Ŀ¼һҳ


A

FAOҵԴ״״Ҫع20ǰ(J. A. Gullan (༭) 1971 ҵԴžӢ255ҳ) ʱԺFAOҵÿһζ޸ġȻЩع˺Ͷе޸ҪΪFAOҵίԱ(COFI)ڻıף漰Դı͹ʻ飬ԼѰйҵԴ״ȫع˵ҵѧҺ͹Ա˶ԣ֤Ƿdzıļ

ӦѱļҪΪΪFAOҵļNo.3351993귢ġ纣ҵԴ״عˡԼΪFAOҵļNo.8841995귢ǰһ޶޶ Ȼµİ汾֮⣬ûع˻ṩ˺ܳһʱ(1950~1994)ҵϢ

һʱεķ(ѿԵõӰ汾)ѻöȫ͵ҵƺDZķֺһҪṩ˶ЩƽзһЩŶҪĿ͹״˸ϸĽܣһձȤרΪ

ÿĻع˷ΪҪ½ڣԡſԼԴ״͹ԡضFAOͳ½ڷֵȻҪԡһڣFAOͳĿǰȤĵҪ˼ҪܽᣬЩҵijƻʽı仯ſ˸FAOΩһݿгڵIJݣʹ˽ÿһFAOͳ½ڷֵĸҵʷģչҪԡ

ǣÿһ۵Ҫ㣬ڡԴ״͹һضҵڵķչÿһعһڵĽṹͬԷӳԴֳɲֵʺϻijЩFAOͳרеľ࣬Դ(ײԴϲԴ)߲֡˸ǸضԴ֯õķֻҪпܣȺҲֱڶԴ״жۡȻ泡رտ泡Ϣ޷õ£ṩϢ⣬ΪȺ״ָ£ԶԶݽۡЩ½ڶԿ״еͷFAOĿǰԻõµϢ

FAOÿһͳDڡԴгһñ1988~1994ڼÿһԼ950~1989ڼ10ƽЩ񻹰ÿһԴ״ע(Dڶб˵Ķ)ڽЩעʱӦע⣬ΪΪгģǰһȺгFAOÿһͳڣһֵ͵ضֵIJ಻ͬȺһǣֵȺĿ״Dzͬġ£еġ״ָӦʵġԴ״͹½ڽҪݽжգ˽ϸֺ֪͸Ⱥ֮ȻҵĹ۵״۵ͳޣֻΪƾķָꡣӦעǣFAOΪΪҪĺȺѾڱУԽٵΪຣҵ׵Ĵֲδڡ

ݶÿͳĹƶҵƵչ

Ϣϵͳ(GIS)ݿԽԽãʹ֮ΪFAOͳԴ½ˣҵͼ仰˵ϰʾũҵɭԴһͨĵλԸ׵رʾ½Դ(ײ޼׵)ԼСģеȹģϲ(½ˮйأڴ½ˮԴ)йصϰֱõһFAOͳ200mˮ½ܵλʾʱ(A1.1A1.2)ͳijЩ˾Ĺɡ1990~19945ڼ֮ǰһЩʱڣһ뺣ͳ(رDZ)ʵһγȷΧڣЩʾԵԡҲַԲͬͺ֮ݽбȽϡ

A1.1 * ҵ֯ϲ2.01990~1994ֵ

FAO ͳ ½йصԴ ´ ´ ȴ λ
47 ̫ƽ 4.629 XXX 1
61 3.284 XXX 2
21 2.471(3.113*) XXX 3
27 2.346 XXX 4
67 ̫ƽ 2.036 XXX XXX 5
81 ̫ƽ 1.53 XXX 6
87 ̫ƽ 1.445 XXX 7
41 ϴ 0.982 8
51 ӡ 0.852 (XXX) 9
77 ̫ƽв 0.738 (XXX) 10
37 к 0.704 (???----------- --------------- ???) 11
57 ӡ 0.65 (XXX) 12
34 в 0.642 (XXX) 13
31 в 0.578 (XXX) 14
71 ̫ƽв 0.444 (XXX) 15
ƽλ 3.5 5.75 11.8

A1.2 ½ܵ½йصܼ

1955~1959 1960~1964 1965~1969 1970~1974 1975~1979 1980~1984 1985~1989 1990~1994
FAOͳ
47 ϴ 4.629
4.569
9.283
21 2.471
1.09
3.228
27 2.346
2.103
4.458
31в 0.578
0.744
1.374
34в 0.642 3.746
4.847
2.036
67̫ƽ
0.209 2.103
3.284
61̫ƽ 2.965
6.382
0.738
77 ̫ƽв 1.543
3.102
37 кͺں 1.808 0.704
2.512
41 ϴ 0.982
0.161
1.092
81 ̫ƽ 0.371 1.53
1.974
87 ̫ƽ 1.445
25.046
36.84
71 ̫ƽв 0.444
0.516
1.218
51 ӡ 0.852
0.669
1.892
57 ӡ 0.65
0.59
1.324

