslip areas which will supply sediment and nutrients directly to downstream rivers. Attention must therefore be given to forest harvesting through a reduced impact strategy. Such a strategy will require major attention to a model code of forest practices in the tropical hill forest, particularly to road alignments and drainage and will necessitate erosion control measures once logging has ceased.

2.0 Overview of forestry in peninsular Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia is a federation of states and Malaysia practices parliamentary democracy. Although forestry is a state matter, Article 94 of the constitution enables the federal government to establish departments or ministries with respect to national concerns on forestry matters. The Federal Department of Forestry is within the Ministry for Primary Industries, a ministry which is also responsible for mining and agriculture. The departmental role is largely advisory, covering forestry planning, research technical developments, and training.

At the state level, the Forestry Department is responsible for administrating and regulating forest exploitation, collection of revenue, managing forest resources, and planning and coordinating the development of wood-based industries with the help from the district forest offices who carry out these functions. The Department currently has 5687 staff, of whom 5194 (91%) are in managerial professional technical, and field levels.

The forest management system and forest-related legislation were introduced and established during the colonial period. Foresters undertook research and promotion of reserve forest areas for watershed, hill-land protection and sustained production. In 1901 when the Forestry Department was created systematic forest reservation programmes were introduced. About 80 per cent of Peninsular Malaysia was under forest in 1935 but when a resource survey was conducted in 1966, it was found to be about 70% (Ooi, 1976). At the end of 1990, the total forested land in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated at 6.17 million hectares or 46.9 per cent of the total land area. The major cause of forest loss is land development for rubber and oil palm but human intervention due to logging has had a great impact on the country's forests.

Recognizing its crucial role in the conservation of soils, water, wildlife and the environment, 4.71 million hectares has been identified as the Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) to be managed under sustained yield. Within the PFE are three major classifications: forest reserve; stateland forest; and wildlife and other reserves. The forest classification is as shown in Table 1. The forest reserve is split into 'productive', that is open to logging, and 'protective', which should remain intact as it encompasses vital water catchment areas or steep slopes (Figure 1).

The Malaysian constitution has certain provisions for forests and forestry. The federal government may introduce legislation relating to these matters for the purposes of ensuring uniformity of law and policy between the states. However, it can only be enforced after being accepted by the state legislatures. The states own and have control over their forests, gazzetation of reserves, issuing of logging permits, collection of royalties and so on. The federal responsibility is limited to research providing services, advice, and training (Salleh 1983). The National Forestry Council (NFC) which was placed recently under the National Land Council (NLC) established in 1971 is empowered under the Constitution to formulate national policy. The NFC serves as a forum for the federal and the state governments to discuss and resolve common problems and issues relating to forestry policy, administration and management. AU decisions of the INFC have to be endorsed by the NLC with the states having responsibility for implementation.

The development of forest policy began in the 1930s when a policy of administrative decentralization was adopted that placed mining, agriculture and forestry under individual state control. In 1952 the federal government released the Interim Forest Policy Statement which recommended 25 per cent of the land area for sustained timber production (Wyatt-Smith and Vincent 1962). It was accepted but not adopted by the states. Forest control continued to rest with the states. Then in 1970 the Land Capability Classification (LCC) was formulated but was heavily biased in favour of agriculture. Most of the Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) was categorized under Class IV and Class V of the LCC.

Table 1. Forest resources of Peninsular Malaysia - 1990 (Source: Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia 1992).

Area classification

million ha

Land area


Permanent Forest Estate








National Parks & Wildlife


Stateland Forests


Figure I. Permanent forest estate of Peninsular Malaysia, 1990. (Source: Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia 1992).

The National Forest Policy for Peninsular Malaysia was endorsed in 1978 and the National Forestry Act (Laws of Malaysia, Act 313) was then proclaimed in 1984 to provide for the administration, management and conservation of forests and forestry development within the states. This strengthened the co-operation and understanding between the federal and state governments in forestry matters. Most of the states have already gazetted the Act as the State Forest Enactment and Rules and these were made uniform to streamline forest administration, planning and management. The uniformization helps to avoid confusion among forest users between the states. Under the present policy, the strategies are to remove pressure from remaining primary forests while meeting domestic demand as mentioned by Aiken and Leigh (1992), and they include:

i) establishing compensatory plantations of fast growing species in damaged, degraded or unproductive forest areas;

ii) increasing forest production by silvicultural management through better silviculture practices;

iii) promoting local utilization of lesser-known species to increase gain per unit area of forest;

iv) altering government policies on logging from profits maximization by rapid exploitation;

v) minimizing the export of unfinished products by restricting quotas and levies.

