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Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action (PAIAs)


90. Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action (PAIAs) had been identified in the preceding Medium Term Plan (MTP) 2002-07. Work over the medium term under these PAIAs has been further refined through the related inter-departmental working groups (cf. also the strategy for Enhancing inter-disciplinarity in Part III of this document). Guidance from the chairpersons of these groups on agreed medium-term Objectives and Priorities for the period 2004-09 was provided to all concerned units so that they could programme activities which would produce outputs contributing to the objectives of the PAIAs of interest.

91. The corporate strategies on which these PAIAs are largely focused - although several may contribute to other strategies - are recalled below:

A - Contributing to the eradication of food insecurity and rural poverty
B - Promoting, developing and reinforcing policy and regulatory frameworks for food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry
C - Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors
D - Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture
E - Improving decision-making through the provision of information and assessments and fostering of knowledge management for food and agriculture
Thematic PAIAs

92. Two further PAIAs are of a rather different nature, while addressing all five Corporate Strategies in the context of a specific theme:

93. As the rationale for inter-disciplinary work under the above PAIAs is well understood, the narratives below focus essentially on medium-term objectives and priorities under the PAIAs. They are accompanied by charts which illustrate the expected range of contributions from the substantive major programmes.

94. These contributions can be appreciated in much greater detail on FAO's Web site for the MTP 2004-09 ( where the major outputs can be selected by the PAIA to which they contribute.

Local Institution Building to Improve Capacity for
Achieving Sustainable Rural Livelihoods

95. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The work under this PAIA is coordinated by an Informal Working Group linked to the PAIA on Integrated Production Systems. It is led by SDA37, which deals with many aspects of sustainable livelihoods and is strongly supported by the other divisions in the Sustainable Development Department (SD). The major contributors from other departments include: AGS38 with its work on enhancing small farmers' livelihoods, ESN39 on community action for improved household food security and FO40 on participatory forestry and sustainable livelihoods.

96. Objectives

  1. to improve the effectiveness of national policies and programmes aimed at strengthening the contribution of local institutions to rural livelihoods and assisting vulnerable populations;
  2. to foster local institutions and attendant organizational capacity for improving rural livelihoods and ensuring equitable access to resources; and
  3. to strengthen links of local institutions where appropriate to regional, national and international institutions.

97. Priorities

  1. assessments of policies and programmes to strengthen local institutions, leading to adjusted advocacy and awareness activities for policy makers at international and national levels;
  2. formulation of procedures at all levels to ensure adequate contributions of local institutions to policy, programme and project formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation;
  3. guidance on participatory and sustainable livelihoods approaches for strengthening local institutions and on institutional arrangements to improve access to, and management of natural resources;
  4. capacity building of local governments in the promotion of sustainable rural livelihoods;
  5. development of appropriate local institutional measures for forestry; co-management and rights-based institutions for fisheries; and efficient coordinating mechanisms in the post-harvest sector;
  6. decision support tools to enhance gender equity in rural institution building and innovative institutional approaches to harness the potential of youth;
  7. partnership with the private sector for achieving sustainable rural livelihoods, with attention to the sustainable provision of commercial services and the promotion of community-based enterprises;
  8. guidance to producer organizations and related networks on policy analysis and improved support services, and dissemination of materials to enhance their performance; and
  9. integrated decision support systems (e.g. integration of agricultural, forestry and fisheries research, extension, education and communications systems to support local institution building); enhanced knowledge base of local institutions to promote sustainable resource use in small-scale crop, livestock, fisheries, forestry and mixed production and post-harvest systems, drawing on indigenous knowledge and lessons learned.

Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and Post-Emergency
Relief and Rehabilitation

98. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

This PAIA is guided by the Emergency Coordination Group under the chair of the Technical Cooperation Department (TC). Key contributions come from TCA41 and especially the new TCE42 Division covering emergency operations and rehabilitation, while involving other substantial contributions from AG43 (land and water planning to mitigate natural disasters, emergencies linked to plant pests and migratory pests), ES44 (nutrition and household food security in emergencies), FO (work on forest fires and watershed protection) and SD (supportive databases).

99. Objectives

  1. to develop FAO's capability as a diversified source of information on technical, institutional and policy considerations of relevance to the theme of this PAIA;
  2. to increase synergies between the concerned FAO technical and operational units, so that normative activities reflect lessons learned from field experience; and
  3. to increase FAO's effectiveness in relation to emergency preparedness and response at the field level.

