Contents -

VI. Activities and programmes of the organization

A. Consideration of review of certain aspects of FAO's goals and operations, including the need for reform in the programme budget process
B. Programme of work and budget 1988-89 and medium-term objectives
C. Review of the regular programme, including evaluation of special action programmes
D. Impact of financial problems on regular programme activities in 1986-87
E. Review of field programmes 1986-87
F. Implementation of the strategy and programmes of action approved by the 1984 FAO world conference on fisheries management and development
G. Follow-up to tropical forestry action plan and international conference on trees and forests SILVA 1986
H. United nations/FAO world food programme (WFP)
I. Relations and consultations with international organizations

A. Consideration of review of certain aspects of FAO's goals and operations, including the need for reform in the programme budget process

136. Following a preliminary discussion at its Ninetieth Session, the Council decided at its Ninety-first Session (June 1987) to add to the agenda of the Conference an item entitled "Consideration of review of certain aspects of FAO's goals and operations, including the need for reform in the programme budget process". It was understood that member countries would submit their views to the Secretariat on relevant aspects of this question, and that these would form the basis for the preparation of a paper by the Secretariat.

137. As a result of this decision, the Conference had before it document C 87/30 which summarized the views expressed in ten papers submitted by countries or groups of countries. The full texts of all the papers submitted were appended to the document.

138. There was unanimity, both in the papers and in the Conference discussions, on the need to strengthen FAO in every possible manner, so that it could continue to play a leading role in world agriculture during the years ahead. Differing views were, however, expressed on the need to undertake a major review of the Organization's goals and operations at the present juncture.

139. There was one current of opinion that, after more than 40 years of existence, an in-depth review of FAO's goals and operations would be timely so that the Organization could face the challenges of the 1990's and beyond with increased strength and efficiency. It was proposed that a high-level group of independent experts be established to carry out such a review taking into account the views expressed during the Conference debate, as well as those contained in the papers submitted by Member Nations. A draft resolution was submitted to give effect to this proposal.

140. Another current of opinion questioned the need for a sweeping review of FAO's goals and operations at this time. It was pointed out that the objectives and strategies of the Organization had been defined by a series of major international conferences' as well as by decisions of the FAO Conference itself. There was particular opposition to the idea that such a review, if it were to be carried out, should be entrusted to a group of independent experts: rather, it should be undertaken by existing intergovernmental bodies. This view was also embodied in a draft resolution.

141. Many Member Nations with different views emphasized their openness to dialogue and their desire for agreement on this important Issue in the interest of strengthening support for the Organization.

142. With a view to reconciling these divergent views, a Contact Group was established comprising 14 members. Considerable progress was made towards an agreed text, and the Contact Group was able to put forward in document C 87/LIM/50 a series of amendments to the draft resolution contained in C 87/LIM/27. However, the Contact Group was unable to complete its work in the time available.

143. After an extensive debate, in the course of which many ideas and proposals were advanced, the Conference adopted by majority vote the following resolution:

Resolution 6/87



Recalling the concluding statement of the Chairman at the Twenty-third Conference in which he called upon the membership at the FAO to use the 1985/87 period to examine the role and priorities of the Organization,

Reaffirming the commitment of Member Nations to the principles of the Organization as set out in its Constitution,

Taking note of the ten papers submitted by member countries which have been circulated to this Conference under cover of document C 87/30,

Taking further note of ongoing efforts elsewhere in the United Nations system designed to enhance the effectiveness, efficiency and impact of its programmes

Considering the desirability of undertaking an in-depth review of certain aspects of FAO's goals and operations:

Decides that:

1. For the purpose of the review referred to above, the Programme and Finance Committees, working jointly, shall be assisted by a small number of experts. They will be selected for their competence in the fields of agriculture, development, finance or administration, by the Programme and Finance Committees in consultation with the Director-General, with due consideration for balanced geographical distribution:

2. The Programme and Finance Committees, working jointly and assisted by the experts, shall study FAO's role, priorities, objectives and strategies in the field of food and agriculture, in the light of the evolution and trends in the world food and agriculture situation, and of decisions of the Conference, the Regional Conferences and the Special Conferences, and the need to implement and promote the establishment of a new international economic order, within the ambit of FAO, in accordance with Resolution 3/75 as adopted, specifically,

(a) how FAO could make the most effective contribution to the efforts of member countries and people to eliminate hunger, malnutrition and poverty, taking into account the resources available to the Organization

(b) subject to the commitment of Member Nations to the Constitution of the Organization, examine to see if any changes are necessary in the internal structures and procedures within FAO so as to strengthen the role of the Organization in advising on the formulation of food and agriculture policies at global, regional and national level and its function as a catalyst for and purveyor of, assistance in bringing about greater cooperation among nations in its fields of competence'

(c) in the context of the changing international economic, social, agricultural and food situation, study ways of adapting the process of priority-setting in FAO;

