Appendix 2 (a)
Appendix 2 (b)
A Basic Glossary of Economic Terms
Choice Set - in the context of economic analysis of projects, it refers to all the projects that are being evaluated for use of limited capital funds.
Demand Curve or Schedule - the relation between the price of a good or service and the quantity demanded.
Diminishing Marginal Utility - the generalization, sometimes called a law, that the more you have of anything (e.g. goods, services, money), the less important is any one unit of it.
Discounting - reducing an uncertain future economic value to an equivalence with a certain current economic value.
Distribution of Income - the proportion of low, medium and high incomes in a society, i.e. a measure of economic equity.
Economic Surplus - composed of consumer surplus to buyers and producer surplus to sellers. The difference between the maximum amount of money a consumer is willing to pay and what is actually paid. Alternatively, it refers to the difference between what factors of resource owners (e.g. producers) earn in current use and the minimum sum they would be willing to accept.
Elasticity - the relationship between the percent change in quantity of a good or service demanded or supplied and the percent change in price of the good or service.
Equity Capital - the debt free assets which are owned by a given individual or group of individuals.
Externality - an incidental, third party or external effect from economic production or consumption activity which Is not accounted for by the market price.
Foreign Exchange - currency (or other financial instruments) that can be used to pay international debts.
Opportunity Cost - the value of the foregone or sacrificed opportunity, i.e. the economic value of resources in their highest value use.
Property Rights - Description of the relationship of one person to another with respect to a resource or line of action. Property is the right, and not the object over which the right extends.
Social Time Preference - Incorporating a concern for future generations in the determination of an optimal discount rate.
Shadow Price or Value - the equivalent price or social value to that generated by people buying and selling goods and services (Including foreign exchange) In a market with no Imperfections or distortions.
Supply Curve or Schedule - the relation between the price of a good or service and the amounts that producers are willing to supply.
ANAND, SUDHIR and NALEBUFF, Barry
Issues in the Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis to Energy Projects in Developing Countries Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 39, 1987, pp. 190-222
BARBOUR, G.P. et al
Big Island Woodchips for Energy Revisited
Working Paper WP/83/18, Resource Systems Institute, East-West Centre,
Honolulu, Hawaii, 1983
On the Discount Rate for Public Projects
The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: Tie PPB System, Vol. 1
U.S. Congress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1969, pp. 489-504
BISHOP, R. and HEBERLEIN, T.
Measuring the Values of Extramarket Goods: Are Indirect Measures Biased
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 61, No. 4, December 1989
The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth
Beyond Economics: Essays on Society, Religion and Ethics
The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1968, pp. 275-287
BROMLEY, Daniel W.
Property Rules, Liability Rules and Environmental Economics
Journal of Economics Issues, Vol. XII, No. 1, March 1978, pp. 43-59
BURKHEAD, Jesse and MINER Jerry
Aldine-Atherton, Chicago, Illinois, 1971
BURNESS, STUART, CUMMINGS, Ronald, MORRIS Glenn and PAIK Inja
Thermodynamic and Economics Concepts as related to Resource Use Policies
Land Economics, Vol. 56, No. 1, February 1980
CHERVEL, M and LE GALL, M.
The methodology of planning
Manual of economic evaluation of projects: the Effects Method
Ministère de la Cooperation, Paris, 1978
Energy and Rural America
Paper presented at the Third National Conference on Rural America,
Washington, D.C., 5 December 1977
DASGUPTA, Ajit K. and PEARCE, D.W.
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Theory and Practice
The MacMillan Press, Ltd., London, England, 1978
Planting for the Future: Forestry for Human Needs
World Watch Paper 26, February 1979, Washington, D.C.
Water Resource Development: The Economics of Project Evaluation
Cambridge; Harvard University Press, 1958
Energy Outlook 1978-1990 May 1978
FAO, Policy Analysis Division
Guide for training in the formulation of agricultural and rural development projects
The Social Price of Labor
Economic Principles for Project Evaluation
Organization of American States, 1975. pp. 58-75
Bioeconomics: A New Look at the Nature of Economic Activity
The Political Economy of Food and Energy
The University of Michigan, 1977. pp. 105-129
GITTINGER, J. Price
Economic Analysis of Agricultural Projects
The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1972
GOODMAN, Gordon T.
Biomass Energy in Development Countries: Problems and Challenges
AMBIO, Vol. 16, Nos. 2-3, 1987. pp. 111-119
GOWEN, Marcia M.
Reneewable Energy Assessments: An Energy Planner's Manual
East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1985
Economic Principles to Appraise Agro-Forestry Projects
Agricultural Administration, Vol. 12, 1983. pp. 127-139
Water Resource Investment and the Public Interest
Vanderbilt Univeristy Press, Nashville, Tennessee, 1965. pp. 125-151
HIRSCHLEIFER, Jack and SHAPIRO, David L.