100. Priorities

  1. information and communication strategy to facilitate information management, access, dissemination, sharing and use by stakeholders, both at Headquarters and in the field;
  2. formulation of strategies for preparedness, with emphasis on community-based measures linking with policy makers at sub-national level;
  3. technical and operational guidelines and training materials aiming at capacity building for staff in FAO's country and Regional Offices on all aspects of disaster management;
  4. refined methodologies on vulnerability and risk assessment and, in particular, mapping vulnerability in risk-prone countries, combining food security and sustainable livelihood approaches;
  5. methodologies and databases providing decision makers at all levels with enhanced predictive capacity for disaster occurrence, preparedness, mitigation and impact assessment; and
  6. guidelines and advice to Members for mainstreaming of disaster risk management into development plans and programmes at local, country and international levels.

Biosecurity for Agriculture and Food Production

101. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The related coordinating mechanism is the IDWG45 on Biosecurity. The two key contributors are the AGP46 and ESN Divisions, in view of their responsibilities respectively with the implementation of the IPPC47 and food safety issues and Codex standards. The Fisheries Department (FI) is also involved from the perspective of safety and quality control of fish products.

102. Objectives

  1. to provide policy advice to governments on biosecurity issues;
  2. to support effective information exchange among Members; and
  3. to assist countries in terms of effective biosecurity programmes and their participation in related standard-setting activities.

103. Priorities

  1. monitoring, assessment and evaluation of international policies and instruments relevant to food safety, animal and plant health, international trade, human health and the environment;
  2. organisation of an International Conference on Biosecurity in Food and Agriculture (in 2005) and support to resulting recommendations and plan of action;
  3. fully operational Internet Portal; this includes cooperation with national authorities (minimum of 80 countries) and other international agencies, as well as capacity building to enable them to contribute to the Portal;
  4. guidelines on risk assessment, risk management and risk communication as they relate to biosecurity; and
  5. support to national biosecurity strategies and programmes and strengthening of national infrastructures (through field projects).

WTO Multi-lateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

104. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

This PAIA is coordinated by the IDWG on Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN). The bulk of the work rests with the ES Department, in particular its ESC48 Division which is the main FAO unit involved with agricultural trade matters and follow-up to multilateral trade negotiations. The PAIA, however, brings together all units with trade-related activities (AGP for its work on PIC49 for pesticides in international trade; ESN for Codex; FI and FO for trade in respective products and TCA for overall policy assistance).

105. Objective

In the light of the conclusions of the Fourth WTO50 Ministerial Conference (Doha, Qatar), to support Members, particularly developing countries and countries in transition, with a view to increasing their capacity to participate effectively in international trade negotiations and to better integrate into global trade in food, agricultural, fishery and forestry products.

106. Priorities

  1. regular analyses and facilitation of information flow regarding trade issues under negotiation and the implications of alternative negotiating proposals (particularly in 2004-05);
  2. assistance to Members (with the period of major relevance indicated in parentheses) so that they:
  3. have the knowledge and skills to evaluate their interests and formulate their positions in the negotiations (2004-05);
  4. satisfy the technical requirements of the negotiations, such as the completion of country schedules of commitments and evaluation of other WTO members' schedules (2004-05);
  5. comply with the commitments undertaken in the final agreements (2006-09);
  6. take advantage of the trade opportunities offered by the new agreement (2006-09); and
  7. assistance to countries for the adjustment and adaptation of domestic policies (throughout 2004-09).

Climate Change Issues in Agriculture
Updated context

107. The first commitment period for countries in Annex 1 of the Kyoto Protocol to achieve emissions' reduction starts in 2008. Therefore, in the intervening period the flexible mechanisms identified in the Protocol will be operationalised. Within its domain of competence, FAO is expected to play an important role in assisting Members in order to benefit from these flexible mechanisms.

108. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The related coordination mechanism is the IDWG on Climate Change, currently chaired by the FO Department in view of the importance of forestry to climate change. Contributions are also expected from AG and SD which oversees FAO's support to the post-UNCED51 conventions and protocols.

109. Objectives

  1. to develop normative and methodological approaches integrating forestry, agricultural, cultural and economic issues in the context of climate change; and
  2. to open new channels of financing and other support measures for mitigating and adapting to climate change, building on expanding cooperation with GEF52.

