1. The formulation of the Strategic Framework 2000-2015 adopted by the Conference in November 1999, and most recently the substantial analytical process leading to the World Food Summit: five years later, have amply explored and documented the major problems and issues facing the international community, as regards the key sector of food and agriculture lato sensu. Many require immediate, compelling action, while others are of a longer-term nature, but equally important to address by countries individually and collectively.
2. This second version of the Medium Term Plan (MTP) covers the period 2004-2009, and is heavily influenced by the imperative of assisting Members in meeting their recently reconfirmed commitments under the World Food Summit (WFS) Plan of Action. This reaffirmation of the outcome of the WFS, is also to be seen as a re-endorsement of the relevance of the Strategic Framework, which was developed to elicit an agreed view of Members of FAO's role in helping them achieve the three global goals they endorsed in that document:
3. It will be recalled that the expected responses from FAO were expressed in the Strategic Framework document, in terms of five major corporate strategies:
4. The need to relate all future substantive activities to these corporate strategies and underlying strategic objectives has, therefore, become an entrenched and essential dimension of the planning process, as demonstrated in Part II of this document.
5. In the MTP 2002-071, the case was made that FAO should be afforded the resources necessary to respond to the substantial demands of the membership. This was also predicated on the demonstrated capacity of the Organization to achieve maximum cost-effectiveness in the delivery of outputs and services, while assisting its Member Nations in meeting their goals. It was recalled in the same MTP that the Regular Programme resources of the Organization had suffered a major decline of 14.6% in real terms: that is, a US$ 95 million reduction in its biennial budget since the approved budget for 1992-93.
6. The approval by the last Conference of the Programme of Work and Budget (PWB) 2002-03 on the basis of zero real growth, marked a welcome departure from a worrisome pattern of zero nominal growth budget decisions in the previous biennia, regardless of the demand for FAO's services. However, it remains that FAO's budget for the present biennium of US$ 651.7 million is still less in purely nominal terms (and as recalled above, very much less in real terms) than the budget approved now more than 10 years ago.
7. As endorsed by FAO's Governing Bodies, the Programme of Work and Budget is based on an integrated presentation method, i.e. resources stemming from Assessments on Members and miscellaneous income (both forming the basis for the Appropriations eventually voted by the Conference) combined with Other Income, i.e. additional resources closely associated with the implementation of the approved Programme of Work for the biennium. Examples of such Other Income include contributions by partner organizations to joint programmes, or reimbursements from funding sources of field project support costs, based on agreed policies. In the same way as in the PWB document, resource estimates in this MTP, particularly those in Part II, refer to the Programme of Work. For ease of understanding by Members, however, tables in this section and summary tables in Part II may also refer, as appropriate, to the share of Appropriations in the total Programme of Work.
8. A greater effort has been made in the context of the formulation of this MTP to identify and estimate the extent of Other Income which will directly support the implementation of component entities and major outputs, and thus the total Programme of Work over the 2004-09 period. The guidance provided to the concerned units was that such contributions should only be included if they were already available, or where the availability of such funding was reasonably assured. In order to achieve transparency and identify clearly the eventual significant variations in resource estimates under the pertinent programme entities on account of this refined forecasting effort, the standard entity tables in Part II show these Estimated Additional Voluntary Contributions in a separate row.
9. There are also some differences in presentation of resource estimates between the global picture in this Part I, and the more detailed picture for substantive work in Part II (i.e. the estimates at programme and entity levels) which are worth signalling:
10. The prevailing context of high demand for FAO's services, its key role in assisting Members to achieve their goals, and its record as an Organization which has sought to reform itself, adjust to current times and maximise cost efficiency has been the dominant consideration in framing proposals for 2004-09. The expectation of the Secretariat is that the membership would now consider increasing the budget level in net terms over the next three biennia.
11. The following Table 1 shows the indicative level of resources proposed for the Programme of Work.
TABLE 1: MEDIUM TERM PLAN 2004-2009 PROGRAMME OF WORK
(AT CONSTANT COST LEVELS - US$ 000)
|Budgetary Chapter/Major Programme||2004-05||2006-07||2008-09|
|MP 1.1||Governing Bodies||17,072||17,048||17,029|
|MP 1.2||Policy, Direction and Planning||23,194||23,158||23,132|
|MP 1.3||External Coordination and Liaison||15,722||15,715||15,709|
|MP 1.9||Programme Management||834||832||831|
|CH 1||General Policy and Direction||56,822||56,753||56,701|
|MP 2.1||Agricultural Production and Support Systems||119,138||117,653||116,811|
|MP 2.2||Food and Agriculture Policy and Development||94,546||97,235||100,164|
|MP 2.5||Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts||66,214||64,892||62,739|
|CH 2||Technical and Economic Programmes||373,917||380,516||383,252|
|MP 3.1||Policy Assistance||30,927||32,110||33,299|
|MP 3.2||Support to Investment||47,116||47,060||47,019|
|MP 3.3||Field Operations||18,796||18,213||17,638|
|MP 3.4||FAO Representatives||79,830||81,028||81,975|
|MP 3.5||Cooperation with External Partners||9,567||9,551||9,539|
|MP 3.9||Programme Management||1,720||1,649||1,578|
|CH 3||Cooperation and Partnerships||187,956||189,611||191,048|
|MP 4.1||Technical Cooperation Programme||103,107||113,757||124,407|
|MP 4.2||TCP Unit||3,096||3,441||3,787|
|CH 4||Technical Cooperation Programme||106,203||117,198||128,194|
|MP 5.1||Information and Publications Support||17,129||17,101||17,080|
|CH 5||Support Services||63,121||62,113||61,330|
|CH 6||Common Services||42,996||42,454||41,922|
|Programme of Work||831,615||849,245||863,047|
12. The overall rationale behind the above figures can be summarised as follows:
13. At a more detailed level, the following features may be highlighted.
14. For FAO's substantive activities, i.e. the sum total of PWB Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance, no recommended "across-the-board" growth targets or mandatory ceilings have been imposed on the concerned departments and associated regional teams. Proposals under each major programme reflect a detailed bottom up planning process, wherein individual entities have been designed using results-based budgeting principles, as embodied in the programme model endorsed by the Conference (cf. more explanations below). To a large extent, the results reflect oft-expressed relative priorities, with overall increases of Appropriations in terms of percentages benefiting Major Programmes:
15. Under the latter Major Programme 2.5, Programme 2.5.6, Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs4, is in fact afforded a much higher percentage raise as staffing must be increased to be able to support the anticipated very substantial and rapid rise in extra-budgetary activities. The responsible unit, TCOS5, may indeed face the challenge of handling projected extra-budgetary resources totalling US$ 675 million over the six-year MTP period.
