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(as used in formal education)

    Phase One: Formulation, Specification, and Prototyping

  1. Selection of audience and analysis of learner characteristics.
  2. Initial determination of learner outcomes (crude objectives, not yet behavioral).
  3. literature search to attempt to locate existing materials that will meet the intended outcomes for the audience selected.
  4. Tentative selection of experiential learning methods (activities).
  5. Preliminary contacts for development and field test sites.
  6. Outline of content developed (Intended Outcomes + Content + Methods).
  7. Final specification of intended outcomes, in measurable terms (Condition + Performance + Standards).
  8. Pretesting of criterion materials, designed to measure achievement of outcomes.
  9. Prototype developed for one unit, module, or section.
  10. Reading level, layout, and fonts used tested for appropriateness to target audience.



    Phase Two:    Prototype Development, Testing, and Draft Writing

  1. Drafts produced, appropriate items for each intended outcome drafted.
  2. Developmental trial conducted on draft materials and test items.
  3. Revision and new drafts produced based on developmental trial results, until criterion level of achievement is reached on each intended outcome.
  4. Sets of specifications produced for audiovisual and/or computer elements.
  5. Development of AV/computer, related activities underway.
  6. Contacts for field trials finalized.



    Phase Three: Testing and Revision Cycles

  1. Design team trains field test leader/facilitator on use of curriculum.
  2. Field testing conduced with observers or extensive feedback from leader/facilitator. Pre/post testing and scoring done. Data analyzed, interviews with target audience learners and leader/facilitator completed.
  3. Revisions made in training plan, text materials, AV, activities, evaluation feedback system, etc.
  4. Materials subjected to expert external review.
  5. Revision as recommended by external review.
  6. "Hands off" field trial conducted, using local staff to conduct leader/facilitator training.
  7. Data analyzed, interviews conducted, revisions as necessary.
  8. Final versions of all materials prepared, with professional youth art, layout, typography, and editing. Printing, videotaping, etc. completed.


 Adapted from: Curriculum Development for Issues Programming: A National Handbook for Extension Youth Development Professionals.  USDA/ES, 1992.


 During the curriculum development process, the curriculum design team should make plans for a final evaluation from the very beginning: "Start with the end in mind." You must apply evaluation standards to your work, to the curriculum designed, and to the training presented.

 Assess the performance of your curriculum product to determine whether it is valid and reliable. Validity means it does what you said it would do. Reliability means outcomes are consistently attained given the same methods and conditions for the intended audience.


 Summative evaluation is a measurement of the intended (and unintended) outcomes resulting  from the implementation of a program or curriculum. It's a report of the results after the curriculum or program has been fully implemented. It's an opportunity to show how well we have done, in meeting the needs of the audience and in attaining the intended outcomes.

 Everyone agrees it should be much more than a head count of those who have participated. If you have developed and implemented a needs-based curriculum, you should be able to  demonstrate an impact on the needs you set out to address. That's the important reason for focusing on clearly stating the intended outcomes and matching activities to them.

 How you go about your "summative evaluation" efforts or accountability will vary depending  on the intended outcomes and the desired outcomes of the stakeholder/shareholders. Guidelines for reporting are included in the text of this Guide. Decide on the kinds of reports you will need. Most importantly, tell your successes, clearly and succinctly, so stakeholders and decision makers at all levels can understand and appreciate the impact of your program. Try to avoid jargon that won't be easily understood! The following questions may serve as a helpful guide to help you prepare your report.

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