110. Priorities

  1. work on "definitions" of climate change-oriented terms in the forestry, agricultural and other relevant sectors;
  2. coordinated technical assistance to developing countries, to benefit from flexible instruments such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), including reporting obligations and project formulation;
  3. studies on four main areas of relevance of climate change in FAO's context:
  4. production of greenhouse gases by agriculture;
  5. impact of climate change on agriculture and natural resources;
  6. climate change mitigation opportunities through carbon sequestration and carbon substitution of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources;
  7. adaptation of rural communities to climate change impacts; and
  8. guidelines on best practices and techniques for effective mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Organic Agriculture

111. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

While the "lion's share" of contributions to this PAIA is self-evidently in the AG Department, the coordinating IDWG on Organic Agriculture is currently chaired by ESC. Necessary contributions include ES (trade and nutrition dimensions of organic foods), SD (for environmental aspects) and LEG53 (for legal aspects under Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance).

112. Objectives

  1. to assist countries in the development of organic agriculture, including national capacity to effectively produce, store, process, inspect, certify and market organic foods and fibres; and
  2. to strengthen FAO's information base and partnerships on issues of importance to organic agriculture.

113. Priorities

  1. technical and policy documents related to production, conservation, processing, labelling and marketing;
  2. formulation of integrative approaches to plant protection, soil and nutrient management, animal husbandry and post-harvest operations within holistic organic agriculture production systems, with particular emphasis on low-input farming systems;
  3. facilitation of the legal and policy framework for marketing and trade of certified organic agriculture products;
  4. studies, statistics and exchanges of experiences on the contribution of organic agriculture to the environment, rural livelihoods and food security in different agro-ecological regions;
  5. studies on, and identification of effective approaches to organic soil management, sustainable use of biodiversity, natural pest population regulation and organic post-harvest handling; and
  6. decision support tools to facilitate the trade of certified organic agriculture, including production standards, inspection, certification and accreditation in the context of small holders and developing countries' conditions.

Food for the Cities

114. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The IDWG on Food for the Cities guides this PAIA which puts the main onus on the AG Department, with its divisions contributing from complementary perspectives (AGL54 for water quality management, AGP for intensification of production systems, AGA for safe animal husbandry and AGS' lead role in policy formulation for meeting urban food needs and in covering processing and marketing aspects). There is also a strong contribution from the ESN Division (e.g. for food quality control aspects).

115. Objectives

  1. to enhance awareness of governments, municipal authorities and relevant institutions as relates to urban and peri-urban food security requirements, especially of poor households;
  2. to assist with safety, efficiency and sustainability dimensions of urban and peri-urban food and agricultural production and post-production systems;
  3. to ensure that the urban food system is an integral component of the national food supply and distribution system, taking into account the need to enhance rural and urban linkages; and
  4. to promote sound environmental policies concerning urban and peri-urban areas, while reducing urban food insecurity.

116. Priorities

  1. publications on appropriate planning and policy frameworks for urban food systems;
  2. electronic, audio-visual and other communication materials to sensitise policy makers, technical managers and stakeholders on key issues;
  3. regional and national workshops to raise awareness and promote effective development planning across the rural-urban continuum;
  4. dissemination of proven technologies and best practices;
  5. information and training materials for capacity building and support to training courses at different levels;
  6. operation of an interactive website and implementation of a coherent communication strategy on Food for the Cities; and
  7. active participation in international networks and fora.

Integrated Production Systems (SARD/SPFS)

117. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

This PAIA is coordinated by an informal working group which brings together virtually all departments. Clearly, it is of major interest to AG given the strong emphasis on intensification of production systems and improved technologies. Nevertheless, other departments need to contribute (FO for the critical role of forests and trees, ES for supportive analytical work, SDA and SDW55 for institutional and gender issues, and TCA for related policy assistance).

118. Objectives

  1. to assist with smallholder crop and livestock intensification strategies and integrated production technologies, including aquaculture and agro-forestry;
  2. to provide viable crop and livestock diversification options to Members to meet food security and income generation targets and increment market opportunities;
  3. to enhance integration of production, processing, packaging, transport and storage of marketable commodities and value-added products from the farm through to the consumer;
  4. to support entrepreneurs in rural and peri-urban agribusiness development; and
  5. to facilitate adoption of novel approaches to crop and livestock intensification and product processing.