16. Under Chapter 3 of the PWB, Major Programme 3.2, Support to Investment, has not been increased, in line with the signals from the partner financial institutions, to the effect that cooperation with FAO should normally continue at current levels. The increase for FAORs under Major Programme 3.4 is aimed, in the first instance, at strengthening the offices being run by outposted technical officers, with the addition of either NPOs6 or administrative assistants (G-6) and increased provisions for General Operating Expenses. This is not intended to relieve the governments concerned of their obligations, but merely to enable these offices to function on a par with other offices. The remainder is aimed at facilitating the FAORs' responses to UN system-led national development needs assessments and programming exercises.
17. Under Chapter 4 of the PWB, the TCP's share of the Appropriation would grow progressively, in accordance with Conference Resolution 9/89, as follows:
|Share of Appropriation||Percentage|
18. Under Chapter 5, Support Services, the overall increase of 1.4% is the result of a much larger increase foreseen in the first biennium, to be offset by reductions in the subsequent biennia. Public information work is to be strengthened by the addition of US$ 1 million in support of the cross-organizational strategy on Communicating FAO's messages.
19. The second increase reflects the preliminary outcome of major studies carried out by outside advisers on the AFF7 Division's structure (also on the AFI8 Division, but in view of the Pool arrangement for computer services, this affects all budgetary chapters). Some increases in posts (i.e. eleven posts in AFF, and ten posts in AFI) are included for the biennium 2004-05, while a decline in numbers is expected thereafter, based on the inherent assumption of further efficiency gains, through streamlining and improved information technology governance.
20. Finally, an additional US$ 1.5 million has been included to fund various initiatives in the staff development area, arising from needs of the cross-organizational strategies for Ensuring excellence, Enhancing inter-disciplinarity and Continuing to improve the management process (cf. short summary of the major purposes under Staff training below).
21. The following Table 2 illustrates the impact of these proposals on the next biennium 2004-05, by comparing them with the budget base for 2002-03. The data is given at the level of the Appropriation so as to eliminate the impact of other income and focus on the distribution of the proposed level of Regular Programme resources.
TABLE 2: COMPARISON OF MEDIUM TERM PLAN'S FIRST BIENNIUM (2004-2005) WITH THE
PROGRAMME OF WORK AND BUDGET 2002-2003 APPROPRIATION (NET BUDGET)
|Budgetary Chapter/Major Programme||Appropriation||Variance|
|PWB 2002-03||MTP First
|US$ 000||Percentage of|
|MP 1.1||Governing Bodies||17,030||17,072||42||0.2%|
|MP 1.2||Policy, Direction and Planning||19,990||20,561||571||2.9%|
|MP 1.3||External Coordination and Liaison||14,072||15,285||1,213||8.6%|
|MP 1.9||Programme Management||731||834||103||14.1%|
|CH 1||General Policy and Direction||51,823||53,752||1,929||3.7%|
|MP 2.1||Agricultural Production and Support Systems||90,544||100,619||10,075||11.1%|
|MP 2.2||Food and Agriculture Policy and Development||84,966||93,066||8,100||9.5%|
|MP 2.5||Contributions to Sustainable Development
and Special Programme Thrusts
|CH 2||Technical and Economic Programmes||292,348||326,161||33,813||11.6%|
|MP 3.1||Policy Assistance||27,340||29,513||2,173||7.9%|
|MP 3.2||Support to Investment||18,172||18,269||97||0.5%|
|MP 3.3||Field Operations||2,613||2,119||-494||-18.9%|
|MP 3.4||FAO Representatives||63,977||67,373||3,396||5.3%|
|MP 3.5||Cooperation with External Partners||7,124||7,152||28||0.4%|
|MP 3.9||Programme Management||1,593||1,536||-57||-3.6%|
|CH 3||Cooperation and Partnerships||120,819||125,962||5,143||4.3%|
|MP 4.1||Technical Cooperation Programme||92,457||103,107||10,650||11.5%|
|MP 4.2||TCP Unit||2,738||3,096||358||13.1%|
|CH 4||Technical Cooperation Programme||95,195||106,203||11,008||11.6%|
|MP 5.1||Information and Publications Support||16,080||17,129||1,049||6.5%|
|CH 5||Support Services||52,578||55,088||2,510||4.8%|
|CH 6||Common Services||38,395||38,469||74||0.2%|
22. It is emphasised that these resource projections are indicative, while resulting from a detailed analysis of requirements and seeking to redress significant resource gaps for FAO to perform efficiently and effectively. It is also noted that the amounts have not yet been subject to the analytical rigour associated with the preparation of proposals for inclusion in the Programme of Work and Budget. However, they should assist Members in making the policy level decisions required in the context of the Medium Term Plan.
23. Part III of the MTP gives considerable prominence to the need to enhance staff development and training in FAO. Contrary to practices in many private companies and national administrations, this has often been a well-recognised but largely under-financed priority over so many years, often the unintended victim of budgetary stringency. The proposed main areas of emphasis are summarised below.
24. Current staff development programmes: while other ongoing topics of interest are mentioned under the following rubrics, it may be recalled that current training programmes cover the upgrading of skills in office automation and Web-based information and communication systems; competencies for the smooth operation of the Oracle financial and human resource management systems; and language training - to be progressively extended to the full range of FAO's official languages.
25. Development of skills and competencies in support of cross-organizational strategies: training programmes in this area will address managing inter-disciplinary teams and related facilitation skills; project design, management and evaluation; strategic communication and media; negotiation and conflict management; and managing people effectively.
26. Core management competencies: in consistency with related UN system initiatives, the training will seek to introduce new managers, or staff expected to move from technical specialist positions to managerial ones, to the roles, functions and skill requirements for effective management.
27. Staff development in decentralized offices: the increased decentralization in FAO's activities must be matched by adequate staff development and learning opportunities in offices outside Headquarters, taking into account the constraints of distance and cost. Urgent needs exist particularly for training in project cycle management, design and evaluation, but other areas such as professional and technical development, communication skills, information technology and orientation for new staff should be put progressively on a par with opportunities offered at Headquarters.
28. Professional development: to maintain FAO as a centre of excellence, technical staff and managers will be further encouraged to keep up their professional skills in respective disciplines, through participation in external training programmes and technical seminars, active membership of professional societies and associations, on-the-job training and developmental assignments, whenever possible.
29. Enhanced skills for staff using training as a means of action in delivering technical programmes: the need for an effective training-the-trainers programme has arisen out of the review of training activities by the Programme Committee. A wide cross section of FAO's staff is, in fact, involved in delivering training to external clients and partners in the field. This programme will be of a modular nature, including needs identification, course development and design, training approaches, with adult-learning principles, monitoring and evaluation of training.
30. Development of a learning resource centre: this initiative should assist with a continuous learning culture at FAO, i.e. the ability for staff to learn, grow and change, individually and collectively. Flexible approaches will be adjusted to the desired pace of staff members, and a Learning Resource Network (LRN) developed. The LRN should facilitate self-study and will be supported by learning materials and modern technologies.