ʹ½Դۣ(߲ˮƽԼΪ2.7 t/km2 )ϰƱĵ(߲ˮƽԵͣԼΪ2.15 t/km2 ) FAOͳ֮䵥λ½߲ơһϴ6070ڼ䣬ͨԶ󴬶ӵĸ߶ȿ߲Ҫߵöࡣ

ȴͳҲʾһƵ½ԴˮƽҪ͵Ķ࣬ԼΪ0.74 t/km2Ҳóйصкݣ0.70t/km2ȻÿһڶСȵ㡱ȵصˮƽܸߣӿںɺ½ܵƽƺܷӳӪӦµȻƣرǵˮƽ֮ʱ

ϲԴۣӪӦƺԵģFAOͳ87Ҫӿϲ泡Ӿзֲ㡢Ӫȱˮ0.5 t/km2ߴ25 t/km2ϲȴȴӿйأ˼ǣӿϵͳرڴ½޼׵͵ײ߲ǿӿżĻȶԺͺɵġں´ϲ볱ϫӪȱıӪḻĵײ㺣ˮйأڱĴ½

Զ׼һЩȴ(ӡ)ǿӿǹIJǿܵģڴȴӿںɺйصĵصĸ߲֮⣬һܵӪ﹩ӦơڷֲȴˮӪ﹩ӦһǺܲģˮӣҵͨ½ܿ졣Щ򣬾̵ܼʷԽ϶̣һߵλ½δDZޣDZܿвԴͽǹĽһ

չƺDZ

ͼA2.1

1971꣬J. Gulland1FAOʷϰеķDZڵһڼ䣬ϰÿԼ6%(ͼA2.1) Gulland ƣĴͳDZԼΪÿ1ڶ֡ҵDZһλ߸ݲͬķĹ(Moiseev2 p. 203) ġʵϣFAO۲ĺҵʺܿ½ˣһЩԱܷǴͳҵϷչΪֹҵֻﵽԼ9 000(1994)ռ8 400֡

Ǹ1950~1994ڼFAOֺҪϸֵϰͳƵķҵչƺҵDZоժҪſЩͳGullandܻõϵݵĴԼ

ҵչ

ͼA2.2

ϰʱ仯ҵķչѾ(Caddy Gulland4 Caddy5)ܡֹͼA2.2еͼʾ4׶: (I) δ׶Σ (II) ׶Σ (III) ׶Σ(IV) ˥˽׶Ρͼʾ˷չв۱仯ԲʡԲʣӽﵽ߳͡ڲʱܴرģڴڰȫͺԺԴ״дԵʶһȶδ泡(׶I)泡ʼʱߺܿ (׶I-II)ҵȶ׶(׶II) ʽͣҵﵽʱֽ(׶III)ʵϣֱʾȻȻݵĸŶģȻȫDZﵽԼ۽ʲôӦDZڶڴ˲˽׶II III ڼ½ƽйơ

ȻֻҪϰͨµIJԼԴṹʹȲϰٲôҪܵص̹ȣΪһҵۺҵIJͬȺϰܼӣָһҪġһҪĽǣһ泡۲쵽ϰȺƽڲ(ALTY)ƽڲ벻ͬԴɷ߿ɳ(MSYs)ܺDzͬģЩԴɷǴij֣ͬijӵжȺԴɵIJͬ

ѡ˱гΪԴĺҪ200-ϣһʱƽϰзռ纣ҵ77%200ҪҵԴϰƵ״ͨ˷飬ϰĹģΡȷ12 Դ飬ÿһԴƽϰͼΪЩǰܵۺҵģ͵ɲ֣ӳȷһЩͬĽ׶ (IIVδ˥)ÿһ߶ֳۺģͲͬ׶ӦIJ(ͼA2.2)ÿ泡ÿ׶εԴ׶ɱ仯ģʽͼA2.3ʾ

ͼA2.3

ͼԵ˵1950ҵǿĹ̺ռԴıӣ׷½(˥ˡ׶IV)ͼǿһʵǣҵܶʹ˶ҵԴ״һֻþͰȫԵļ(FAO6ѶԴ)źǣԹҼϰı仯ҲҪƵۣΪϰΪһɡ

1994200ҪҵԴдԼ35%Ѿ˥(ʾ½) Լ25% ﵽ׶ (ȶڸߵĿˮƽ) 40% ڡ 0% ڵͿ(δ)ˮƽԼ60% Դdz˥ˣĸҶЧĿƣЩԴйֹ߻߻ָƻԴFAO6 ҲóƵĽۣɻõȺ44% ȫ16% ̹ȣ6%Ѿݽߣ 3%ڻָ ˣóĽ֪Ⱥ69%Ҫȫģʽео粶ǵײֵߵֲ̹ȣ»ָԴҪټ30%

