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Appendix 1: Glossary of supporting terms




Explanatory notes / comments

Above-ground biomass

IPCC 2006 GL FRA 2005

All living biomass above the soil including stem, stump, branches, bark, seeds and foliage.

1. Where the forest understorey is a relatively small component of the above-ground biomass, it is acceptable to exclude it, provided this is done in a consistent manner throughout the inventory time series.

Above-ground biomass growth

IPCC 2006 GL Oven-dry weight of net annual increment (s.b) of a tree, stand or forest plus oven-dry weight of annual growth of branches, twigs, foliage, top and stump. The term “growth” is used here instead of “increment”, since the latter term tends to be understood in terms of merchantable volume.  

above-ground biomass removals

Agroforestry ICRAFFAO Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and practices where woody perennials are deliberately integrated with crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. The integration can be either in spatial mixture or temporal sequence. There are normally both ecological and economic interactions between the woody and non-woody components in agroforestry.  
Avoided Deforestation   To be defined  
Below-ground biomass IPCC 2006 GL FRA 2005 All living biomass of live roots. Fine roots of less than (suggested) 2mm diameter are sometimes excluded because these often cannot be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter or litter. 1. May include the below-ground part of the stump.2. The country may use another threshold value than 2 mm for fine roots, but in such a case the threshold value used must be documented.
Below-ground biomass growth IPCC 2006 GL growth in below-ground biomass including coarse roots and root collar. Fine root litter excluded
Biomass FRA 2005 Organic material both above-ground and below-ground, and both living and dead, e.g., trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, roots etc. Biomass includes above – and below – ground biomass.  
IPCC 2006 GL Living plant and animal material both above-ground and below-ground (s.a.) usually expressed as dry weight. Biomass literally means living matter, but the term is also used for any organic material derived from plant and animal tissue. In the context of bio-energy, biomass is any material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and transformed to fossil.
Biomass conversion and expansion factor (bcef) IPCC 2006 GL A multiplication factor that converts merchantable volume of growing stock, merchantable volume of net annual increment or merchantable volume of wood-and fuelwood removals to above-ground biomass, above-ground biomass growth or biomass removals, respectively. Biomass conversion and expansion factors for growing stock ( BCEFS), for net annual increment (BCEFI) and for wood- and fuelwood removal (BCEFR) usually differ. As used in these guidelines, they account for above-ground components only. For more detail see box 4.2.  
Biomass expansion factor (BEF) IPCC 2006 GL A multiplication factor that expands the dry-weight of growing stock biomass, increment biomass, and biomass of wood- or fuelwood removals to account for non-merchantable or non-commercial biomass components, such as stump, branches, twigs, foliage, and, sometimes, non-commercial trees. Biomass expansion factors usually differ for growing stock (BEFS), net annual increment (BEFI) and wood- and fuelwood removals (BEFR). As used in these guidelines, biomass expansion factors account for above-ground components only. For more detail see box 4.2.  
Biomass removals IPCC 2006 GL Biomass of wood- and firewood removals (s.b.) plus oven-dry weight of branches, twigs, foliage of the trees or stands removed. for most purposes identical to above-ground biomass removals; in rare cases including below-ground biomass removals where all or parts of the root system is removed
Carbon stock FRA 2005 The quantity of carbon in a “pool”, meaning a reservoir or system which has the capacity to accumulate or release carbon. For FRA 2005 purposes, examples of carbon pools are Living biomass (including Above and below-ground biomass); Dead organic matter (including dead wood and litter); Soils (soils organic matter). The units are mass.
IPCC 2006 GL The quantity of carbon in a pool.  
Closed forests FRA 2000IPCC 2006 GL Formations where trees in the various stories and the undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground (>40%).  
Crown cover/Canopy cover IPCC 2006 GL The percentage of the ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of the foliage. Cannot exceed 100%.  
Dead wood IPCC 2006 GL Includes volume of all non-living wood not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead roots, and stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter or any other diameter used by the country. . Includes dead roots to usually 2mm diameter.  
Devegetation IPCC, 2003a A direct human-induced long-term loss of at least Y % of vegetation since time T on vegetation types other than forest. Vegetation types consist of a minimum area of land of Z ha with foliar cover of W% IPCC Definitions and methodological options to inventory emissions from … and devegetation..
Disturbance FAO, 2006. An environmental fluctuation and destructive event that affects forest health, structure, and/or changes resource or physical environment at any spatial or temporal scale. Include biotic agents such as insects and diseases and abiotic agents such as fire, pollution and extreme weather conditions  
Forest area loss to be defined synonym: net loss of forest area  
Forest fallow systems FRA 2005 Areas of shifting agriculture where forest, forest fallows and agricultural land appear in a dynamic pattern where deforestation and the return of forest occur in small patches. FRA: deforestation explanatory note 3.
FRA 2000 Short fallow: Agricultural area with short fallow periods  
FRA 2000 long fallow: Forest affected by shifting cultivation  
Forest improvement IPCC 2006 GL FRA 2005 Changes within the forest which positively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby increase the capacity to supply products and/or services. (FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment FRA 2000 – Main report. Rome)