31. Current times of rapid technological change in office automation and communications, and the need to put in place new generations of better performing administrative systems at recurrent intervals, imply high-cost acquisitions by the Organization, concentrated in short periods. The same considerations apply to major enhancement of premises. However, FAO operates on the basis of a biennial budget, without possibility to carry over or accumulate "reserves" at the end of the period. Moreover, its budget has been subject to severe restrictions regarding growth in the last biennia, and even suffered a substantial reduction in both nominal and net terms.
32. Commercial companies can account for depreciation and may contemplate capital budgeting arrangements, while governments can make provision for exceptional one-time expenditures in public administrations without necessarily forcing them to "absorb" the cost within their budget. FAO is not a private company, while the natural reluctance of its Members to facing increased assessments is certainly not overlooked. Yet, FAO is still expected to deliver its programmes in a cost-effective, efficient and timely manner, something which can be disrupted by the above sudden jumps in financial requirements, for which no reserves exist. Regrettably, it is forced to "scrape by", trying to juggle through the necessary one-time investments, within a fixed budget envelope. This has often led to delays and frustrations or - worse - could at times lead to less than optimal results. A recent example concerns the Oracle project, where significant implementation problems were attributed, at least in part, to the lack of sufficient and assured resources.
33. The membership may, therefore, consider whether it would be the time to introduce the concept of capital budgeting in FAO. This concept would imply that, beyond the budget for normal expenditures, there should be a budget for one-time "capital items" (e.g. major equipment purchases, one-time development costs of major systems, etc.). Reputable firms of management consultants have also recently recommended introduction of the practice in FAO's context. It may be noted that the issue of capital budgeting was raised in the MTP 1992-97, but the Conference reacted somewhat evasively, as follows:
"The Conference also noted the suggestion regarding the possibility of introducing the concept of capital budgeting into FAO budgetary practices. It observed that such a concept could be introduced only if it were compatible with budget regulations in Member Nations, and that it could return, to the issue at some future date."
34. A tentative capital budget proposal is included in Table 3 below. This is not accompanied by any firm proposal for appropriate financial mechanisms, subject to reactions of the Finance Committee and Council to the concept, when considering this MTP. Most of these items were proposed for funding by eventual arrears payments in the current biennium, as endorsed by the Conference in its Resolution 6/2001. Hence, they are not taken into account in the preceding overall tables of estimates for 2004-09.
TABLE 3: CAPITAL BUDGET PROPOSAL FOR THE PLAN PERIOD OF COVERAGE (US$ 000)
|Capital Items (all amounts in US$ 000)||2004-05||2006-07||2008-09|
|Complete development of PIRES1||1,020||0||0|
|Oracle Phase II development (HR and payroll modules)||19,969||0||0|
|Refinement of Oracle Phase I modules||3,700||0||0|
|Replacement of Headquarters' LAN2||340||0||0|
|FAOSTAT working system migration||3,000||0||0|
|Rearrangement of computer centre||550||0||0|
|Phase II of FPMIS3||800||0||0|
|Completion of Wide Area Network for FAORs||600||0||0|
|New WAICENT environment||1,750||0||0|
|Amortisation of ASMC4 liability||14,100||14,100||14,100|
|Total Capital Requirements||45,829||14,100||14,100|
|1 Programme Planning, Implementation Reporting and Evaluation Support System|
2 Local Area Network
3 Field Programme Management Information System
4 After-Service Medical Coverage
35. Although well known to the Finance Committee, some explanation may be warranted for the item on ASMC. It may be recalled that this is an area of cost, which was not being fully funded. Initially, FAO operated on a "pay-as-you-go" approach (i.e. enough to cover current claims). However, following actuarial valuations, two problems were recognised:
36. The response, as endorsed by the Governing Bodies, has been to:
37. However, apart from the use of investment gains, which are unlikely to be repeated in the next few years at the rate experienced in the 90's, the Governing Bodies have not decided on any funding formula to cover the remaining outstanding liability. It is, therefore, proposed that the capital budget include a provision of US$ 14.1 million per biennium, being the funding required for the remaining 24-year amortisation, which will be made in the biennial accounts.
38. Part III of this document contains an updated and detailed strategy for Leveraging resources for FAO and its Members. Implementation of this strategy should enable the Organization and the membership to capitalise on the very auspicious reversal of past declining trends in field programme delivery, as being experienced during the present year 2002. The mobilisation of extra-budgetary resources for operational - and normative - activities will, therefore, remain a major preoccupation of staff at all levels under the leadership of the Technical Cooperation Department. As emphasised by the Declaration adopted at the World Food Summit: five years later, the FAO Trust Fund for Food Security and Food Safety should serve as a major vehicle in this resource mobilisation effort.
39. It is recalled that the Trust Fund contemplates three main areas of intervention:
40. As for the MTP 2002-07, no attempt has been made in this Plan to forecast with any degree of precision the evolution of FAO's field programme over the six-year planning period, given the number of variables and the often unpredictable external factors which impinge on its development.
41. Nevertheless, FAO's technical departments have been invited to assess opportunities of extra-budgetary support under specific programme areas, i.e. where these resources could further leverage and extend the impact of programme entities. This effort went beyond the identification of firm instances of possible additional income to reinforce the Programme of Work in 2004-09, as mentioned above in the section entitled Programme of Work and Appropriations.
42. The guidance given in this respect was that these opportunities should, of course, be firmly based on the objectives, outcomes and outputs of the respective programme entities and their potential application to the field. In addition, in the assessment of prospects, units were advised not to feel constrained by the likelihood of actually obtaining the extra-budgetary funding.
43. Paragraph 131 of the Strategic Framework document is worth quoting in this connection:
"For the Organization's normative programmes it is important that extra-budgetary resources be mobilized:"
- to support FAO pilot programmes aimed at testing and proving normative hypotheses in response to emerging issues;
- to support activities of the Regular Programme directly so as to increase the total level of resources made available for the normative functions of FAO, ensuring that, in doing so, the independence of FAO's work (e.g. in standard setting) is not compromised; and
- to maximize the impact of its targeted programmes and foster the synergy between normative and field activities, utilizing, as appropriate, its own human and financial resources and promoting joint undertakings with donors."
44. This exercise should also be seen as meeting at least on a preliminary basis, a request made by the Programme Committee at its May 2002 meeting, to the effect that it should: "be provided at its next session with information on those FAO activities which were expected to be funded from extra-budgetary resources, relating such activities to the programme priorities in the medium term."
45. As a result of this analysis of possible opportunities, a tentative - while not exhaustive - list is given in Table 4 below.
