The fishery resources of Pacific island countries. Part 2. Holothurians

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 272.2

The fishery resources of Pacific island countries
Part 2. Holothurians


Conand, C.
Laboratoire de biologie animale
Université de Bretagne occidentale
Brest, France

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 1990

Table of Contents


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Conand, C.
The fishery resources of Pacific island countries. Part 2. Holothurians.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 272.2. Rome, FAO. 1989. 143p.
ABSTRACT

The main species of holothurian exploited in the South Pacific are Holothuria scabra, H fuscogilva and H. nobilis, which have high commercial value, Actinopyga echinites, A. miliaris and Thelenota ananas, of medium commercial value, and Holothuria atra, H. fuscopunctata and H mauritiana, whose commercial value is low.

Knowledge of the biology of these species is reviewed in detail, as are resource assessment methods. An example of the possible use of remote sensing for estimating potential is given.

Harvesting and processing techniques and commodity grading are also discussed, while a chapter focussing on the principal markets for bche-de-mer, Hong Kong and Singapore concludes that an increase in exports from the countries and territories of the South Pacific is possible if they can supply a consistently good-quality product on a regular basis.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 272.2 pdf

PREPARATION OF THIS PAPER
ABSTRACT
CONTENTS


INTRODUCTIONpdf

1.1 International trade in echinoderms
1.2 History of research on holothurian fisheries
1.3 Background information on the southern tropical Pacific
1.3.1 An introduction to the region
1.3.2 Countries and territories
1.3.3 Coastal zones and resources

2. GENERAL INFORMATION ON HOLOTHURIANS AND THEIR EXPLOITATION pdf

2.1 Holothurians
2.1.1 General characteristics
2.1.2 Anatomy and biology
2.1.3 Distribution
2.2 The holothurian as a commodity
2.2.1 Consumption of fresh sea cucumber
2.2.2 The bche-de-mer industry - world statistics and the importance of the South Pacific

3. THE INDUSTRY PAST AND PRESENT IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC pdf

3.1 Introduction
3.2 From the origins to the nineteenth century
3.3 Nineteenth century
3.4 First half of the twentieth century
3.5 Traditional consumption and commercial trade in the South Pacific today

4. BIOLOGY OF THE COMMERCIAL SPECIES FOUND IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC pdf

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Species with high commercial value
4.2.1 Holothuria scabra and H. scabra var. versicolor, the ´sandfish´
4.2.1.1 Description and distribution
4.2.1.2 Morphological parameters and biometric relationships
4.2.1.3 Reproduction
4.2.1.4 Growth
4.2.2 Holothuria nobilis and H. fuscogilva, the ´teatfish´
4.2.2.1 Description and distribution
4.2.2.2 Morphometric parameters and biometric relationships
4.2.2.3 Reproduction
4.2.2.4 Growth
4.3 Species with medium commercial value
4.3.1 Actinopyga echinites, ´redfish´
4.3.1.1 Description and distribution
4.3.1.2 Morphometric parameters and biometric relationships
4.3.1.3 Reproduction
4.3.1.4 Growth
4.3.2 Actinopyga miliaris, ´blackfish´
4.3.3 Thelenota ananas, ´prickly redfish´
4.3.3.1 Description and distribution
4.3.3.2 Biometrics and reproduction
4.3.3.3 Growth
4.4 Species with low commercial value
4.4.1 Holothuria atra
4.4.2 Holothuria fuscopunctata
4.4.3 Holothuria mauritiana

5. HOLOTHURIAN RESOURCES pdf

5.1 Resource assessment methods
5.1.1 Estimating abundance of species
5.1.1.1 Fishery statistics; CPUE
5.1.1.2 Use of fishing gear
5.1.1.3 Direct visual assessment of densities
5.1.1.4 Indirect visual assessment
5.1.2 Biotope definition and mapping
5.1.2.1 Definition of biotopes
5.1.2.2 Mapping
5.2 Holothurian resource survey results
5.2.1 Papua New Guinea
5.2.2 Solomon Islands
5.2.3 Fiji
5.2.4 Tuvalu
5.2.5 Truk
5.2.6 Australia (Queensland)
5.2.7 New Caledonia
5.2.7.1 Calculation of CPUE
5.2.7.2 Distribution and abundance of the various species
5.2.8 Other areas
5.3 Examples of the use of remote-sensing for resource assessment
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Thematic mapping and resource estimation
5.3.2.1 Methods
5.3.2.2 Example of a fringing reef
5.3.2.3 Example of an islet reef
5.3.3 Discussion
5.4 Conclusions

6. HARVESTING - PROCESSING - PRODUCT GRADING pdf

6.1 Harvesting holothurians
6.2 Processing techniques
6.2.1 General practice
6.2.2 Treatment for ´sandfish´
6.2.3 Size and weight changes during processing
6.3 Product grading
6.3.1 Quality rating
6.3.2 Weight-length relationships in bche-de-mer

7. BÊCHE-DE-MER MARKETS pdf

7.1 General
7.2 Hong Kong market
7.2.1 History
7.2.2 Recent trends
7.3 Singapore market
7.3.1 History
7.3.2 Recent trends
7.4 Conclusions

8. RATIONAL STOCK MANAGEMENT STOCK MANAGEMENT pdf

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Sampling holothurian fisheries
8.2.1 Harvest statistics
8.2.2 Bêche-de-mer production statistics
8.2.3 Bêche-de-mer export statistics
8.3 Survey of commercial holothurian stocks
8.3.1 Assessment of abundance of stocks
8.3.2 Study of population parameters
8.4 Economic and social aspects
8.4.1 Economic aspects
8.4.2 Social aspects
8.5 Regulating the industry
8.6 Stock improvement methods and aquaculture
8.7 Conclusion

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY pdf

APPENDICESpdf

Appendix I: Hong Kong bêche-de-mer market (1983-1985)
Appendix II: Singapore bêche-de-mer market (1983-1985)
Appendix III: List of bêche-de-mer importers