The implementation of these policies and strategies requires a degree of federal control over the forestry practices of the individual states, and a high level of cooperation and coordination between state forestry departments, to ensure that the target levels of forestry operations are adhered to.

3.0 Overview of environmental management in peninsular Malaysia

There have been several responses to the widening issues of environmental problems in Malaysia: the federal government has become more active in environmental affairs; several non governmental organizations (NGOS) have struggled to keep environmental issues on the government's policy agenda; there has also been widespread public interest on land-use disputes with much media coverage. The government has played a more active role and given greater attention to environmental affairs with the establishment of the Department of Environment (DOE) within the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. The function is to stress preventive rather than curative environmental measures and gives attention to EIA procedures.

Peninsular Malaysia has sought solutions to environmental degradation through legislation and environmental law that affects forests and conservation. The legislation includes the 1972 Protection of Wildlife Act (Act No. 76), the 1974 Environmental Quality Act (Act No. 127), the 1980 National Parks Act (Act No. 226) and the 1984 National Forestry Act (Act No. 313). However, forests and forest conservation were given less attention. In these areas, efforts have not been easy due to conflicting powers between ministries and agencies, and the states' individual interests which hampered the, implementation of nation-wide resource conservation and management strategies.

3.1 Environmental Issues

Environmental groups have over the last twenty years become increasingly vocal and active in bringing the pressing need for action on environmental conservation to the attention of the public and pressuring -government both directly, and indirectly to change its policy and actions. The emergence of the NGOs in the late 1960s has reflected the growing environmental awareness in Malaysia. There are three NGOs that were notably active in the country; the Malayan Nature Society (MNS), Sahabat Alam Malaysia (Friends of the Earth, Malaysia) or SAM and the Consumers' Association of Penang (CAP). Their activities include, among others, the call for rational conservation policies, the creation of a parks and reserves network, releasing press statements on environmental issues, and mobilizing public opposition to further forest destruction (Woon and Lim, 1990).

In 1974, the MNS produced a 'Blueprint for Conservation in Peninsular Malaysia' in which various categories of sites worthy of protection and conservation were identified, including national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. In 1977, The MNS launched a campaign to save Endau-Rompin when logging failed to cease in the core area of the proposed national park. Creation of the 202 343 ha park was agreed in 1972-73 between the federal and state government of Pahang and Johore with logging restricted to the extensive buffer zone. When the Pahang government approved 12 140 ha of the core area for a logging concession, it created a major environmental controversy and was resolved when logging in the disputed area came to a halt in 1978 (Flynn, 1980). Another campaign was against the Tembeling Dam project in Taman Negara. In 1982, the Malayan Nature Society reported on the conservation status of Malaysian mammals and birds (Kiew and Davison 1982), and reported that species with populations of less than 1000 were considered endangered. A total of 61 species of mammals and 16 species of birds were listed.

SAM is seen as an education and action-oriented environment group which has had influence in creating greater environmental awareness in Malaysian society. It is outspoken in criticizing government policy and played an important role in the International Rainforest Campaign organized by Friends of the Earth in Britain. CAP has been active in raising environmental awareness on-development issues from a broad consumer perspective. Other groups, such as the Environmental Protection Society of Malaysia also campaign for the ending of logging in the Endau-Rompin area. Its platform is to ensure that development involving environmental change causes minimal long-term damage. The World Wide Fund Malaysia (WWFM) functions as a fund-raising organization with emphasis on promoting conservation of animal species through awareness of the fact that species conservation is impossible without habitat conservation.

Another big issue concerned logging activity in Sarawak in 1987 and involved the native Penan. Due to the adverse international publicity, the federal government invited the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) to carry out a study of forest management in Sarawak. The report by the ITTO mission noted that sustainable forest management had been achieved but hill dipterocarp forests were being overcut inadequate catchment management resulted in river siltation there were insufficient forestry staff for monitoring and logging supervision, a lack of trained loggers, and that the existing totally protected areas were insufficient for habitat protection and biological diversity conservation. Logging practices result in widespread environmental disruption and excessive damage to residual trees, and were not sustainable (Cross, 1990).