TABLE 4: INDICATIVE AND SELECTIVE LIST OF POSSIBLE FAO'S ACTIVITIES WHICH COULD BE FUNDED FROM EXTRA-BUDGETARY RESOURCES
|Programme Entity||Entity Title||Strategic
|210P1||Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)||All||a) Further studies in the FAO series Ethics in Food and Agriculture, with supporting seminars and workshops;|
b) maintenance of Web site on ethics;
c) enhanced coordination with other relevant processes.
|210P1||Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)||B1||To enable greater participation of developing countries in the meetings of the Commission, acting as the Interim Committee for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.|
|211A3||Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrition Policies, Planning and Management||C2||To enhance quality of support provided to ongoing GEF9/UNDP10 projects.|
|211P7||Land and Water Information Systems, Databases and Statistics||E1||To expand collaboration with key international water-related initiatives.|
|212A4||EMPRES11 - Plant Pests Component||A3||a) To expand with donor support the desert locust component of EMPRES to all interested regions, particularly West and North-West Africa, Eastern and Central (around the Red Sea) regions; and|
b) to meet ancillary requirements, i.e.:
- establishment of a Secretary post for the South-West Asia Commission, EMPRES Eastern Region, as it has been without this post since 1991;
- additional Remote-Sensing/Information Officer post for the Locust Group, AGPP12 to improve the use of SPOT13 imagery in identifying likely locust habitats in the remote areas; and
- support to establishment of a Regional Locust Coordination Body in Central Asia.
|212A5||"Mainstreaming IPM14" by Enhancing Essential Ecological Processes||C1||a) To support core operations under the Global IPM facility and regional IPM projects;|
b) to support IPM activities and networks in three sub-regional groupings, including SADC and ECOWAS, building on preparatory assistance in 2002-3; and
c) regional GEF projects to ameliorate the impact of Persistent Toxic Substances that are expected ultimately to be covered by the Stockholm Convention.
|212P1||Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)||B2||a) To support enhanced capacity building to meet national obligations under the IPPC; and|
b) to enhance Standard Setting cooperation, including at regional level.
|212P2||Pesticide Management||C2||To support further the prevention and disposal of obsolete and unwanted pesticide stocks.|
|212P4||Technical Support to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture||B2||To assist with new demands from developing countries in relation to the implementation of the International Treaty on PGRFA at national level.|
|212P5||Support to Strategy Formulation and Promotion of Specific Action for Rice Development in Member Countries of the International Rice Commission (IRC)||C1||To support activities related to the International Year of Rice, including assisting the IRC in developing the programme for the UN Declaration for the International Year of Rice.|
|213A3||Contribution of Livestock to Poverty Alleviation||A1||To establish regional modules for the Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Facility to foster national policy dialogue for clean, safe and equitable livestock farming.|
|213A5||Developing the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources||D1||To support follow-up to country reports (analysis, consolidation, summary) at regional and global levels; to support target regions and countries in AnGR conservation and utilisation.|
|213A6||Veterinary Public Health Management and Food and Feed Safety||C2||To formulate and initiate a global programme for the prevention and control of BSE15 and other zoonotic diseases.|
|213A7||EMPRES - Livestock||A3||a) To further expand the animal health component of EMPRES;|
b) to develop a TADs16 intelligence system; and
c) to strengthen the Central Asia programme for the control of TADs.
|213A8||Technologies and Systems for Efficient Natural Resource Use in Livestock Production||D1||To implement the second phase of the Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative.|
|214A1||Enhancing Small Farmer Livelihoods||A1||a) To support pilot application and appraisal of financing mechanisms and products for small farmers under SPFS17; and|
b) to support same work for integrated services to facilitate diversification in small farm enterprises.
|214A2||Meeting Urban Food Needs||A2||To support activities for increasing the profitability and sustainability of peri-urban farming systems, thereby increasing food supplies to cities.|
|214A3||Sustainable Commercial Provision of Input Supply, Mechanisation, Investment Support and Marketing Services||C1||a) Further case studies on domestic marketing constraints impeding expansion of exports;|
b) national case studies on fertiliser import and distribution costs following trade liberalisation and fragmentation of the fertiliser marketing sector; and
c) support to the Capacity Building in Rural Finance Initiative (CABFIN) with a "knowledge bank" for dissemination of good practices in rural banking and innovative financial instruments such as MicroBanker.
|214A4||Agribusiness Development Targeted to Small and Medium Post-production Enterprises||C1||To support analysis of farm-agribusiness linkages and agribusiness development in general.|
|214P2||Agricultural Services - Data and Information Systems||B2||a) To expand collection of valuable farm-level data in countries; and|
b) to help meeting demands for generic safety standards for agricultural equipment other than sprayers (due to resource constraints, work on standards for farm machinery and equipment is now restricted to pesticide application equipment).
|220A1||Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information for Better Policy Targeting (FIVIMS)||E1||DFID18 has been involved with the FIVIMS initiative as a member of IAWG19-FIVIMS and in the development of several conceptual documents. A closer partnership is envisaged to strengthen methodologies; also EC20 support to national FIVIMS based on successful experience so far.|
|221P5||Food Quality Control and Consumer Protection||B1||Capacity building for effective food control systems (organisation of training sessions and workshops) and global or regional meetings of food safety regulators.|
|221P6||Food Safety Assessment and Rapid Alert System||B1||To support improvement of data collection particularly in developing countries, for better application of risk assessments.|
|222A2||FAO/World Bank/USDA21 Initiative for Agricultural Statistics in Africa||E1||Enhancing the Initiative for Agricultural Statistics in Africa.|
|222A3||FAO Country Profiles and Mapping Information System||E1||To make the country profiles system available in languages other than the official languages of the Organization.|
|222A5||World Agriculture Information Resource System (WAIR)||E1||APOs22 with experience in thesauri, and meta data elements would contribute to timely establishment and implementation of tools for Members, and networking to implement the WAIR.|
|222A6||Multi-Agency Programme for Capacity Building in Food and Agricultural Statistics in Africa||E1||Enhancing the multi-agency programme for capacity building.|
|222P6||WAICENT Corporate Information Management and Dissemination Systems||E1||APOs' support for timely implementation of corporate multilingual infrastructures and system enhancements.|
|222P7||Standards, Norms and Procedures for Improved Access to Agricultural Information||E1||To enhance work on standardisation of information and support training.|
|222P8||Facilitation of WAICENT Outreach||A1||APOs' support for timely development of the resource kit distance-learning tool.|
|222P9||Virtual Library and Library Information Services in Support of WAICENT||E1||To expedite the automation of data dissemination services.|
|222P9||Virtual Library and Library Information Services in Support of WAICENT||E1||Telecom companies and other sources could assist with establishing Virtual Libraries in FAO Representations.|
|223P6||Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture||A3||To support building national and regional capabilities for methodologies used in crop and food supply assessment missions under the GIEWS23.|
|224A2||Commodity and Trade Policy Support to Developing Countries for Trade Negotiations||B2||To meet the growing demand in developing countries for assistance on agriculture-related issues of the multilateral trade negotiations (also under other entities).|
|224P2||Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation, Rural Development and Food Security: Analysis of Linkages||A1||To meet the growing need of assistance by developing countries in analysing the relationship between export crop production and food security at national and vulnerable household levels.|