(d) after taking into account the results of the work of the ECOSOC Special Commission, and in accordance with the Basic Texts of FAO, examine the working relationship between the Organization and other organs, organizations and bodies of the UN System and international financing Institutions, including the activities of the field programme, so as to avoid duplication of work, ensure complementarily and promote the most effective support possible by FAO for country priorities:

(e) consider measures to ensure that the budget, accounting and planning processes of FAO clearly show the connection between strategies, priorities, planned activities and resource allocation;

3. The Programme and Finance Committees, working jointly and assisted by the experts, shall, subject to the terms of reference, take into account the views contained in document C 87/30, the views expressed during the Conference, and any further views submitted in writing, before 1 February 1988, by Member Nations who did not submit views before the Conference.4. The Director-General is invited, in accordance with his Constitutional mandate, prerogatives and possibilities, to service the study and to submit for it his views upon all matters within his responsibility, and to submit the conclusions and recommendations of the study, together with his views and comments, to the Council, which will transmit it, together with its views, to the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference.

144. Issues relating to the improvement of the programme budget process in FAO were also dealt with in 8 number of the papers submitted by Member Nations and included in document C 87/30. Particular attention was drawn to the decisions on this subject made by the United Nations General Assembly in resolution 41/213. It was urged that measures be adopted which would enhance the participation of Member Nations in the Programme Budget Process. Emphasis was also placed on the need to seek consensus at an early stage on the main priorities and budget level.

145. At an early stage of the Conference, a draft resolution was tabled in C 87/LIM/28. Following informal discussions among members of the Contact Group, and in an effort to achieve a text which could be adopted by consensus, an alternative draft resolution was tabled in C 87/LIM/49. Since no consensus could be reached in informal discussions, the Conference voted on the draft resolution contained in C 87/LIM/28, which was rejected. The resolution in C 87/LIM/49 was then withdrawn by its sponsors, with the hope that further study of the issues involved could subsequently lead to an agreement.

146. Many Member Nations expressed the view that the Conference could have achieved a consensus if there had been time for more extensive consultations among the membership. It was noted that, in accordance with paragraph 3 of Resolution 6/87, the views expressed in the Conference on this matter would be taken into account during the in-depth review called for by that resolution.

B. Programme of work and budget 1988-89 and medium-term objectives

Strategies, priorities and objectives
Financial framework
Level of the budget
Programme activities
Budgetary appropriations 1988-89


147. The Conference underlined that the context of its consideration of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1988-89 was exceptionally complex and difficult.

148. The Conference recognized that the world food and agriculture situation had to remain the prime determinant in the formulation of FAO's work programme. In this connection, emphasis was placed during the discussion on uneven progress in agricultural and food production in various regions, despite continuing favourable trends at global level. In absolute if not in relative terms, the number of undernourished or malnourished people was still growing, particularly due to slow changes in income distribution patterns and to still widespread poverty. Risks of famine and impending food shortages were ever-present, while food surpluses in some regions contributed to persistent tension on world markets. Many Member Nations also drew attention to the growing environmental threats to natural ecosystems, including tropical forests, and the incidence of pests and diseases which would put in jeopardy the necessary Suture expansion of food and agricultural production, unless determined action was taken by governments and by the farming communities themselves. The Conference agreed that these factors pointed to continued substantial requirements for FAO assistance including for policy advice, as well as to the need to strengthen FAO's monitoring sod analytical capabilities and related alert systems.

149. The Conference noted, however, that other aspects of the current world economic situation were affecting the formulation and implementation of FAO's activities. The Organization's ability to implement its approved programmes effectively was seriously affected by fluctuations in exchange rates and the lowering of interest rates. The capacity of Member Nations to honour their obligation under the FAO Constitution in meeting their contributions to the Regular Budget was put to severe test by pressures on domestic budgets or shortages of foreign currency. This was the case for those developing countries which were affected by heavy debt servicing obligations and unfavourable terms of exchange in their external trade, but also for some developed countries. For the first time, the payment by the main contributor was seriously affected by its domestic financial conditions and the current factors relating to its national budget process.

150. The Conference noted with concern that the reduction in resources available to the Organization had led to the curtailment of the approved Programme of Work and Budget for the present biennium and the early depletion of statutory financial reserves. It observed that this could have longer-term implications for the satisfactory continuation of essential economic and technical programmes and greatly complicated the formulation of the Programme of Work and Budget for the next biennium. Many Member Nations also underlined that a serious limiting factor in the effective implementation of FAO's programmes was represented by the growing difficulties which were encountered in the retention and recruitment of qualified staff.


151. With this background in mind, the Conference recognized that the task of the Director-General in the formulation of his proposals for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1988-89 had been to attempt to respect previous guidance from FAO's Governing Bodies, while reconciling necessarily differing perceptions of requirements for FAO's action in all regions and diverging expectations of Member Nations of what they would be prepared to support by way of programme activities and level of resources. In addition, the Director-General had had to consider ways of maintaining the viability of FAO's operations in the face of increasing challenges.