Media interest in the environment covers a wide range of environmental topics such as news, information, weekly feature articles and editorial articles. The impact of pressure groups and the media in raising environmental consciousness among the Malaysian people had a positive response from the government. Consultations and meetings were frequently held between NGOs and the Environment Minister to confront environmental issues together. The Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in October 1989 expressed deep concern about environment deterioration. Under the Langkawi Declaration on the environment, non-sustainable forestry practice was identified as one factor that contributes to the degradation of the environment. Actions were recommended to promote afforestation sustainable forest management according to ITTO guidelines and FAO Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) principles, activities related to the conservation of biological diversity and genetic resources, and conservation of virgin forest areas and natural habitats (DOE, 1989).

3.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Legislation enabling the preparation of EIAs was introduced (as an amendment to the Environmental Quality Act 1974) in 1986 (Act A636, 1985). The Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 1987 came into effect on 1 April 1988. Under the Act EIAs are prescribed for activities that significantly affect forests. According to the Department of Environment, Malaysia (DOE), Environmental Impact Assessments are efforts:

"... to identify, predict, evaluate and communicate information about the impacts on the environment of a proposed project and to detail out the mitigating measures prior to project approval and implementation."

The objective of an EIA is to unravel the complex linkages in an ecosystem and see how a proposed development would affect them. It may then be necessary to modify the plans to reduce or eliminate undesirable consequences. It is essentially a planning tool for environmental problems due to an action. Information gathered from EIA can help decision makers to choose alternatives or additional mitigation measures beyond standard practices, so as to reduce ad-verse environmental impacts to levels of insignificance. EIA procedures in Peninsular Malaysia comprise preliminary assessment detailed assessment and review. The reviewing committee seldom involves people with forestry expertise even when evaluating forestry projects. The evaluation process for forest harvesting activities against various environmental parameters that may be affected is as in Appendix 3. EIA are now usually required before funds are released for projects that will necessitate alterations of forests. Unfortunately, sometimes the findings are not utilized.

4.0 Forest harvesting and management in peninsular Malaysia

Presently, forest harvesting remains a major economic activity in the country. Log production contributes about RM1.8 billion annually to the revenue of state governments. However forest harvesting activities are strictly controlled.

Areas opened for harvesting annually in the Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) are identified in advance and demarcated into various felling blocks based on annual felling coupe. Each concession or forest management unit is given only one coupe to harvest each year. The size of one coupe rarely exceeds 4 000 hectares. Penalties are imposed for non-compliance with the guidelines.

In addition to harvesting in the PFE, Stateland Forest earmarked for conservation to other uses including housing, infrastructure, agriculture, industrialization and mining are also opened for logging.

The rate of forest harvesting in Malaysia has shown a considerable decrease in the last few years. In Peninsular Malaysia, the annual coupe has been scaled down from 71 200 hectares under the Fifth Malaysia Plan (1986-1990) to 52250 hectares per annum under the Sixth Malaysia Plan (1991-1995). This is to ensure sustainable forest management as well as a steady supply of logs to the timber processing mills and downstream industries in the long term. Meanwhile environmental impacts assessment are also being undertaken for the conversion of the forest areas exceeding 500 hectares for development purposes.

The ultimate goal in sound forest management is that the allowable cut will stabilize at the "sustainable yield" level whereby the annual net forest increment is equal to the annual yield. Over the years, ecologically and environmentally-sound forest conservation and management practices have been developed to ensure forest renewal and sustained yield. The development of harvesting and management practices for sustained yield forestry in Peninsular Malaysia can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Overview of Logging Practices and Forest Management in Peninsular Malaysia.