The Treatment of Risk and Uncertainty
Public Expenditure and Policy Analysis, 2nd Edition
Rand McNally College Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1978. pp. 180-203
HITZHUSEN, F.J. and BOAKYE-DANKWA, Kwadwo
Financial and Economic Analysis of Fuelwood and Pulp in Ghana
Chapter 6, A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Renewable Energy in
Publishing Horizons, Columbus, Ohio, 1987. pp. 97-114
HITZHUSEN, F.J., MACGREGOR, Robert, SOUTHGATE, Douglas and VELOZ, Alberto
Hydropower Impacts of Soil Erosion: Private and Social Cost-Benefit Perspectives
Chapter 8, A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Renewable Energy in Developing Countries
Publishing Horizons, Columbus, Ohio, 1987. pp. 125-140
HITZHUSEN, F.J. and MACGREGOR, Robert (Editors)
A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Renewable Energy in Developing Countries
Publishing Horizons, Columbus, Ohio, 1987
Energy Conservation: An Economic Perspective
Socio-Economic Information, No. 619
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology
The Ohio State University, February 1980
HITZHUSEN, F.J. and ABDALLAH, M.
Economics of Electrical Energy from Crop Residue Combustion with High Sulfur Coal
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 62, No. 3,
August 1980. pp. 416-425
HITZHUSEN, F.J. and LUTTNER, M.
Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Non-metropolitan Prototype for Solid Waste
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 59, No. 4,
November 1977. pp. 691-698
HOWE, Charles W.
Natural Resource Economics: Issues, Analysis and Policy
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y. 1979
The International Energy Situation: Outlook to 1985
ER 77-10249, Central Intelligency Agency, April 1977
Modern Cost-Benefit Methods: An Introduction to Financial Economic and Social Appraisal of Development Projects MacMillan Press, Ltd., London, England, 1978
KOENIG, Herman E. et al.
Resource Management In a Changing Environment: with Applications to the Rural Sector
Research Report 841, Michigan State University, East Lansing,
LEFTWICH, Richard H.
The Price System and Resource Allocation
Holt, Rinehart and Wins ton. New York, N.Y., 1966
LIPSEY, R.L. and LANCASTER, K.
The General Theory of Second Best
Review of Economic Studies, 1956-57
Shadow Prices for Incorrect or Non-existent Market Prices
The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: The PPB System Vol. 1
U.S. Congress. Joint Economic committee, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington D.C., 1969. pp. 533-546
MCCULLOUGH, Michael at al.
COMPRAN: A Computerized Project Analysis Package for Developing Countries
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1987
Program Analysis and Regional Economic Objectives
The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: The PPB System, Vol. 1
U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., 1969. pp. 592-610
NAPIER, Ted L.
Questions to Consider in an Environmental Impact Statement
ESO 376, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1976
Growth, Resources and Environment: Some Conceptual Issues
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 57, No. 5,
December 1975. pp. 803-809
Resource Economics: An Economic Approach to Natural Resources and
Environmental Policy, Second Edition
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1987
Energy Analysis of Agriculture, Biology or Economics - A survey of Approaches, Problems and Traps
Rural Change, Proceedings of meetings of the Seventeenth International
Association of Agricultural Economists, Banff, Canada, September 3-12, 1979
Resource Potential and Economic Evaluation of Biogas Utilization in Nepal
Energy, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1986. pp. 545-550
SAMUELSON, Paul A.
Economics: An Introductory Analysis
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y. 1964
SIDDIGI, Toufig W.
Environmental Aspects of Energy Developments - Reprint No. 35
Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1982
SIMPSON, David and WALKER, James
Extending Cost-Benefit Analysis for Analysis for Energy Investment Choices
Butterworth and Company Publishers Ltd., June 1987. pp. 217-227
TYNER, W.E. and WRIGHT, A.W.
U.S. Energy Policy and Oil Independence: A Critique and a Proposal
Materials and Society, Vol. 2
Pergamon Press, Ltd., Great Britain, 1978. pp. 15-22
Resource Conservation: Economics and Policies - Third Edition
University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, 1968
WEBB, M. and PEARCE, D.
The Economics of Energy Analysis
Energy Policy, 1975
Income Redistribution Effects and Benefit-Cost Analysis
Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis
The Brookings Institution, Washington D.C., 1968. pp. 177-222
RURAL ENERGY PLANNING
Rural Energy Planning; Asian and Pacific Experiences.