ҵDZ

1994ҵĻع6 1950籨ϰ½𲽽ӽ㣬յǰĿ紫ͳĺԴ𲽽ӽƽܷdzӽǰȫͺһνеͬķ

ݶȫϰķ纣ҵĿǰ̷(ͨΪԼ)ԤƵԼΪ8 200֣һֵӽ1990~1994 Լ8 300ֵƽϰԲõǰ紫ͳԴDZȫԴԹƱѴﵽȫDZһۺϵġϼƵĽԴȺӵḶ́Ͷȫͳ֤Ϊ˼Ӱ죬˵ʡʱԼDZϵIJ죬ÿһֱ˷

ͼA2.4

Դ̫ƽӡԼк(ں)ϰʱԺ纣ϰͬķ˴ʾ½ĶӦͼA2.4ʾֻҪĽۣɴط鵽
纣DZĹǴóģ
a) C 纣ϰеĹ(DZ = 8 200);
b) C ÿĹ(DZ = 1ڶ).
ϼ8 200ֵĹָĿǰ̷ϼDZ(a ) ͲͬDZܺ(b) ֮IJ(֮1 800) ԭڱֵӡ󲻶ӵϰȻӡ󲻶ӵϰڶЩ̫ɿƷӦΪƻڸúһݡ

Ϊ˽ÿҵDZηֲģͨоFAOΪͳƶֵ16ҪÿϰˮƽϼƽͬķժڱA2.1ֵнԣÿһֱܹﵽѣDZ1.25ڶ֡ȻͳƷϲͬijЩ£ҪȰĶࡣˣǿҽ飬ڶһʱҪһڵĻعϡÿһDZƵĿɿԵ۷ڱA2.1

A2.1: Խ5(19901994)ƵDZƽϰ֮ıȽ
λ

DZ(A) ﵽDZ ۿɿԳ̶1 ϰ199094(B) (AB) ״2
в 4 1984 ** 3 1 0
12 1983 * 10 2 0
4 1971 ** 3 1 0
ϴ 3 1978 ** 1 2 0
ϴ 1 1997 ɿ 2 -1 I
в 2 1987 * 2 0 0
ӡ 10 2037 ɿ 3 4 I
ӡ 13 2051 ɿ 4 9 I
кͺں 23 ɿ 2 0 F
̫ƽв 3 1988 ** 1 1 0
̫ƽ 4 1990 * 3 1 0
̫ƽ 26 1998 ** 24 2 I
̫ƽ 29 2001 * 15 14 I
̫ƽ 1 1991 ** 1 0 0
̫ƽв 11 2003 ** 8 3 I
ϼ 0.2 1980 ** 0.3 0.1 0
ϼ 125 83 42
ϼ 21 1983 ** 21 0 I-F
̫ƽϼ 54 1999 ** 53 1 I-F
ӡϼ 234 ɿ 7 16 I
кͺں 23 ɿ 2 0 F
ϼ 100 83 17
82 1999 ** 83 -1

1 **ϿɿĻع飬 * ̫ɿĻع飬 ɿĻع
2 ̹ȣӣ ֲ (=0ʱ)
3 ӿڸӪDZ뵱ǰ
4 ԶӡӡֱƵĺϼ

õɿĹ(A2.1**) ĴԼ8 300ֵϰ1 000ֽǺܿܵ(ʹ纣DZﵽ9 300) 400ԶԴ̫ƽ̹ȺĸƵĹ 200ӡ泡Ŀ

ǵ̫ɿĹ(A2.1*) 1 700(ʹ纣DZﵽ1.1ڶ)Ҳǿܵģ200ֺ100ֶԴ̫ƽ̹ȺĹԼ1 400̫ƽ泡ĿǣֽһӸ⡣

⣬ǵ̫ɿĹƣӡ泡Ŀ1 500֣ʹ纣DZﵽ1.25ڶ֡Ȼֹ۵кܸߵIJȷԡЩDZر1.1ڶֺ1.25ڶ֣ҪؿǣΪһЩؼԵ(ӡ󡢵к̫ƽ) DzɿģҪһȷ

Ԥ⣬ӡδﵽȫDZڼʮҲﵽ(ͼA2.4) ڶDZĹһĺʵǰӦΪǷdzɿġһ˵ӡҪDZغԴܵѹҪЧʹ½ܴڷչDZҲ豣ȱԸõȺʹȷϻһӦָǣӡذһЩңرӡȡӡǡǺ̩һֱӡҵͽĿԣûṩйˮƽԴ֤ (ȴǹǹ)