119. Priorities

  1. sustainable intensification and horizontal integration of production systems:
  2. evaluation of good agricultural practices for specific production systems in selected agro-ecozones and related assistance to countries;
  3. uptake of conservation agriculture concepts and technologies through policy guidance, appraisal and pilot projects as well as related training activities;
  4. dissemination of technologies for intensive crop and forage production, including agroforestry, aquaculture and conservation measures within integrated systems;
  5. appraisal and design of policies to correct the negative environmental effects of livestock and crop production which are not reflected in product and input prices, and related technology transfer (including the "Livestock Environment and Development Initiative");
  6. economic appraisal of farming systems dynamics and the farm-level impacts of integrated and intensive production;
  7. vertical integration of production systems, processing and marketing:
  8. management tools for entrepreneurs in agribusiness, together with related information and training packages;
  9. promotion of appropriate technologies, including biotechnology, for agro-industries and post-harvest management and related training;
  10. training materials and capacity building to reinforce linkages between producers and processors;
  11. post-harvest analytical framework to identify inefficiencies in the post-harvest system and advice on necessary policy, management and infra-structural adjustments;
  12. integrated databases and information systems:
  13. country-based farm data and information systems, including design, pilot development and promotion of field guides, software and training materials, particularly in support of SPFS;
  14. assessment of lesser-known crop plants with localised and/or international potential, and dissemination of information (including training and networking);
  15. global databases and interactive websites on post harvest information, conservation agriculture, farm machinery, grass and forage production, and livestock intensification; and
  16. pilot projects:
  17. for each regional pilot project, introduction and field-level assessment of improved crop, livestock, aquaculture and agro-forestry techniques, and development of post-production systems, high-valued crops and livestock products;
  18. participatory assessment for the improvement of farming systems and methods (through meetings and collaboration with local institutions and stakeholders);
  19. appraisal, design and promotion of supportive policies and institutional measures for better management of available resources in smallholder farming systems (including sharing of experiences);
  20. establishment of pilot sites, in cooperation with SPFS, as learning centres in support of countries and organizations working on improved livelihoods through sustainable integration of crop and livestock systems (including aquaculture and agro-forestry wherever appropriate).

Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

120. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The IDWG on Biotechnology guides the work of this PAIA. The substantial involvement of AG is primarily on account of its work on genetic resources for food and agriculture (plant and animal) and seed development, as well as both AGE's56 and AGS' work on biotechnology applications. FO also contributes from the perspective of forest genetic resources.

121. Objective

To assist Members, particularly developing countries, in the safe and responsible application of biotechnology to enhance food security.

122. Priorities

  1. decision support tools and training materials on the sound management of biotechnology and related issues in food and agriculture; to be coupled with national and regional workshops;
  2. advice in the formulation and implementation of cross-sectoral, inter-disciplinary projects on biotechnology;
  3. analytical reports and information documents for inter-governmental technical committees and commissions which cover trends and developments in biotechnology research and products, e.g. commodity markets and trade in genetically modified (GM) crops, agricultural impacts of GM crops, effects of intellectual property rights on agricultural research;
  4. support to negotiations on a Code of Conduct on Biotechnology, as relates to genetic resources in food and agriculture, or possibly in food and agriculture in a broader sense (subject to the outcome of the October 2002 regular meeting of the CGRFA57); and
  5. a website on biotechnology, with links to other relevant sites within and outside FAO, and heightened participation of national institutions; this site is to provide regularly updated information on biotechnology techniques and products and on policy and regulatory issues surrounding research on, and deployment of agricultural biotechnology; it will also include a glossary of biotechnology and genetic engineering and an e-mail discussion forum on cross-sectoral technical and policy issues.

Integrated Management of Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture

123. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

This PAIA, which is coordinated by the IDWG on Biodiversity, also needs to rely on substantial contributions from AGA58 and AGP, in line with their responsibilities for management and conservation of animal and plant genetic resources. FO and FI also contribute from respective sectors' perspectives, whereas SD ensures links with related post-UNCED international instruments.