Management concept

Logging method

Logging equipment

Main projects

before 1900

uncontrolled selective logging

manual felling and transport

axe, handsaw

individual logging


Departmental Improvement Felling

manual felling and transport

axe, handsaw

gutta perca rubber estates


Regeneration Improvement Felling (RIF)

manual felling, animal transport

axe, handsaw

government forest and firewood


Malayan Uniform System (MUS)

manual felling, 'san tai wong'

axe, chainsaw, tractors, crawlers,

logging concession exploitation

after 1978

Selective Management System (SMS)

manual felling, mechanized transport

powersaw, skidders, bulldozers, trucks

forest plantation, timber complexes

The development shows three silvicultural systems that were known to contribute to the management of the forest in Peninsular Malaysia. The Regeneration Improvement Felling System (RIFS) was practiced before the Japanese occupation but was then replaced by the Malayan Uniform System (MUS) until 1980, when the Selective Management System (SMS) became popular after its introduction in 1977 (Tang, 1987, Chin, 1989; Whitmore, 1990). RIF is a polycyclic logging system where prior to felling, unwanted species are cut or girdled to promote the regeneration of desired species. Relatively few trees are felled and the system proved extremely successful in providing regenerated forests (Ismail 1966).

The latest system used has caused some confusion because Selective Management System, despite the word 'selective' is not solely restricted to selection felling, but means that the silvicultural system is selected based on a pre-felling inventory. The system so chosen may be the Malayan Uniform System the Selection System, or clear felling and planting.

5.0 Logging guidelines and practices

5.1 Forest Management System

* The choice of forest management system to be used must take into account the requirements of biological diversity conservation. Selective systems will be more compatible with conservation objectives than clear-felling or uniform systems.

* Forest permanently allocated for sustained yield selective timber extraction can make excellent environmental protection areas, providing management standards are high.

* Patches of undisturbed forest must be left covering at least 5% of the logged area. These areas must be located so as to cover representative areas of all the forest types.

* Forest management should be based on techniques to promote natural regeneration of desirable timber species. Land must remain in forest use after the timber harvest to ensure regeneration of species.

* Needs of wildlife should be considered in consultation with the Wildlife Department and allocating at least half of the area as usable for wildlife at all times. Major habits and salt licks must be protected by creating buffer zones.

* Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should be prepared if proposed harvesting of an area is considered to have significant impacts on the environment. The EIA procedures should be as outlined by the Department of Environment (DOE).

5.2 Forest Operation Plan (FOP)

5.2.1 Forest Engineering Plan (FEP)

* Logging should be undertaken according to a FEP which protects the existing stream channels as far as possible. This will minimize the opportunity for sediment to be washed into channels. Approach to the areas to be logged should be made by access from upslope, with trees being removed upslope.

5.2.2 Tree Harvesting Plan (THP)

* A THP is to be prepared by the loggers prior to harvesting operations which specifies the location, harvesting machinery, forest roads, skid trails, landings, stream crossing, buffer zones and compartment boundaries in accordance with the plan format issued by the Forestry Department.

* Buffer zones must be clearly demarcated and should not be less than 20m width on each site of water course. Strictly no logging is permitted in buffer strips.

* Plan felling and extraction should minimize the number of stream crossings. Logging in watershed areas needs to follow the specifications issued by the Forestry Department (Logging Guidelines in Watersheds 1988).

* Non-commercial timber species, relic trees and palms should be specially protected during logging operations and should not be eliminated by post-logging silvicultural practices to maintain biological cycles.

* Harvesting operations must not impair the ability of the forest to maintain or re-establish its natural structure and species composition. In addition, harvesting operations must not impair the soil and water conservation functions of the forest.

* Harvesting methods must ensure that adequate regeneration is induced or adequately released to enhance the value of the forest.

* Adherence to the cutting regimes imposed is essential and forest removal should be limited to less than 40% of the standing volume or approximately 30 m3/ha, whichever is lower.

* All workers and operators must be well trained, qualified and registered with the Forestry Department. Main operators need to have certificates from the government logging schools.

5.3 Pre-Logging Planning

* All climbers more than 2 cm diameter should be cut at least 3-6 months prior to logging. There should be no climber cutting in riparian reserves, stream or roadside buffers.

* Planning and alignment of skid trails should be directed away from streams and located on ridges. Uphill skidding disperses skid trail run-off and should be encouraged, whilst downhill skid-ding if necessary must minimize earth works and facilitate drainage.

* Skid trails design should minimize skidding distance to only 50 m, avoiding steep slopes and stream crossing.

* Apart from the delineation of sensitive areas, the logging contract may also need to include the prohibition of log extraction during very wet periods to minimise the risk of soil rutting and compaction.