Edited by K.V. Ramani, 1988
APDC (Asian and Pacific Development Centre) - 1985
Integrated Energy Planning: a manual
Vol. 1. Energy Data, Energy Demand:
Vol. 2. Energy Supply
Vol. 3. Energy Policy
ASHWORTH, John H.: NEUENDORFFER, Jean W. - 1932
Escaping the Rural Energy Dilemma: A Process for Matching Technologies to Local Needs and Resources
AXINN, N.V. and AXINN G.H.
The recycling ratio: an energy approach to planning rural development
Paper for the 5th World Congress for Rural Sociology, 1980
AXINN, N.W. and AXINN, G.H. - 1983
Small Farms in Nepal; A farming system approach to description
Publisher - Rural Life Associates, Nepal
BARNARD, Geoffrey: FOLEY, Gerald - 1983
Biomass Gasification in Developing Countries (IIED Technical Report No. 3)
BARNARD, Geoffrey: KRISTOFERSON, Lars - 1985
Agricultural Residues as Fuel in the Third World (IIED Technical Report no. 4)
CECELSKI, Elisabeth - 1987
Energy and Rural Women's Work: Crisis, Response and Policy Alternatives
In: International Labour Review, Vol. 126, No. 1
COMMONWEALTH SCIENCE COUNCIL - 1986
Assessing Biomass Energy Resources in Developing Countries
DEL VALLE, Alfredo - 1986
Energy Planning as a Process of Organization.
Volume 1. Energy Planning for Development: an Alternative Approach
Universidad de Chile
EAST-WEST CENTRE/CHULALONGKARN UNIVERSITY FOR FAO
Village voices in rural development and energy planning; participatory action Research in Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan
Manual for the application of the FAO/WHO/UNU human energy requirements recommendations - draft, November 1937
La forêt, les arbres et l'homme.
(Rapport sur les problèmes forestiers no. 2)
FAO - 1979
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects
Vol. 1; Sup. 1: Case Studies
Sup. 2: Readings. Forestry paper no. 17
FAO - 1980
Energy Cropping Versus Food Production
FAO - 1981
Manual of Forest Inventory. Forestry paper no. 27
FAO - 1982
Integrating nutrition into agricultural and rural development projects: a manual and six case studies. Nutrition in Agriculture series, No. 1
FAO - 1983
Conservation et mise en oeuvre des ressources forestières tropicales
Forestry paper no. 37
FAO - 1983
Integrating nutrition into agricultural and rural development projects. Nutrition in Agriculture series, Nos. 2, 3 & 4
FAO - 1984
The Fuelwood Crisis and Population in Africa.
Introduction: Man and the World he lives in; part 1: Man and the
Forest; Part 2: Man and the Dry Lands; Part 3: The Dimension of
Crisis; Part 4: Living with the Crisis
FAO - 1987
Restoring the balance; women and forest resources
FAO, BAJRACHARYA, Deepak, - 1983
Rural Energy Planning in the developing countries of Asia. (Background paper for presentation at the FAO/ESCAP Seminar on Rural Energy Planning) (mimeo)
FAO/FO - 1981
Le Bois source d'energie
FAO: ALEXANDRATOS, N.: BRUINSMA, J.: HRABOVSKY, Janos - 1982
Power inputs from labour, draught animals and machines in the agriculture of the developing countries
FAO: BARNARD, Geoffrey - 1986
Identification and Appraisal of Small-scale Rural Energy Projects. A Training Guide for Agricultural and Rural Development Planners using Biogas as a Case Study Example (mimeo)
FAO: BEN SALEM, B: TRAN VAN NAO - 1981
Fuelwood Production in Traditional Farming Systems.
In: UNASYLVA, an international journal of forestry and forest industries, Vol. 33, no. 131
FAO: DE LUCIA, R. - 1983
Rural Energy Planning: A Systems Perspective (mimeo)
FAO: HRABOVSZKY, Janos et al - 1983
Energy Use in the Post-Harvest Food System of Developing Countries
FAO: KUUSELA, K: NYYSSONNEN, A. - 1981
Quantifying Forest Energy. Inventory Methods to determine Biomass. In: UNASYLVA, an International Journal of Forestry and Forest Industries Wood
FAO: PARIKH. Jyoti K. - 1985
Household Energy - Assessment Methodology and Perspectives on Issues
FAO: SCHNEIDER, R.M. - 1985
A Guide to assessing the Energy-related Needs and Constraints of Rural
FEIL, D. - 1983
Availability of Solar Energy
Twente University of Technology
GOWEN, Marcia M. - 1985
Renewable Energy Assessments. An Energy Planner's Manual
East-West Centre/Resource Systems Institute, Hawaii
HITZHUSEN, F.J.: MACGREGOR, R.D. (eds.)
