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Appendix 2: Agroforestry systems and practices 16





Agrosilvicultural systems

1.Improved fallow

trees planted during non-forest phase, if land not expected to revert to forest

t: fast growing

h: agricultural crop


crops during tree seedling stage

w: plantation species

h: agricultural crops

3. Alley cropping

trees in hedges, crops in alleys

w: coppice trees

h: crops

4. Tree gardens

multispecies, dense, mixed

w: vertical structure, fruit trees

h: shade tolerant

5. Multipurpose trees on cropland

trees scattered, boundaries

w: multipurpose trees

h: crops

6. Estate crop combinations


w: coffee, coconut, fruit trees

h: shade tolerant


multistorey combinations around homes

w: fruit trees

h: crops

8. Trees in soil conservation, reclamation


w: multipurpose fruit trees


9. Shelterbelts, windbreaks, live hedges

around farmland plots

w: trees


10. Fuelwood production

firewood species around cropland plots

w: firewood species

h: crops

Agro-silvipastoral; systems

14.Homegardens with animals

around homes

w: fruit trees

a : present

15.Multipurpose woody hedgerows

trees for browse, mulch, soil protection

w: coppicing fodder trees

a, h: present

16. Aquaforestry

trees lining ponds

w: leaves forage for fish

Silvipastoral systems

11.Trees on rangelands

scattered trees

w: multipurpose, fodder

f: present

a: present

12. Protein banks

trees for protein-rich cut fodder

w: leguminous trees

h: present

a: present

13. Estate crops with pasture

Example cattle under coconut palms

w: estate crops

F: present

a: present

16 W: woody species; a: animals; h: herbaceous (crop) species

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