Forest plantation FRA 2005 IPCC 2006 GL Forest/other wooded land of introduced species and in some cases native species, established through planting or seeding. 1. Includes all stands of introduced species established through planting or seeding.2. May include areas of native species characterized by few species, even spacing and/or even-aged stands3. Plantation forest is a sub-set of planted forest.
Forest rehabilitation ITTO Forest rehabilitation: a management strategy applied on degraded forest land that aims at restoring the capacity of a forest to produce products and services. ITTO Guidelines for the restoration, management, and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests (ITTO, 2005)
Forest restoration ITTO Forest restoration: A management strategy applied in degraded primary forest areas. Forest restoration aims to restore the forest to its state before degradation (same function, structure and composition). ITTO Guidelines for the restoration, management, and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests (ITTO, 2005)
Fragmented Forests CBD/SBSTA 2001 Forest fragmentation refers to any process that result in the conversion of formerly continuous forest into patches of forest separated by non-forested lands.  
Gross deforestation best not used imperils core definition of deforestation  
Growing Stock FRA 2005IPCC 2006 GL Volume over bark of all living trees more than X cm in diameter at breast height. Includes the stem from ground level or stump height up to a top diameter of Y cm, and may also include branches to a minimum diameter of W cm. 1. The countries must indicate the three thresholds (X, Y, W in cm) and the parts of the tree that are not included in the volume. The countries must also indicate whether the reported figures refer to volume above ground or above stump.2. The diameter is measured at 30 cm above the end of the buttresses if these are higher than 1 metre.3. Includes windfallen living trees.4. Excludes: Smaller branches, twigs, foliage, flowers, seeds, and roots.
Increment biomass IPCC 2006 GL Oven-dry weight of merchantable) net annual increment of a tree, stand or forest  
Litter IPCC, 2006 Includes all non-living biomass with a diameter less than a minimum diameter chosen by the country (for example 10 cm), lying dead, in various states of decomposition above the mineral or organic soil. This includes litter, fumic, and humic layers. Live fine roots (of less than the suggested diameter limit for below-ground biomass) are included in litter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically.  
Lumber recovery factor FAO, 2004 Volume of sawn products produced from delivered log volume and expresses as %  
Managed Forest FRA 2005 Forest and other wooded land that is managed in accordance with a formal or an informal plan applied regularly over a sufficiently long period (five years or more). The definition was adapted to the different needs of each world region. See: Area under forest management plan in 2000, pages 373-374 of the reference below.(FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment FRA 2000 – Main report. Rome)
IPCC 2006 GL A managed forest is a forest subject to forest management: Forest managementA system of practices for stewardship and use of forest land aimed at fulfilling relevant ecological (including biological diversity), economic and social functions of the forest in a sustainable manner.  
Merchantable volume Helms, J.A. Dictionary of Forestry.1998 Volume of a bole or stem suitable for sale  
Modified natural Forest FRA 2005 Forest/Other wooded land of naturally regenerated native species where there are clearly visible indications of human activities. 1. Includes, but is not limited to: selectively logged-over areas, areas naturally regenerating following agricultural land use, areas recovering from human-induced fires, etc.2. Includes areas where it is not possible to distinguish whether the regeneration has been natural or assisted.
Mortality IPCC, 2006 Trees dying naturally from competition in the stem-exclusion stage of a stand or forest. As used here mortality does not include losses due to disturbances.  
Natural expansion of forest FRA 2005 Expansion of forests through natural succession on land that, until then, was under another land use (e.g. forest succession on land previously used for agriculture). Implies a transformation from non-forest to forest. (FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment FRA 2000 – Main report. Rome).
Natural forest FRA 2005IPCC 2006 GL A forest composed of indigenous trees and not classified as a forest plantation.  
Natural regeneration FRA 2005 Assisted natural regeneration: Natural regeneration of forest/other wooded land with deliberate human intervention aimed at enhancing the ability of desired species to regenerate1. Interventions may include removal of external pressures, such as weeds and biotic interference; the application of controlled disturbances to trigger germination of native species such as mosaic and or ecological burns; or the preparation of the germination sitee.g. through scarification.2. The source of seed or vegetative reproduction is limited to the site and its immediate surroundings and may comprise both native and introduced species.  
IPCC 2006 GL Natural regeneration: Re-establishment of a forest stand by natural means, i.e. by natural seeding or vegetative regeneration. It may be assisted by human intervention, e.g. by scarification of the soil or fencing to protect against wildlife or domestic animal grazing.  
Net annual increment IPCC 2006 GL Average annual volume of gross increment over the given reference period minus mortality (s.a.), of all trees to a specified minimum diameter at breast height. As used here, it is not net of losses due to disturbances (s.a.).  
Net deforestation best not used imperils core definition of deforestation  
Net forest area change FAO 2006 Sum of all negative changes due to deforestation and natural disasters and all positive changes due to afforestation and natural expansion of forests FRA: see deforestation explanatory note 3