124. Objectives

  1. to improve understanding of: the ecological functions of agricultural biodiversity; the interactions among its components, the physical environment and socio-economic factors at all scales; and the impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity and ecosystems;
  2. to promote improved and adaptive ecosystem management practices, including resource allocation and conflict resolution leading to increased benefits for local, national and global stakeholders;
  3. to assist in capacity building of local communities and organizations to manage agricultural biodiversity; and
  4. to support national and international policies and instruments related to the conservation, sustainable use, and adaptive management of agricultural biodiversity.

125. Priorities

  1. technical workshops, building upon community-level, national and regional inputs, on:
  2. functioning and management of agricultural biodiversity and the interactions among its components (i.e. genes, populations, and communities), the physical environment, and socio-economic factors at various spatial scales;
  3. agricultural production and ecosystem services arising from agricultural biodiversity;
  4. the positive and negative impacts of agricultural intensification and expansion on the biodiversity and ecosystem function;
  5. based on the outcomes of these workshops and relevant sectoral studies, a comprehensive assessment of the relationships between agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystem function to support dialogue among stakeholders and policy makers;
  6. methodologies, guidelines, and case studies on community-based learning, research, and adaptive management of agricultural biodiversity for sustainable production and livelihood improvements;
  7. support to national programmes of community-based learning, research, and adaptive management of agricultural biodiversity (such as Farmers' Field Schools); and
  8. inputs to relevant policy fora, including the CGRFA, other FAO technical committees, the Convention of Biological Diversity, or to the implementation of the International Plant Protection Convention.

Strengthening Capacity for Integrated Ecosystem Management

126. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

Two coordinating mechanisms handle this PAIA: the IDWG on Desertification and the IDWG on Sustainable Mountain Development. This reflects the current focus on these two ecosystems and explains the substantial AG and FO contributions. The importance of these topics to UNCED follow-up is also reflected by SD's contribution.

127. Objective

To promote the ecosystem management approach (ECOM) for use by Members and other partners.

128. Priorities

  1. development and testing of tools and guidelines relevant to the ECOM approach;
  2. awareness and training activities in ecosystem management;
  3. definition of procedures for the integration of ECOM components within FAO's programmes and projects;
  4. dissemination of recommendations on technical and policy issues in the implementation of the ECOM approach; and
  5. support to networks of users of the ECOM approach in areas of FAO's mandate.

129. This is to be complemented by work on specific fragile ecosystems:

  1. drylands (combating desertification):
  2. promotion of the ECOM approach in selected regional, sub-regional and national action programmes under the aegis of the UNCCD59 (co-executed by FAO);
  3. support to UNCCD Bodies (Executive Secretariat, Global Mechanism, Committee on Science and Technology) and other partners on the use of the ECOM approach;
  4. integration of the ECOM approach in major FAO's programmes and projects relevant to dryland conservation, development or rehabilitation; and
  5. mountain ecosystems:
  6. implementation of the ECOM approach in selected mountain ecosystems, as follow-up to the International Year of Mountains;
  7. support to Members and to technical networks concerned with mountain ecosystems, on the use of the ECOM approach, in particular as relates to food security programmes.

Spatial Information Management and Decision Support Tools

130. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The spread of contributions to this PAIA from the five Headquarters technical departments (AG, ES, FI, FO and SD) reflects the wide range of use of spatial information and related tools in FAO's substantive work. SD is focal point for GIS development and the PAIA is coordinated by the informal working group on GIS Modelling.

131. Objective

To facilitate access to harmonised spatial information produced within and outside FAO; e.g. for use in global and regional perspective studies, and for national application by Members.

132. Priorities

In cooperation with the PAIA on quality of information, the main priorities are to coordinate the:

  1. production of standard maps at various scales, such as basemaps, international and administrative boundary maps, coastlines, rivers and water basins with their international name;
  2. guidelines for standardisation in the use of country and sub-national codes;
  3. manual on GIS60 databases and products;
  4. generation of spatial agricultural country information and geo-referenced sub-national land use databases through FAO's website;
  5. enhancement of the corporate spatial data warehouse (GEONETWORK) with a broad range of services and links with outside partners; and
  6. updated methodology for land-use surveys and land-use definitions, and decision support tools, particularly as relates to land use planning.