˼ǣͨ򿪷ܻõȡڷеĺϼơڷĺϼƵԽ࣬ƵĽһӵDZԽСһԤڵĽΪֻаȺʱн⼯ܷӳκεͬʱڵĿ̹ȵĸԵԴеķֻΪϸ˽ȺijЩ²Ųý⼯ӦָǣĺϼˮƽƵDZ(1ڶ)ֻЩΪȽϿɿĹ(9 300)ҪзƵDZͱΪȽϿɿͲ̫ɿĹ(1.1ڶ)֮䡣

Ϳĺ

Ŀǰʷ߲Դͨ£ͬʱ͵λҲпܴﵽʷˮƽͨ״䡢ֹ㡢ĿߴԼ㼯ʱͿɴﵽ·˹ͷɱ7 ӱȴ18 ڿԴﵽ100% Ħ(ͨ-ͷٽб)Ų(ض汣)㱣ľʣ˵ڸ´ҲԤڻöЧ档ɣЧعҲɻóŲͰ֧󶫱Ⱥõ֤ʵȺȣIJȺӿݽ״ָ2050δˮƽ֮80ʴ󽵵 8

һҪͻǴӼٲҪпܵĸơ駹ƣÿԼ1 800ֺ3 900֮9 (ƽΪ2 700) аҵֵߵ࣬Ҳд㡣ЩϰһֺͲڱоУҲһ֣迼ǽйϰУʹ纣ﵽ1.01~1.22ڶ (ƽ1.1ڶ)ͨӼٲҪĸеõĺôǷdzġ

ӽȻԵΪϰ׵ЩԴ泡Ľһ(одԼ40% ҪҵԴΪڡСFAO19946 Ĺ32%)ӦʶЩԴ˵ʹϰԼȶDZڲҲûпɿĹơȻDZĴڽǴġ

һҪǣȫˮƽϽзǴӵײʳ߻ϲ㲶ʳ߶ԽԤ⡣ϲȺҪIJʳߣЩʳдϲǹǹ֡ײֵѺԼһЩС͵ײСϲಶʳĶͬСϲೣǴ͵ײȺҪʳɲ֡Щ໥õ廹ԤˣȷɶԵײ̹Ⱥɴ˶ϲٵѹϲ͵ײԴ(DZ)Ŀǰƽﵽʲô̶Dzܵġȷ̹ȵĵײָʲô̶ȽӰϲDZԴҲDzܵġڵģϵԴָ⻹δϲԴһ21ҵҪ֮һ

֮ӦʶĴͳѧ岻㣬ӿɻõϢϴҵõδ֪ϰԼˮֳĽһӣҵ1 000ǿܵġFAO 199510 ָ2 000ϰҲǿܵġоṩһȽϼʵĻţ¼㣬Щϰǿʵֵģ(1) ˻Դõָ(2) δԴõһҪ̹ԼѾﵽܹܵ߳ˮƽЩԴ̹ȡ(3)

ο

1 Gulland J.A. (Ed.)1971. The fish resources of the Ocean. Fishing News (Books) Ltd.: 255 p.
2 Moiseev P.A. 1969. The Living Resources of the World Ocean. (Translated from Russian) Israel Program for Scientific Translations Jerusalem 1971: 334 p.
3 Grainger R.J.R. and Garcia S.M. 1996. Chronicles of marine fishery landings (1950~1994): trend analysis and fisheries potential. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 359. Rome FAO: 51p.
4 Caddy J.F. and J.A. Gulland 1983. Historical patterns of fish stocks. Marine Policy. 7: 267~278p.
5 Caddy J.F. 1984. An alternative to equilibrium theory for management of fisheries. In FAO Fisheries Report 289 Supplement 2. Rome FAO: 214p.
6 Garcia S.M. and C. Newton (1994): Current situation trends and prospects in world capture fisheries. A paper presented at the Conference on Fisheries Management. Global trends. Seattle Washington USA 14~16 June 1994.
7 Garcia S.M. 1986. Seasonal trawl bans can be very successful in heavily fished areas: the Cyprus effect. Fishbyte. April 1986: 7~12.
8 ICES 1995. Reports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fisheries Management 1994. ICES Coop. Res. Rep. No. 210.
9 Alverson D.L. M.H. Freeborg S.A. Murawski and J.A. Pope 1994. A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 339. Rome FAO: 233p.
10 FAO 1995c. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome FAO: 57p.


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