A multidisciplinary approach to renewable energy in developing countries
Publishing Horizons, incl. publisher, Ohio, U.S.A., 1987
HOWES M. - 1935
Rural energy surveys in the Third World
For IDRC, Ottawa, Canada
Decentralised energy planning and management for the Hindu-Kush
Himalaya, by D. Bajracharya, September 1986
Occasional paper no. 4.
ICIMOD, April 1988
Energy for mountain districts. A training guidelines for energy programmes development - a draft
IDEE: GALLO MENDOZA, Guillermo: BRAVO, Victor
XV Curso Latinoamericano de Economía y Planificación Energético. La Energía y el Medio Rural
IFAD - 1985
Agroforestry working paper: draft by David French, prepared for the
Africa task force, Special Programme for Africa
IFAD: FOLEY, G.: VAN BUREN, A. - 1981
The Energy Dimension in Rural Development - Discussion Paper (mimeo)
IFAD: FRENCH, David
Africa Task Force. Special Programme for Africa. Agroforestry
Working Paper (mimeo)
IIASA: PARIKH, Jyoti K.: SYED, Saif (for FAO) - 1986
Energy Use in the Post-Harvested Food (PHF) System of Developing
JOHNSON, K. for FAO
Village needs assessment and energy project identification
In: CUSRI/RSI - participatory action research handbook, July/Aug. 1985
JOHNSON, Kersten - 1935
Village Needs Assessment and Energy Project Identification.
In: Participatory Action Research Handbook for Rural Energy Planning (mimeo)
K. RIJAL (Nepal Water and Energy Commission Secretariat)
Final report of Nepal study on rural planning for energy and community development - forthcoming
LEACH, G. for FAO/EEC/WB
Household energy in South Asia
Publisher - Elsevier Applied Science, Washington, 1987
LYSEN, E.H. - 1983
Introduction to Wind Energy
Consultancy Services/Wind Energy/Developing Countries (CWD)
Amesfoort, The Netherlands
Le bon emploi des choses et les processus de décision in Biomasse
Actualités - November 1987
Pilot study on energy use and nutritional status at farm level in the hills of Nepal.
Summary report, FAO/APROSC, 1983
MORSE, Richari: SOESASTRO, Hadi M.: SCHLEGEL, Charles - 1983
Rural Energy to meet Development Needs, Asian Village Approaches East-West Centre, Hawaii
MUELLER, A.M. - 1934
Farm Economics of Water Lifting Windmills.
A. Guideline on Economic and Financial Analyses for Feasibility Studies
CWD, Amesfoort, The Netherlands
MUELLER, A.M.; JANSEN, W.A.M. - 1985
Cost Analysis of Water-Lifting Windmills and Diesel-Powered Pumps used for Small-scale Irrigation
CWD, Amesfoort, The Netherlands
NORONHA, Raymond - 1981
Why is it so difficult to grow Fuelwood.
In: UNASYLVA, Vol. 33, no. 131
OELERT, G.: AUER, P.; LEPP, A.; LOWE, P.: PERTZ. K.
Economic Issues of Renewable Energy Systems. A Guide to Project Planning
GTZ, Eschborn, Germany
OLADE - 1987
Metodología OLADE para la elaboración de balances energéticas
Documents OLADE No. 8
"Who is afraid of choices? A proposal for multi-criteria analysis as a tool In decision-making support In development planning", In Journal of International Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1990
Laxenburg, 1989 (mimeo)
SARVATE, S. - 1981
Social, Economic and Technical Criteria for Assessing Fuelwood Energy
East-West Centre/RSI, Hawaii
SHAIKH, A.- 1985
A Framework for Evaluating the Economics of Renewable Energy
SLESSER, Malcolm, for UNU
Energy Systems Analysis in Food and Energy Crop Production
The Food Energy Nexus Programme, the United Nations University, 1985
STOUT, B.A. - 1990
Handbook of Energy for World Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering
Department, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, USA
Twente University - 1985
Manual for training in rural energy planning and management; final draft, by W.S. Hulscher, M.K. McCall and F.b. de Mink, 3 volumes.
UNEP: ELMAHGARY, YEHIA: BISWAS, ASIT K. (EDS.) - 1985
Integrated Rural Energy Planning
UNESCO/OLADE - 1983
Energy Projects Elaboration and Evaluation Guidelines
UNITED NATIONS - 1986
Energy Statistics: Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion
(Studies in Methods, Series F no. 44)
WARDLE, Philip: PALMIERI, Massimo - 1981
What does Fuelwood really cost?
In: UNASYLVA, Vol. 33, no. 131
WEREKO-BROBBY, Charles Y. (Ed.) - 1986
Assessing Biomass Energy Resources in Developing Countries.
Commonwealth Science Council, Technical Publication Series no. 188