* There is a need to combine the information on the positions of the trees to be harvested with the characteristics of the terrain to derive the most economical, yet least damaging extraction technique. This process may be facilitated by integrating remotely sensed data and the use of a Geographical Information System.

* The various conditions specified in the agreement should be monitored and supervised by the state Forestry Department. Provision for penalties must be implemented where conditions are not met.

* Log landing should be located in such a way as to minimise contribution of runoff and sediment to streams. They may need to be 'ripped' after completion of the operation to promote their recolonisation.

5.4 Inventory and Tree Marking

* Pre-Felling inventory is to be carried out according to the procedures laid done by the Forestry Department (Fieldwork Inventory Before Felling, 1986). Inventory should be at 10% intensity using systematic line plots.

* Inventory should proceed at least 6-12 months before logging. All trees of 15 cm dbh and greater only within the inventory plots need to be measured.

* Tree marking operations must be done systematically and direction recorded. Trees to be felled must be tagged and carry the Forest Department marking numbers, and seed trees marked for retention should all be shown in the stock map.

* Trees can be marked for felling on slopes > 35° if the extraction method does not involve skidders and felling is done across the slope.

5.5 Road Construction and Skidding

* All road should be carefully designed according to the proposals of The Forestry Department (Forest Road Specification 1988) with cross drains at intervals.

* The roads should not have long unbroken stretches running downslope.

* Cross drains should be constructed on roads and skid trails at a spacing of 30m or less with a minimum slope angle of 30°. It should be designed to disperse, rather than concentrate, runoff.

* Any culverts must be carefully designed to avoid scour on their down-slope sides.

* Where road cut are made, they should be at an angle of less than 20° which will give a stable slope and not lead to further sliding or slipping.

* Where possible, roads should be constructed against the sunlight in order to speed up the drying process of road surface after a heavy downpour.

* Any haulage tracks made to remove the trees should be blocked off by bulldozing simple earth barriers across the roads at intervals. On slopes up to 30° one barrier every 20 m should be sufficient.

* One steeper slopes barriers should be at every 15 m. The earth barriers should be covered with loose plant debris, such as bark on branches with foliage to protect then against raindrop splash erosion.

* Road gradient should be less than 10° and the road density (including skid roads) should be minimized to not more than 6% of working area.

* The gradient of skid trails should not exceed 20° except for short skidding. Blading is not permitted for skid trail construction on < 15° slope.

* Skidding should not occur on slopes > 35°. Tractors should be used on a reverse down trail operation to avoid soil disturbance and trees damage.

* Landings (matau) are to be located on ridge or widened road areas, with slope of 2°-3°, size < 0.2 ha and minimum in number. The appropriate areal extent of landing should not be more than 4% of working areas.

* The compacted surface of any haulage tracks and abandoned roads should be broken up to encourage any runoff to infiltrate rather than run over the ground surface.

5.6 Logging Machines

* It is unrealistic to expert logging companies to revert the original damage-limiting methods of manual or animal-based timber extraction, but it is certainly possible to demand the minimum use of heavy equipment.

* Where soils are clavey or wet smaller machines should be used to reduce damage caused through destruction of vegetation and compaction of surfaces.

* Machinery should be limited at any one time an the areas worked. The ratio is 1:1:2 chainsaw, crawler tractors and skidders for a minimum working area.

* If alternatives like skyline technique are considered uneconomical and the use of wheeled or tracked vehicle unavoidable, then at least overall machine size should be restricted where possible. In addition, the use of winch rope system should be encourage to avoid heavy machine having to gain access to every individual log. Logs may then be winched uphill (preferably with the leading end lifted off the ground to prevent it from ploughing into the soil) by the machine on the ridge.

* Combined haulage of several logs at the same time is encourage to reduce the number of vehicle passes in moderately flat terrain.

* In steeper terrain, use of tracked rather than rubber-tyred vehicle is preferred. The benefit of reduced type pressure should be considered to reduce 'rutting' and compaction of road surface.

5.7 Felling

* Wherever possible, felling should be in the direction of the nearest skid track which reduce the short distance transportation.

* All marked trees to be felled within 10° of felling direction. Damage trees >20 cm dbh should be cross-cut and the pieces removed.