|224P4||Analysis and Consensus-Building on Emerging Commodity and Trade Issues||B1||To enhance support to regional trade arrangements and regional initiatives such as NEPAD24.|
|231A2||Development of Partnerships for the Fisheries Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS) of FIGIS||E1||To support initial implementation of FIRMS input by regional fisheries bodies, with training tools and methodologies provided by FAO.|
|231P1||Provision of Fisheries Information and Statistics||E1||To support implementation of the FAO Strategy on Improving Information on the Status and Trends of Capture Fisheries as a module in the FISHCODE25 programme.|
|232A4||Monitoring and Reporting on Global Marine Resources and Relevant Environmental and Ecological Changes||C2||To support various Headquarters ecosystem-based fisheries management activities.|
|233A4||Consumption, Safety and Quality of Fish Products||B1||To follow up on the successful FAO Umbrella programme for training on MTN26 and Uruguay Round (also affecting other entities such as 233P1).|
|233A5||Promotion of International Fish Trade||B2||Norway-funded study to identify key policy and organisational issues from which FAO would promote strategies in fish exporting developing countries designed within the framework of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.|
|233P2||Promotion of International Fish Trade||B2||To support further study of international fish trade and food security, leading to promotion of adapted strategies in fish exporting developing countries.|
|234A4||Promotion of Coastal Fisheries Management||B2||To support training of local managers of small-scale artisanal fisheries on successful ways to control and limit access.|
|234A5||Promotion of Appropriate National/Regional Policies for Sustainable Aquaculture Development||B2||To support national policies for the promotion of commercial aquaculture (distance-learning courses).|
|241A1||Sustainable Management of Natural Forests and Woodlands||D2||APOs' support to enhance collation, analysis and dissemination of information related to the extent of the forest resources, status and progress toward sustainable forest management in the Mediterranean region; same for coastal zone forestry.|
|241A5||Forest Plantations and Trees Outside Forests||various||To support improved plantation and tree planting techniques (including in peri-urban settings).|
|241A7||Forests and Water||D1||To highlight the importance of upland resources in the wake of the International Year of Mountains.|
|241P1||Assessment and Monitoring of Forests and Woodland Resources||E2||To assist in the enhancement of the FRA27 methodology|
|242A3||Forestry Sector Outlook Studies||E2||To support updated analyses in outlook studies for the forestry sector.|
|242A4||Economic Aspects of Forests||C2||To support work on valuation techniques in forestry.|
|243A3||Strengthening National Institutional Capacities||B2||To support national capacity building on institutional dimensions of managing forests sustainably.|
|243A5||Forests, Poverty Alleviation and Food Security||A1||To enhance understanding of forestry's contributions to poverty alleviation and food security, and support national programmes.|
|251A1||Integrated Use of Information for Sustainable Development||E1||To assist with maintenance and improvement of integrated environmental information systems and databases.|
|251P1||Environmental Geo-Information Infrastructure and Services||E1||To support further development and implementation of key information systems and tools, and Poverty Mapping activities.|
|252A3||Gender and Natural Resources Management||A1||To support the Local Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LinKS) project|
|252P1||Promotion of Gender and Population in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions||A1||To support further the Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) training programme.|
|253A4||Participatory Approaches and Methods to Support Sustainable Livelihoods and Food Security||A1||a) APOs to assist in maintaining a participation Web site and with WSSD28 follow-up; and|
b) additional funding from DFID to evaluate effectiveness of livelihoods programme at Headquarters and field levels.
|256P3||SPFS Implementation||All||To vastly expand SPFS implementation in all interested countries.|
|311A1||Development of FAO's Capacity to Provide On-line Training in Food, Agriculture and Rural Development Policy and Planning||B2||To enhance capacity building in agricultural trade policies and support the adaptation of training materials to national circumstances.|
|311P3||Development of Training Materials and Methods in Food and Agriculture Policy Analysis||B1||To support the preparation of training materials on international trade of agricultural products.|
|313A1||Support to the Development of a Regulatory Framework for Food and Agriculture||B2||Further support beyond current contributions from the Netherlands Partnership Programme (FNPP).|
|313S1||Provision of Technical Advice||B2||Additional APOs to expand legal technical assistance to countries.|
46. The formulation of substantive activities in the 2004-09 period to respond to the Strategies to Address Members' Needs, continued to build on the main features of the enhanced methodology or "programme model", as approved by FAO Governing Bodies, i.e.:
47. It is recalled that the model recognises three types of programme entities for the substantive work of FAO: technical projects (TPs), continuing programme activities (CPs) and technical service agreements (TSs), which are summarily defined as follows:
48. As per established practice, Headquarters units were required to consult with their outposted staff in Regional and Sub-regional Offices, so that the proposed entities reflect a fully integrated programme of work, with common objectives and major outputs.
49. As for the MTP 2002-07, the results of this formulation effort are reflected in Part II of the document, where substantive work is conventionally understood as the sum total of the five major programmes comprising Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance, of the Programme of Work and Budget.
50. The preparation of proposals for inclusion in the MTP 2004-09 was marked by greater efforts to improve the quality and consistency of programme entity formulation. Training courses were held for technical staff to promote more thorough understanding of the application of results-based planning principles. A Web-based and user-friendly computerised system (PIRES) was developed and put in place to serve the analytical process in a more comprehensive manner. This system, in particular, pulled together and made widely available to the staff at large, instructions, internal departmental guidance, regional priorities as identified by Regional and Sub-regional Offices, and baseline information from the MTP 2002-2007.
51. More importantly, changes were introduced to some important conceptual elements of the programming approach, and more firm rules enforced, as explained below.
52. Changes in programme entity titles, numbers and timeframes: structural changes (deletion, addition, combination of programme entities, changes in titles, type and numbers) were kept to a minimum, in order to maintain continuity and comparability with the MTP 2002-07. Care was also taken to avoid extensions of end dates of TPs, lest undermining the intended time-bound nature of these entities. Only eight TP extensions were allowed, on the basis of well-documented reasons. A list of all structural changes is provided in Table 5 below, to facilitate understanding of changes in the underlying structure.
53. Content of technical service agreements (TS): in addition to addressing their basic purpose as recalled above, the content and resource estimates of TS entities have been improved, e.g. by hosting in a more recognisable manner, work of limited nature in support of PAIAs, small specialist inputs to programme entities in other units, and where not already the case, inputs to major UN and international conferences and processes.
54. Stronger focus on users of FAO's products and services: user orientation is clearly a key dimension of results-based management. The success and impact of FAO's programmes are predicated on how well the products and services generated under these programmes, effectively reach and serve the institutions and people they intend to support. Therefore, programme managers were asked to identify as precisely as possible the people and organizations targeted at each conceptual level of definition of entities (rationale, objectives and outcome of major outputs), in order to clarify the dissemination strategy for each output and the whole entity, and to lay the foundation for client-satisfaction surveys in evaluating programme effectiveness.
