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A. Programming Requirements
B. Involvement of Market Users - the Participatory Planning Process
C. Surveys for Development
D. Development Preconditions

Before proceeding further, the next steps should be clearly identified -including how beneficiaries should be involved, what surveys may be required and whether there are any preconditions. This chapter describes the following:

A. Programming Requirements

To implement the project a number of follow-up actions might need to be undertaken. These could include the following:

B. Involvement of Market Users - the Participatory Planning Process

It is essential to organise the operation of markets so that the way they operate is agreed by all the stakeholders. To achieve this, user participation in the formulation process, from identification through to design and implementation, is essential. By this means, it will be possible to ensure that the method of management, the operational procedures, the charging system, the rental and other revenue structures and the market regulations are acceptable to all parties. To achieve this participation, a number of approaches will be needed:

C. Surveys for Development

All market design, other than the improvement of very simple rural and urban retail markets, depends on a quantification of existing and future produce flows. This information usually needs to be collected through surveys. Surveys are also required because often the precise role of existing produce markets is often not known.

With a project that intends to improve roads and markets, for example, a judgement also needs to be made on how different components will interact. Investment in local markets may be superfluous if the simultaneous improvement of access and feeder roads either encourages farmers to market more produce at the farm gate or to deliver more produce directly to urban markets.

Although more information may be available on existing trade at urban wholesale markets, because of records of vehicle entries, this may not give a very complete picture of the activities of the individual traders nor of the market’s impact on the overall transport system. This is also likely to apply to urban retail markets, particularly their role in serving the local community. For these reasons, it is essential that flows in the existing marketing systems are better understood and, therefore, systematic market surveys may need to be undertaken. Initially, the design may be based on rather crude estimates but, as the process evolves, more refined information will be required.

Before starting a survey it is essential to define its basic purpose, and identify who will be responsible for undertaking it (which might require the involvement of specialist contractors and universities) and how it will be paid for. It will also be necessary to define when it will be undertaken (a major purpose of market surveys is to identify the impact of peak production periods) and whether any special consents are required from market users, adjoining owners or traffic authorities.

Often, only limited resources are available to implement market improvements and it is not practical to prepare designs for each individual market. In these cases, it is often better to concentrate the surveys on deriving information suitable for designing standardised “models” based on surveys of a representative sample of markets. The participation of market users would need to be included as an integral part of the survey process. Background planning data that will need to be assembled and the broad scope of the information required for project formulation is shown in Box 14. Appendix C contains detailed survey check-lists.

BOX 14
Surveys for marketing projects

Identification stage

  • production, consumption and food balance data;
  • existing market channels - throughput and role;
  • agri-processing and storage facility data;
  • auto-consumption data;
  • animal feed and seed requirements, losses, etc.;
  • details of existing traders - type and scale of operation; and
  • details of any relevant studies on horticulture and/or marketing.

Pre-feasibility stage

  • legal and financial data relating to market institutions;
  • site engineering, physical planning and unit cost data;
  • estimates of likely revenues; and
  • costs of services for existing and future market sites.

D. Development Preconditions

There are a number of factors which always need to be resolved before taking a development any further than has been discussed so far. These could include:

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