Definitions, Norms, Methodologies and Quality of Information

133. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The work of this PAIA is managed by the IMTC's61 Sub-committee on Information Management under the chair of GIL62. All technical departments maintaining production and trade statistics (i.e. ESS63, FI and FO) are actively involved, as well as GIL with its responsibility for WAICENT64. In addition, specific contributions are planned from AG (land, water, livestock), ESD65 and ESN (FIVIMS66, food safety and nutrients), SD (land tenure) and TC (country focus systems).

134. Objective

To promote the use of agreed standards, norms and common methodologies so as to ensure high quality of the information disseminated.

135. Priorities

  1. improved user interface and search functionality of FAO's statistical databases;
  2. revision of statistical data collection, processing and analysis processes;
  3. standardisation of terms, definitions and categorisation schemes under the various subject matters or disciplines covered by FAO, including inter-disciplinary activities, by using international standards for classification;
  4. issuance of document type definitions (DTDs) for information objects and textual information produced by the Organization, including tools for use by Members; and
  5. presentation of progress to the Consultations on Agricultural Information Management (COAIMs) to be held during the Plan period and feedback of results to future activities.

Global Perspective Studies

136. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The Ad hoc IDWG on Global Perspective Studies guides the work of this PAIA. The underlying inter-disciplinary nature of studies such as AT 20XX, requires the involvement of all technical departments: AG (natural resource potentials and use, genetic resources, farm power, etc.), ES (basic statistical data), FI (SOFIA67 inputs), and FO (SOFO68 inputs).

137. Objectives

  1. to harmonise, to the maximum extent possible, major assumptions and time horizons used in FAO's perspective analyses, and policy statements on key issues of international interest;
  2. to identify and analyse issues of a long-term and inter-disciplinary nature on which FAO needs to express a position; and
  3. to identify (additional) analytical tools and enhance FAO's capacity to undertake long-term perspective analysis.

138. Priorities

  1. major reports which are expected to benefit from the above, include:
    1. a full technical report on Agriculture Towards 20XX (AT 20XX) by 2009;
    2. regional perspective studies for the livestock sector;
    3. regional perspective studies for the forestry sector;
    4. perspective studies for fish consumption, supply and trade;
    5. updated perspectives for the prevalence of under-nourishment (in preparation of the 2006 World Food Summit Mid-term Review); and
  2. other priorities include:
    1. development of a new analytical framework for undertaking food and agriculture projections and scenario analysis for the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors;
    2. improved indicators and estimates of the environmental impacts of food and agriculture production, for use in perspective studies.

Gender and Development

139. In line with the contents of the more substantial FAO Gender and Development Plan of Action (2002-2007)69, four major objectives are aimed at improving FAO's capacity in mainstreaming gender issues into four key areas:

140. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The work of this PAIA is guided by SDW, which is responsible for coordinating the development and implementation monitoring of the Plan of Action. Clearly all technical units, by definition, contribute to the objectives and priorities as defined below. While all outputs have a potential for gender mainstreaming, the distribution in the diagram reflects those specifically identified for the Plan of Action as modified in the context of these medium-term proposals.

141. Objective 1

To assist Members in their efforts to increase rural women and men's equal access to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food.

142. Priorities

  1. addressing human nutrition requirements through gender- and culturally-sensitive publications, capacity building, methodologies and guidelines for household food security and nutrition interventions targeting rural women, as well as young girls and boys;
  2. fostering profitability and sustainability of urban and peri-urban farming for both women and men;
  3. work on food and nutrition education, communication and training, including gender- and culturally-sensitive training programmes and methods for incorporation of nutrition considerations in emergency responses; and
  4. support to national food quality, safety and hygiene programmes and enhanced risk communication and consumer awareness by targeting both men and women farmers.

143. Objective 2

To assist Members in their efforts to increase rural women and men's equal access to and control over natural resources and agricultural support services.

144. Priorities

  1. development of gender-sensitive technologies for efficient natural resource use in livestock production;
  2. enhancing small farmer livelihoods through gender-sensitive advisory and support services;
  3. promotion of technologies for on-farm water control and management, irrigation, rehabilitation of degraded soils, moisture conservation in rainfed areas that take into account the gender dimension;
  4. promotion of sustainable crop, seed and grassland production systems that take into account gender issues;
  5. promotion of coastal and inland fisheries, including small-scale fisheries and aquaculture, through gender-sensitive methodologies, guidelines, studies and analyses, as well as relevant information systems and databases; and
  6. promotion of sustainable management and conservation of natural forests, woodlands and fragile ecosystems by targeting both rural women and men in programmes for improved management skills, increased knowledge, transfer of technologies and information.