55. Clearer distinction between outcomes and objectives: in the MTP 2002-07, the objectives and outcomes were placed more or less at the same level in the means-end analysis used in the design of entities. The objective(s) was basically seen as a summary of all expected outcomes in a particular entity. This is no longer the case in the present MTP proposals, because a distinction was introduced between the outcomes of major outputs on the one hand, and the programme entity objective on the other, i.e.:
56. One of the consequences of this modified approach is that the programme entity objective(s) may be stated in more ambitious terms than in the MTP 2002-07. The intention is to make more evident what would be the ultimate impact of programmes: e.g. changes in the way agricultural development and food security are tackled at the country level, beyond the mere use and dissemination of FAO's normative or information products by the most immediate level of FAO "clients".
57. In order not to burden the document with excessive detail, outcome descriptions and indicators for major outputs were not included in Part II of the present MTP, which only lists the rationale, objective, objective-level indicators and major outputs of TPs and CPs. Outcome descriptions and indicators at lower level, will be posted on the associated Internet database.
58. Means of verification and targets now complement indicators: indicators were defined at both the outcome and objective levels. They are to be quantitative and qualitative variables which can be objectively verified (measured or assessed) to determine the extent to which the outcomes or objective(s) are achieved. They are now complemented with means of verification and, whenever possible, target values and dates. Again, for the sake of brevity, this type of detail is not included in the present document.
59. As a consequence of the distinction between objective(s) and outcomes and of the exclusion of outcome-level information in this document, the indicators shown in Part II, while aiming at demonstrating stronger and more significant results, are fewer in number than in the MTP 2002-07, and perhaps more difficult to measure and attribute in a straightforward fashion to FAO's work. However, outcome indicators, relatively easy to measure and attribute, have been formulated and will be included in the Internet database.
60. In order to facilitate comparison, an overview of changes introduced to the constituent TPs and CPs since the MTP 2002-07, is provided below.
TABLE 5: OVERVIEW OF CHANGES TO TPS AND CPS
|2002-07||2004-09||2002-07||2004-09||Remarks||Start Year||End Year|
|211A3||211A3||Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrient Management||Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrition Policies, Planning and Management||Title change to reflect focus on policies; 3 Major Outputs (MOs) moved to 211A5.||2002||2007|
|211A3||211A5||Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrient Management||Land and Water Quality Improvement||Not entirely new entity (existed prior to MTP 2002-07) carved from 211A3 to identify clearly salinity control and land reclamation activities.||2004||2009|
|212A7||212A9||Strengthening National Seed Production and Security Systems||Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources, including through Biotechnology, and Seed Sector Development||212A7 terminated and some its work (MOs 001, 004 and 006 ) included in 212A9.||2004||2009|
|212P4||212P4||Support to the FAO Global System on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA)||Technical Support to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture||Change in title to reflect the new treaty, and addition of one new MO supporting international network of ex situ collections.||Continuing|
|-||214A9||-||Enhancing Food Quality and Safety by Strengthening Handling, Processing and Marketing in the Food Chain||New entity; will start at small level and may grow; related to ES 221P8.||2004||2009|
|214A5||214P2||Agriculture Services - Data and Information Systems||Agriculture Services - Data and Information Systems||Changed from TP to CP due to recurrent nature.||Continuing|
|222A1||220A1||Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS)||Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information for Better Policy Targeting||Moved to Programme 2.2.0 for duration 2004-09 and restructured into four MOs.||2004||2009|
|224A3||220A2||Mid-term Review in 2006 of Progress Towards the WFS Target||Mid-term Review in 2006 of Progress Towards the WFS Target||Moved to Programme 2.2.0; some reduction in level of resources due to planned termination in mid 2006-07.||2004||2006|
|224A1||220P1||World Food Summit Monitoring and
|World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals Monitoring and Action||Moved to Programme 2.2.0; changed from TP to CP to better reflect its ongoing monitoring functions; scope broadened to include monitoring of Millennium Development Goals also; increase in level of resources to take account of broader scope.||Continuing|
|221P1 and 221A1||221P1||Food Composition (INFOODS)||Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment for Food Safety and Quality||221P1 substantially reformulated combining core work of 221A1 with residual work of the original 221P1; now focuses on linkages of human nutrition requirements and food composition to food safety.||Continuing|
|-||221P8||-||Food Safety and Quality throughout the Food Chain||New CP, reflecting high-priority domain of Members; to provide focus for inter-disciplinary action with other units, particularly, in AG and FI (related to 214A9).||Continuing|
|222A2||222A2||FAO/World Bank/USDA Initiative for Agricultural Statistics in Africa||FAO/World Bank/USDA Initiative for Agricultural Statistics in Africa||Current phase of this TP to terminate in 2005; 222A6, beginning in 2006-07 under consideration for next phase.||2002||2005|
|222A4||222A4||Systematic Evaluation and Improvement of Statistical Data Quality||Systematic Evaluation and Improvement of Statistical Data Quality||TP phased out by end-2004/05 as FAOSTAT2 comes on line.||2002||2005|
|223A1||223A2||Global Perspective Studies||Global Food and Agricultural Perspective Studies||223A1 terminated in 2002-03 after major publication; 223A2, beginning 2004-05, is the next phase.||2004||2009|
|223P5||223P5||Market Assessments and Food Security Reports for Tropical, Horticultural and Raw Material Commodities||Market Assessment of Tropical, Horticultural and Raw Material Commodities and Impact on Food Security||New title to better reflect nature of work.||Continuing|
|224A2||224A2||Commodity and Trade Policy Support to Developing Countries for Trade Negotiations||Commodity and Trade Policy Support to Developing Countries for Trade Negotiations||Current phase terminated at end-2004-05 along with next round of WTO negotiations on agriculture; 224A4, beginning in 2006-07 is next phase under consideration; major increase in resources in line with Members' priorities.||2002||2005|
|224P2||224P2||Contribution of Agriculture to Poverty Alleviation, Rural Development and Food Security||Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation, Rural Development and Food Security: Analysis of Linkages||Title and content sharpened in line with emerging priorities.||Continuing|
|224P4||224P4||International Action on Commodity and Trade Issues||Analysis and Consensus-Building on Emerging Commodity and Trade Issues||Title change and reduced resources with shift, together with corresponding outputs, to 224A2/224A4.||Continuing|
|224P5||224P5||Measures to Enhance Commodity and Trade Development||Enhancing Competitiveness and Diversification of Agricultural Commodities||Title and content sharpened in line with emerging priorities.||Continuing|
|231A1||231A2||Development of the Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS)||Development of Partnerships for the Fisheries Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS) of FIGIS||231A1ends as scheduled in 2003; 231A2 successor from 2004.||2004||2009|
|-||241A7||-||Forests and Water||New TP; some work transferred from 242A1.||2004||2009|
|-||241A8||-||Forests and Climate Change||New TP beginning in 2004.||2004||2009|
|243A1||242A3||Forestry Sector Outlook Studies||Forestry Sector Outlook Studies||Work transferred from 243A1; 6 MOs.||2004||2009|
|-||242A4||-||Economic Aspects of Forests||New TP; work transferred from 243P2.||2004||2009|
|242P1||242P1||Forest Products Information||Forest Products Information||MO decrease.||Continuing|
|242P2 and 242A1||242P2||Appropriate Utilisation of Forest Products||Appropriate Utilisation of Forest Products||Work transferred from 242A1.||Continuing|
|243A3||243A3||Strengthening of Institutional Capacities at Country Level||Strengthening National Institutional Capacities||Title change.||2002||2007|
|243P1 and 243P2||243A4||Formulation of National Forestry Programmes||Forest Policies and Governance||Work transferred from 243P1, which was set to end in 2003.||2004||2009|
|-||243A5||-||Forests, Poverty Alleviation, and Food Security||New TP beginning 2004; high priority area.||2004||2009|
|243P4||243P4||Participatory Forestry||Participatory Forestry and Sustainable Livelihoods||Title change.||Continuing|
|244A1||244A1||Follow up to UNCED and International Forestry Processes||International Forestry Processes||Title change.||2002||2007|
|251A5||251A5||National Agricultural Research System (NARS) Secretariat of the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR)||Secretariat of the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR)||Title change; MO increase.||2002||2007|
|-||252A4||-||Analysis and Mitigation of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security and Rural Development||New TP from 2004.||2004||2007|
|252P1 and 252A2||252P1||Promotion of Gender and Population in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions||Promotion of Gender and Population in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions||Includes work transferred from cancelled 252A2.||Continuing|
61. The following Figure 1 portrays the distribution by corporate strategies (A to E) of resources applied to technical programmes for substantive activities over the entire 2004-2009 period, i.e. the total of the lifetime resource estimates for the programme entities listed in Part II under Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance.