Net loss of forest area FAO 2006 As net forest area change, but negative  
Open forests FRA 2000IPCC 2006 GL Forests characterised by crown cover below 40%, and above the minimum canopy cover threshold adopted by the Party.  
Other land FAO, 2006 All land that is not classified as Forests or Other wooded land. includes areas classifies under the sub-category Other land with tree cover
Other land with tree cover FRA 2005 Land classified as Other land, spanning more than 0.5 hectares with a canopy cover of more than 10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 metres at maturity. 1. Includes groups of trees and scattered trees in agricultural landscapes, parks, gardens and around buildings, provided that the area, height and canopy cover criteria are met.2. Includes tree plantations established mainly for other purposes than wood, such as fruit orchards.
Other wooded land FRA 2005 Land not classified as Forest, spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5-10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 percent. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.  
Planted forest FRA 2005 Forest/other wooded land in which trees have been established through planting or seeding. Includes all stands established through planting or seeding of both native and introduced species.
Primary Forest FRA 2005 IPCC 2006 GL Forest/Other wooded land of native species, where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. Includes areas where collection of non-wood forest products occurs, provided the human impact is small. Some trees may have been removed.
Reduced Impact Logging FAO,2004. Intensively planned and carefully controlled implementation of harvesting operations to minimize the impact on forest stands and soils usually in individual tree selection cutting  
Reforestation FAO 2005 Establishment of forest plantations on temporarily unstocked lands that are considered as forests  
removals   see wood removals  
removals biomass IPCC, 2007 Oven dry weight of wood removals.  
Secondary forest FRA 2005 IPCC 2006 GL Forest regenerated largely through natural processes after significant human or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation. 1. The disturbance may have occurred at a single point in time or over an extended period;2. The forest may display significant differences in structure and/or canopy species composition in relation to nearby primary forest on similar sites.
Selective felling Helms, J.A. Dictionary of Forestry.1998 A felling that removes only a selected portion of the trees in a standSynonymous: selective cutting, selective harvesting  
Semi-natural Forest FRA 2005 Forest/ other wooded land of native species, established through planting, seeding or assisted natural regeneration. 1. Includes areas under intensive management where native species are used and deliberate efforts are made to increase /optimize the proportion of desirable species, thus leading to changes in the structure and composition of the forest.2. Naturally regenerated trees from other species than those planted/seeded may be present.3. May include areas with naturally regenerated trees of introduced species.4. Includes areas under intensive management where deliberate efforts, such as thinning or fertilizing, are made to improve or optimise desirable functions of the forest. These efforts may lead to changes in the structure and composition of the forest.
Shelterwood cutting Helms, J.A. Dictionary of Forestry.1998 Cutting of most trees, leaving those needed to produce sufficient shade to produce a new age –class  
Shrub IPCC 2006 GL FRA 2005 Vegetation types where the dominant woody elements are shrubs i.e. woody perennial plants, generally more than 0.5 metres and less than 5 metres in height at maturity and without a definite crown. The height limits for trees and shrubs should be interpreted with flexibility, particularly the minimum tree and maximum shrub height, which may vary between 5 meters and 7 meters.
Soil organic matter IPCC, 2006 Includes organic matter in mineral and organic soils (including peat) to a specified depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time series. Live fine roots (of less than the suggested diameter limit for below-ground biomass) are included with soil organic matter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically.  
Thinning Helms, J.A. Dictionary of Forestry.1998 A cultural treatment made to reduce stand density of trees primarily to improve growth, enhance forest health, or recover potential mortality.  
total biomass growth IPCC, 2007 sum of above-and below-ground biomass growth excludes foliage and fine root litter
Tree IPCC 2006 GL FRA 2005 A woody perennial with a single main stem, or in the case of coppice with several stems, having a more or less definite crown. 1. Includes bamboos, palms, and other woody plants meeting the above criteria.
Urban forest   Urban forestry is the management of trees for their contribution to the physiological, sociological, and economic well-being of urban society. Urban forestry deals with woodlands, groups of trees, and individual trees, where people live – it is multifaceted, for urban areas include a great variety of habitats (streets, parks, derelict corners, etc) where trees bestow a great variety of benefits and problems.” Denne, pers. comm.The art, science, and technology of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for the physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits that trees provide society” Grey and Deneke, 1986 Helms, J.A. (Ed.). 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. Society of American Foresters)
Wood removal FRA 2005IPCC 2006 GL The wood removed (volume of round wood over bark) for production of goods and services other than energy production (fuelwood removal). The term removal differs from fellings as it excludes felled trees left in the forest. Includes removal from fellings of an earlier period and from trees killed or damaged by natural causes. Includes removal by local people or owners for their own use.

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