145. Objective 3

To assist Members in their efforts to promote gender equality in policy- and decision-making processes.

146. Priorities

  1. monitoring the implementation of the commitments emanating from the World Food Summit through thematic analyses that include a gender perspective;
  2. support to national commodity and trade strategies, including analyses of the impact of trade and commodity market developments on food security, that take into consideration the gender dimension;
  3. gender- and age-disaggregated information and related quality assessment studies, coupled with improved agricultural census/survey methodologies and strengthening of national capacities;
  4. enhanced search and retrieval capabilities in FAO's document repository and electronic publishing systems, including gender-specific searches;
  5. support to the regulatory frameworks for food and agriculture through the preparation of gender- and culturally-sensitive guidelines, manuals, codes of conduct and action plans;
  6. collection and dissemination of legal information that takes into account gender equality issues;
  7. integration of gender and population dimensions in policies and legislation, through use of the Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) framework;
  8. advisory services on population/gender-responsive national legislation and policies and programmes, with special attention to the relevance and impact of HIV/AIDS, youth-related issues, and cultural dimension; and
  9. in the context of FAO's assistance in the elaboration of national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a stronger focus on the links between gender issues and the effective reduction of hunger and poverty in rural areas.

147. Objective 4

To assist Members in their efforts to promote gender equality in opportunities for on- and off-farm employment in rural areas.

148. Priorities

  1. on-going appraisal and promotion of effective opportunities for increasing on-farm and off-farm income for rural women and men;
  2. gender-sensitive field guides and training materials for improving the management skills of rural women and men;
  3. gender-sensitive management tools and technologies related to agribusiness development;
  4. support to sustainable resource use in small scale production systems targeting both women and men farmers, increasing household income for women and men agricultural producers, and improving access to goods and services by women and men small-scale farmers; and
  5. promotion of management skills and training related to marketing activities by rural women and men.

Ethics in Food and Agriculture

149. Main Contributors Contributions by Major Programme

The work of the PAIA is directly coordinated by the Sub-committee on Ethics in Food and Agriculture. Leading contributions are made by AG and LEG (under Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance), which are also involved in serving the Panel of Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture. In addition, contributions are made by ESN (food quality control) and SD (safety assessment of genetically modified organisms, ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS, etc.).

150. Objectives

  1. to mainstream activities relevant to ethics in food and agriculture within FAO, in order to incorporate ethical considerations, where pertinent, in the ongoing normative and technical work of the Organization; and
  2. to assist with raising public awareness on ethical issues in food and agriculture and facilitate exchanges with other inter-governmental organizations.

151. Priorities

  1. two biennial publications in the "FAO Ethics Series" (and further publications, if adequate funding is available in a biennium); these publications will deal with ethical dimensions of food and agriculture, especially issues of public interest, with the aim of providing clear concepts and analysis and facilitating needed policy decisions by member countries;
  2. biennial meetings of the Panel of Eminent Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture;
  3. maintenance and further development of an ethics section within FAO's website, and related information management tools; and
  4. close relations with other inter-governmental and UN bodies, in particular UNESCO70 and WHO71, on matters of common interest related to ethics.

34 Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development

35 Special Programme for Food Security

36 Also referred to as Gender Mainstreaming

37 Rural Development Division

38 Agricultural Support Systems Division

39 Food and Nutrition Division

40 Forestry Department

41 Policy Assistance Division

42 Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division

43 Agriculture Department

44 Economic and Social Department

45 Inter-departmental Working Group

46 Plant Production and Protection Division

47 International Plant Protection Convention

48 Commodities and Trade Division

49 Prior Informed Consent

50 World Trade Organization

51 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

52 Global Environment Facility

53 Legal Office

54 Land and Water Development Division

55 Gender and Population Division

56 Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

57 Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

58 Animal Production and Health Division

59 Convention to Combat Desertification

60 Geographical Information System

61 Information Management and Technology Committee

62 Library and Documentation Systems Division

63 Statistics Division

64 World Agricultural Information Centre

65 Office of the Assistant Director-General (ES)

66 Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System

67 State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture

68 State of the World's Forests

69 C 2001/9

70 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

71 World Health Organization

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