62. It may be noted that the above distribution of resources reflects the attribution of the major outputs planned under the various TPs and CPs to the strategic objectives of major relevance. However, a less rigid rule was applied this time than in the MTP 2002-07, which could lead to modified patterns. Instead of a (somewhat too inflexible) one-to-one relationship which had to be established between each major output and one of the 12 strategic objectives, units could link each output to various objectives of relevance, on a percentage basis. Also resources under TSs have not been pro-rated according to the pattern of contributions to strategic objectives of the TPs and CPs under the same programme heading (e.g. Programme 2.1.2, Crops), but links identified in the same manner as for TPs and CPs, depending on the content of the programmed TS activity.
63. Table 6 below provides in matrix form, the distribution of the same resources by the two key dimensions of major programme and strategic objective (from A1 to E3), i.e. representing the aggregated picture of the various programme-level tables in Part II of this document.`
TABLE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES OF TECHNICAL PROGRAMMES BY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
(ENTIRE 2004-2009 PERIOD)
|2.1||Agricultural Production and Support Systems|
|2.2||Food and Agriculture Policy and Development|
|2.5||Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts|
|Greater than zero,
less than US$ 5 million
|US$ 5 million to 10 million||US$ 10 million to 25 million||More than US$ 25 million|
64. Table 7 below provides in percentage terms the breakdown of total programmed resources for substantive work over the Plan period, by strategic objectives (A1 to E3). The table includes comparative data for the MTP 2002-07.
TABLE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES OF TECHNICAL PROGRAMMES
BY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (PERCENTAGES)
|Strategic Objective||Title||Plan Period 2002-07
|Plan Period 2004-09 |
|A1||Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources||9.0%||10.3%|
|A2||Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food||3.0%||2.5%|
|A3||Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies||7.0%||7.0%|
|B1||International instruments concerning food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and the production, safe use and fair exchange of agricultural, fishery and forestry goods||7.9%||9.1%|
|B2||National policies, legal instruments and supporting mechanisms that respond to domestic requirements and are consistent with the international policy and regulatory framework||7.9%||9.1%|
|C1||Policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers||13.6%||9.3%|
|C2||Adoption of appropriate technology to sustainably intensify production systems and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services||14.9%||11.4%|
|D1||Integrated management of land, water, fisheries, forest and genetic resources||4.1%||6.5%|
|D2||Conservation, rehabilitation and development of environments at the greatest risk||2.9%||3.8%|
|E1||An integrated information resource base, with current, relevant and reliable statistics, information and knowledge made accessible to all FAO clients||22.4%||23.3%|
|E2||Regular assessments, analyses and outlook studies for food and agriculture||6.1%||5.9%|
|E3||A central place for food security on the international agenda||1.2%||1.8%|
65. The most prominent feature is the increased share of resources contributing to corporate strategy D - Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture. In effect, the relatively low percentage (7%) of resources assigned to strategy D in the MTP 2002-07 risked sending the wrong message to the membership and other stakeholders. It must, however, be recognised that FAO's units encounter some difficulty in allocating activities and resources between strategies D and C - Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors, where the efforts to ensure sustainability in increased production might be viewed also as efforts to support the sustainable use of natural resources.
66. With this in mind, and also in the light of less inflexible allocation rules, the concerned units were invited to take the opportunity of the MTP formulation process to review and correct as appropriate the links to D. From the table above, it is clear that a better delineation between C and D has been achieved, since the share of corporate strategy C has declined from 28.5% to 20.7%, with offsetting increases elsewhere, including under D which increases from 7% to over 10%.
67. In general, the variations in percentages seem to reflect a better balance among the corporate strategies approved by Members in November 1999.
68. The scope of underlying activities contributing to the 12 strategic objectives is further explained below.
69. The strategy outlined in the Strategic Framework centred in particular on the diversification of income opportunities for the rural poor, and the responsiveness of policy interventions to the requirements of disadvantaged groups. Several major outputs and even whole entities, i.e.:
were designed to promote and support special measures to improve rural livelihoods, from complementary sectoral or institutional perspectives. Many pertinent activities are also contributing to the PAIA on Local Institution Building to Improve Capacity for Achieving Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (cf. the PAIA section below).
70. The nature of this objective makes it of utmost relevance to Programme 2.2.1, Nutrition, Food Quality and Safety. The programme contributes particularly when supporting national plans for nutrition and nutrition interventions targeted at household food security, and also when it comes to nutrition education and communications. Several analytical studies planned under Programme 2.2.4, Agriculture, Food Security and Trade Policy (i.e. impact of policies on access to food and the economic cost of hunger) and targeted interventions in some sectors such as crops (e.g. promotion of alternative crops) and livestock also contribute to A2.
71. The major contributions continue to come from the GIEWS, EMPRES (both components) and the entity on migratory pest management, 212P3. However, other preventative and preparedness activities may be mentioned such as work on seed security, the global system for plant genetic resources and household food security strategies for emergencies, as part of the advisory work of regional policy assistance teams. Work on forest fires and on fisheries rehabilitation in emergencies also feature under this strategic objective.
