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Dairy Farming Manual

Volume 2

Husbandry Unit 1.1

page i


Husbandry Unit 1.1: 

Technical Notes

Note: Numbers in brackets refer to illustrations in the Extension Materials.


In most countries in the Asian region, ruminant animals, particularly cattle and buffalo, have an important economic role in village farming systems to provide milk, draught power, manure, meat and hides.  The relative value of the products varies from country to country in the region and from place to place within a country.

Milk is an important constituent in the diet of large populations in countries like India and Pakistan.  Its value is being increasingly recognized in other countries in the region too.   Increasing incorporation of milk in the diets of the people in the region focuses attention on the value of milk not only as a source of nourishment for the rural small scale producer but also as a source of supplementary income for them.

High population densities in the region make it essential that the production systems should ensure the optimum utilization of scarce land resources, whether it be for production of food or other crops.

In this context, the vast capacity of cattle and buffalo to convert crop residues and by-products into economically useful products has to be used to the best advantage of the small scale producer in particular.

On the other hand, to obtain the best productivity from the land and the animals, fodders and legumes have to be incorporated into the system without adversely affecting the main crops.

Extension Materials
What should you know about dairying as part of integrated farming systems (IFS)?
What is IFS and why is it important for you? (5-16)

1 IFS is planning and managing inputs and outputs for maximum benefit.

How can you grow fodders, legumes, grasses as part of IFS? (17-24)

2 You can plan to grow fodders, legumes, grasses:
- to grow with other crops
- to help other crops.

Which crop residues and by-products can you use for feeds? (25-32)

3 You can use many such as:
- ground nut cake
- pineapple waste
- molasses.

What are the "Six F's" of IFS and how do they fit together? (33-45)

4 The "Six F's" are important things for you to plan and manage on your farm to bring you benefit.

page 1

  What is IFS?
5 IFS is planning and managing your farm
6 to make the best use of your inputs:
- funds
- fertilizers
- feeds
- labour etc;
7 and to make the best use and/or to get the best price for your outputs:
- crops
- manure
- milk
- meat etc.
8 You can plan for and manage your dairy cattle and buffalo together with your other farm operations
- IFS.

page 2

 Why is IFS important for you?
9 Cattle and buffalo are important in your farming system and IFS can make the best use of them.
10 They provide:
- milk and manure
- draught power
- meat and hides.

page 3

13 With IFS you use your land, cattle and buffalo to make more money
14 by growing fodders and legumes with your main crops
15 and by changing crop residues and by-products into things you can sell
16 and use to feed your family.

page 4

Incorporation of fodder/legumes into farming systems

Fodders, legumes and grasses can be incorporated in crop farming systems either individually or in combinations.  Some methods are to grow them:

- in marginal areas where no other crop can be grown  (19)

- along with or under other crops without adverse effects on main crops, e.g. grasses/legumes under coconut, legumes (such as Stylosanthes varieties) on paddy field bunds, legumes along with rice stubble. 

page 5

How can you grow fodders, legumes, grasses as part of IFS?
17 You can grow
- a fodder
- a legume
- a grass

by itself in your farming system

18 or you can grow all three in combinations.
19 You can grow fodders, legumes, grasses:
- in areas where you cannot grow other crops, e.g. less productive land
- with other crops e.g.
- legumes (such as Stylosanthes) on paddy field bunds
- legumes along with rice stubble.

page 6

-  along boundary fences, e.g. Leucaena and Glyricidia can serve as live fence giving protection to crops in addition to providing roughage. 

page 7

- underother crops e.g.
- grasses/legumes under coconut
- grasses/legumes under Tanol rubber trees
- along boundary fences e.g.
- Leucaena or Glyricidia as a live fence.
24 Fodders, legumes, grasses:
- protect crops from animals
- provide roughage.

page 8

Crop residues and by-products

There is a very large number of crop residues and by-products that can be fed to cattle and buffalo corresponding to the varieties of crops grown in the region.  Some important ones among them are:

 Crop residues:

  - rice straw
  - wheat straw
  - sugarcane tops
  - cocoa pods
  - peanut residue
  - baby corn
  - soybean hulls
  - corn cobs

page 9

Which crop residues and by-products can you use for feeds?
25 You can feed many different crop residues and by-products to your cattle and buffalo.
26 Crop residues:
- rice straw
- wheat straw
- sugarcane tops
- cocoa pods
- soybean hulls
- groundnut (peanut) residue
- corn residue
- corn cobs

page 10

Agricultural by-products:

  - rice bran
  - wheat bran
  - coconut  cake
  - soybean meal
  - palm kernel cake
  - sunflower cake
  - groundnut (peanut) cake
  - pineapple waste
  - molasses

There are many residues and by-products which can be (and are being) used for cattle/buffalo feeding in localities where they are available.

page 11

29 Agricultural by-products:
- rice bran
- wheat bran
- soybean meal
- coconut cake
- palm kernel cake
- sunflower cake
- groundnut cake
- pineapple waste
- molasses.
32 There may be other useful residues and by-products in your area. Ask other farmers and your extension worker.

page 12

Six "F"s of Integrated Farming 

Feed:  Increased roughage availability to cattle and buffalo from the above combinations is clear.  (33)

Fertilizer: The legume components will add to the soil fertility directly through nitrogen fixation.  By converting the extra roughage into dung, cattle and buffalo make a large contribution in the production of organic fertilizer and improved soil fertility (34-35)

Fence:  The tree fodders and legumes such as Glyricidia and Leucaena can be grown in such a way as to provide live fence or hedge along the boundaries. (36)

page 13

What are the "Six F's" of IFS?
33 You get more roughage for your cattle and buffalo.
34 The legumes make your soil more fertile by adding nitrogen.
35 Your animals change the roughage to manure which makes your soils more fertile. (See H. 1.2 Compost Manure)
36 You can grow tree fodders and legumes (e.g. Glyricidia and Leucaena) as a live fence.

page 14

Fuel:   Mature branches from fodder/legume trees can be used as fuel.  In some areas dried dung is also used as fuel.  A more efficient way, however, is to pass the dung through a bio-gas plant which yields bio-gas as a fuel and leaves the slurry for making compost.  (37-40)

page 15

37 You can use:
- mature branches from fodders, legume trees
- dried manure
- bio-gas from manure in a bio-gas plant.
40 This is good because you can use the slurry from the bio-gas plant for making compost.

page 16

Food:  Food for the human population by increasing the production of crops, milk and meat.   (41)

Funds:  Higher income for farmers from increased crop production and the sale of surplus milk and animals.   (42)

page 17

41 You get more crops, milk and meat for your family.
42 You get more money from the sale of surplus crops, milk and meat.
43 How do the "Six F's" fit together?

page 18

44 Well prepared land for IFS

page 19

45 Dairy animals in IFS

page 20

What do you know about dairying as part of IFS?
    What IFS is
      1 Planning and managing 
      2 Good use of
      - inputs 
      - outputs 
      3 Integrating dairying with other farm operations
    Importance of IFS
      1 Importance of dairy cattle and buffalo for:  
      - milk and manure
      - draught power
      - meat and hides
      2 Better use of your inputs for:
      - more money
      - fodders and legumes
      - sale of crop residues and by-products
      - family nutrition
    Growing fodders/legumes/grasses as part of IFS
      1 Individually 
      2 Combinations
      3 On less productive land 
      4 With other crops 
      5 Under other crops 
      6 Along fences 
      7 For protection and roughages 
    Crop residues and by-products for feeds
      1 Straws and sugarcane tops 
      2 Pods, hulls and groundnut residue 
      3 Corn residue and cobs 
      4 Brans and meals 
      5 Cakes 
      6 Groundnut cake, Pineapple waste and molasses 
      7 Other local crop residues and by-products 
    The "Six F's" of IFS
      1 Feed 
      2 Fertilizer 
      3 Fence 
      4 Fuel
      5 Food 
      6 Funds
    Fitting the "Six F's" together
      1 Well-prepared land
      2 Dairy animals in IFS

page 21

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