* Smaller trees should be felled first to avoid damage from big trees. Felling cut to be as close as possible to the ground to avoid timber wastage.

* Felled timber should be transported as soon as possible to avoid damage and obstruction to skidding operations.

* No felling should be permitted during rainy season. There should be no logging on forested area above 1000 m elevation unless approved by the EIA committee.

5.8 Post-Logging Assessment

* A post-felling inventory, as outlined by the Forestry Department (Field Work Inventory Guidelines After Felling, 1986) should be done within 6 months after the logging operation ceases to assess the residual stocking and regeneration status.

* Erosion should be controlled at the source where areas are disturbed, by early revegetation. Terracing, composting, mulching and fertilizing should be used where appropriate, to initiate growth on rehabilitated or reafforested sites.

5.9 Silviculture Treatments

* Areas of poor regeneration potential must be enriched with planted seedlings of indigenous species.

* Cleared areas that are prone to erosion such as road sides, unused skid trails and landings must be planted with fast growing species.

* Avoid the use of chemicals for silvicultural treatments.

6.0 Conclusion

* The bulk of future productive forest of P. Malaysia will be located in the most rugged and steepest terrain in the states of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Perak and Kedah and is naturally prone to relatively high rates erosion, probably of the order of 1000 t km-2 y-1.

* Logging activity since 1982 has greatly accelerated erosion in the catchment area. Poor road design and maintenance and lack of post-logging attention to forest roads and skid trails is a major cause of the increased sediment loads now experienced in the Malaysian rivers and their tributaries.

* The existing logging road network and the effects of environmental damage already caused are likely to create more severe environmental problems if the proposed logging guidelines are not strictly followed and implemented.

7.0 Recommendations

* Logging from the proposed concessionaires should be undertaken in a strictly controlled manner in accordance with the proposed logging guideline.

* Careful planning and siting of roads must avoid the severe erosion associated with the present logging roads in the area.

* All new developments associated with logging and forest development must take measures to control and minimize the off-site impacts of logging. Well establish guidelines exist and expert advice should be sought on how to apply them before any logging and more road construction is undertaken.

Literature Cited

Aiken, S.R., and Leigh, C.H. 1992. Vanishing rain forest: the ecological transition in Malaysia. Oxford Monographs on Biogeography No. 5. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK. 194 p.

Chin, S.C. 1989. Managing Malaysia's forest for sustained production. Wallaceana 55 and 56:1-11.

Cross, M. 1990. Logging agreement fails to protect Sarawak. New Scientist. 128 (1745):7.

Flynn, R.W. 1980. Endau-Rompin national park management plan (preliminary draft). Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ismail bin Haji Ali. 1966. A critical review of Malayan silviculture in the light of changing demand and form of timber utilisation. Malayan Forester, 29:228-233.

Kiew, B.H., and Davison, G. 1982. Conservation status of the Malaysian fauna. II. Birds. Malayan Naturalist, November, 2-34.

Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia. 1992. Fact Sheets: Forestry and Environment. Malaysian Timber Industry Development Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia. 1993 Profile: Malaysia's Primary Commodities. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 84 p.

Ooi, Jin-Bee. 1976. Peninsular Malaysia. Longman, London.

Salleh Mohd. Nor. 1983. Forestry in Malaysia. Journal of Forestry 81:164-166, 187.

Thang, H.C. 1987. Forest management system for tropical high forest, with special reference to Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management, 21:3-30.

Whitmore, T.C. 1990. An introduction to tropical rain forest. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Woon, W.C., and Lim, H.F. 1990. The non-government organizations and government policy on environmental issues in Malaysia. Wallaceana, 59 and 60:10-15.

Wyatt-Smith, J., and Vincent, A.J. 1962. Progressive development in the management of tropical lowland evergreen rain forest and mangrove forest in Malaya. Malayan Forester, 25:199-223.

Authors' Contact Information

Capt. Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Faculty of Forestry
University Pertanian Malaysia
Serdang 43400 UPM Selangor
Telephone: +60 3 9486101 ext. 2414
Fax: +60 3 9483745

Nik Mohammad Shah Nik Mustafa
Forestry Department Headquarters Peninsular
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
50660 Kuala Lumpur
Telephone: +60 3 2988244
Fax: +60 3 2925657

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