72. Another PAIA, covered in the following section, is of direct relevance to objective A.3 in addressing both Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and Post-emergency Relief and Rehabilitation, which clearly require inter-sectoral collaboration.
73. Work on the key instruments developed under the aegis of FAO is directly responsive to this strategic objective: e.g. the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources and the recently concluded Treaty on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), Codex Alimentarius, the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
74. These instruments reflect on the one hand FAO's key function as a forum to develop an appropriate regulatory framework for the agricultural sector, and on the other, its facilitation of dialogue and understanding of issues among Members, through pertinent technical inputs, the use of expert bodies (especially for food safety) and networking activities across countries and regions. Hence, the relevance also of trade-related work under, for instance, entity 224P4 Analysis and Consensus-Building on Emerging Commodity and Trade Issues, and of several entities of Major Programme 2.3, Fisheries, in support of concerted fisheries management measures.
75. The implementation of this strategic objective complements that of B.1 by supporting national actions. It, therefore, involves a number of activities designed to assist Members in the necessary adaptation or updating of national policies and legal frameworks. The scope of these activities extends from water policy and river basin management to national forest policies, through seed quality control and certification mechanisms, safe use of pesticides in conformity with international codes and conventions, phytosanitary measures consistent with external obligations, risk analysis and application of food standards, national fisheries development frameworks in line with international commitments, and adaptation to new trade regimes or agreements, resulting from Multilateral Trade Negotiations.
76. This strategic objective embodies the extensive requirements of countries for well-tested options to guide the evolution of their agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors. The strategy components outlined in the Strategic Framework called for an active FAO role in connection with improving production and distribution systems; promoting diversification and specialisation of production; and encouraging structural adaptations so as to respond to evolving consumption patterns and exploit complementarities among sectors.
77. In response, a significant number of major outputs in 2004-09 are covering such critical aspects as: management of land resources, various aspects of sustainable crop production systems, plant biotechnology applications, efficient commercial services to the agricultural sector, support to technology transfer, aquaculture development, and forest products. The Special Programme for Food Security has also pride of place in the implementation of this objective.
78. Most relevant PAIAs include those dealing with Food for the Cities, Biotechnology Applications and Organic Agriculture.
79. This objective implies that FAO should have a proactive role in facilitating effective research and its application in the field - from advising Members on the most appropriate technologies through to actively influencing the international research agenda based upon practical experiences in the field (e.g. the important contribution of entity 251P4, Secretariat of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CGIAR).
80. The PAIA on Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, is also quite relevant in addressing issues such as the benefits and potential risks of biotechnology, its importance to national development and capacity-building requirements in developing countries.
81. Again, a significant number of major outputs are expected to contribute to this objective, in dealing with such key aspects as: efficient water use and conservation, land and soil productivity, integrated crop management practices and IPM29 techniques, veterinary services and livestock production technologies, mechanisation and post-harvest management, the application of nuclear techniques through AGE30, research and extension links and support to NARS31, exploitation of marine resources, inland fisheries and aquaculture, and the enhanced utilisation of forest products.
82. The SPFS will also be a very important contributor to this objective, demonstrating with a fully participatory approach the potential of well-tested and simple technologies in an expanding range of projects and countries.
83. Activities contributing to this strategic objective reflect the broad range of natural resources upon which agriculture, fisheries and forestry depend: sound land and water management under Programme 2.1.1; the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources under Programmes 2.1.2 and 2.1.3, as exemplified by the Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources; support to responsible inland fisheries and aquaculture and sustainable management of forests, including institutional aspects; and the gender dimension of natural resource management.
84. Action under this strategic objective also includes support to implementation of Agenda 21 of UNCED, and related international environment agreements. The SPFS pays due attention to supporting objective D1, as well as the companion objective D2.
85. The most relevant PAIA is that dealing with Strengthening Capacity for Integrated Ecosystem Management which initially concentrates on drylands and mountains, including follow-up to the International Year of Mountains held in 2002. The prime focus of entity 241A4, Conservation in Forests and Fragile Ecosystems, is also relevant to D2. Work on climate change under the corresponding PAIA is also of major importance. Normative work on the economics of environmental sustainability (224P3) will also contribute, as will support to environmental agreements and promotion of integrated environmental planning (251A6).
86. The very large number of entities and major outputs linked to this strategic objective, reflects the pervasive nature of the information collection and dissemination function of FAO, with pride of place for statistics-related activities and for WAICENT32 under Programme 2.2.2. Two PAIAs are, moreover, fully responsive to this strategy, in dealing with Definitions, Norms, Methodologies and Quality of Information and Spatial Information Management and Decision Support Tools. However, it also benefits from the work on databases on land and water, crops (including lesser known cultivars) and grasslands, rural finance, known nutrient requirements, food additives, living marine and other fishery resources, fish safety information, fish trade and forestry data.
87. The special provision introduced in the Programme of Work and Budget 2000-2001 (programme entity 222P5) for the Improvement of Language Coverage is to be extended until 2004-05, but should be phased out thereafter, as requirements for language balance should normally be met by the respective units' allotments.
88. The range of activities pertinent to this strategic objective reflects self-evidently the importance given to assessment and projection work in the various sectors (livestock, commodities, fisheries, forestry, natural resources) while one PAIA deals with needed cooperation in this area, particularly as regards Global Perspective Studies. The major publications include: Agriculture Towards 20XX, the State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA), the State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), the State of the World's Forests (SOFO), the Commodity Market Review, complemented by other outlook studies.
89. This strategic objective is closely related to E2, while the main contributions include work on World Food Summit follow-up monitoring, in particular the medium-term review in 2006, and support to the CFS33 (all under the new Programme 2.2.0). One key relevant publication is the State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI). Other entities and outputs may contribute in less direct ways.
1 CL 119/17
2 Technical Cooperation Programme
3 Special Programme for Food Security
4 Low-income, Food-deficit Countries
5 Special Programmes Coordination and Monitoring Service
6 National Professional Officers
7 Finance Division
8 Information Systems and Technology Division
9 Global Environment Facility
10 United Nations Development Programme
11 Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases
12 Plant Protection Service
13 Environmental satellite system
14 Integrated Pest Management
15 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
16 Transboundary animal diseases
17 Special Programme for Food Security
18 UK government Department for International Development
19 Inter-agency Working Group
20 European Community
21 United States Department of Agriculture
22 Associate Professional Officers
23 Global Information and Early Warning System
24 New Partnership for Africa's Development
25 Global Partnership for Responsible Fisheries
26 Multilateral trade negotiations
27 Forest resource assessment
28 World Summit on Sustainable Development
29 Integrated Pest Management
30 Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture
31 National Agricultural Research Systems
32 World Agricultural Information Centre
33 Committee on World Food Security