152. In this connection, the Conference noted with satisfaction that the approach to framing these proposals had involved a further transfer of resources from administrative and support areas to permit some limited real growth of FAO's technical and economic programmes 2 was, therefore, proposed to receive a net programme increase of 2.3 percent. over its present base. However, Chapter 4 Technical Cooperation Programme, was to remain at the same level in real terms in order to contain the overall budget request.

153. The Conference also noted with appreciation that. in order to encourage Member Nations to arrive at a consensus, the Director-General had sought to respond to the diverging reactions expressed during the Ninety-first Session of the Council, by taking further measures to reduce the proposed budget level. This had involved reducing the net programme increase to 0.25 percent of the recosted 1986-87 budget base, and deliberate lowering of the provision to cover anticipated cost increases in 1988-89 from the original estimate of US$ 18 million to less than US$ 13 million. The Conference noted that the consequence of this deliberate inadequacy of the provision for cost increases was the likelihood of commensurate compression of activities in 1988-89 in order to remain within the budget level. It further noted that the trend towards reducing expenditures on FAO's permanent staff establishment was being continued through the net reduction of 25 posts.

Strategies, priorities and objectives

154. The Conference recognized that in FAO, the determination of strategies and priorities and the specification of medium-term objectives for various programmes were the result of a long consultative process. The latter involved FAO Regional Conferences, the Committees of the Council and the full range of advisory expert committees and commissions, in addition to the views expressed at sessions of the Council and Conference by Member Nations. All these fore provided recommendations and programme guidance from their respective point of view, from which the substantive content of the Programme of Work and Budget had to he derived. Some Member Nations questioned the manner in which FAO priority setting had been carried out.

155. The Conference considered that the Programme of Work and Budget for 198889 had, in effect, built extensively on previous guidance of FAO Governing Bodies and it expressed its general endorsement of the strategies and priorities, as laid out in the document. It welcomed the expanded information and clarity in programme narratives which facilitated understanding of how these strategies and priorities translated into concrete activities for the benefit of FAO's constituents. However some Member Nations considered that further improvements were desirable in the articulation and ranking of priorities.

156. The Conference generally emphasized the wish to see FAO's field activities continue to expand and recommended that the closest integration be maintained between the Regular and the field programmes The experience of country problems and first-hand information gained through the latter provided one of the prime bases for the formulation of FAO policy advice to member countries and contributed greatly to the validity of the major studies undertaken by FAO.

157. Many Member Nations also stressed their expectation that FAO would continue to act as the prime multilateral source of technical advice and conduit for transfer of agricultural technology to developing countries, through training activities, dissemination of information and other means, especially regarding emerging technologies for food production and processing. Similarly, many Member Nations requested that, in order to optimize use of resources and be more equitable, FAO should make greater use of the national capabilities of developing countries in terms of technicians and staffing.

158. A number of Member Nations welcomed the growing evidence in FAO programmes of integrated approaches to developmental action and recommended further efforts in this direction. The Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TRAP), the programmes directed to enhanced food security, to integrated rural development and in support of rural women were singled out as appropriate examples. Numerous references were made to the importance of ecologically-sound and sustainable development programmes and projects, an aspect which had been recently brought to international prominence by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED).

159. A large number of Member Nations reiterated their attachment to FAO's catalytic role in support of Economic and Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries in all the Organization's areas of competence. They recommended continued attention to the programming and implementation of specific activities to that end, building on the valuable experience gained so far with inter-country networks of technical exchange, cooperation with regional institutions and other means of fostering South-South cooperation.

160. Many Member Nations also reiterated their support for the decentralization of FAO's action, especially at country level. In their experience, this had greatly contributed to speedier delivery of technical assistance to member countries and ensured closer correspondence of field projects with effective requirements and national priorities. Some Member Nations felt that this could be improved by further delegation of authority from Headquarters to the field. A few Member Nations also indicated that they had doubts about the effectiveness and impact of the work of the Regional Offices which they did not consider to be the most effective mode of decentralization.

161. In terms of regional focus, the Conference unanimously recognized the special situation of Africa and fully agreed with the overall priority given to that Region in the Programme of Work and Budget for 1988-89. Some Member Nations from other regions recalled their interest in, and gave examples of, FAO's activities in their respective geographical areas. Hope was expressed that the solidarity with the African Region would not imply neglect of unfulfilled requirements elsewhere. Some Member Nations expressed regrets that the occupation of Arab territories in the Near East constituted an obstacle to the achievement of the agricultural development objectives in the region. Several Member Nations also expressed their regrets about the consequences for the agricultural development of the front-line states of the acts of aggression perpetrated by the Government of South Africa.

162. Many Member Nations underlined the close cooperation established by FAO with other organizations of the United Nations System, for instance through the joint division with the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), joint activities in nutrition and food standards with the WHO (World Health Organization) and cooperation with the World Bank and IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) on investment promotion for agricultural and rural development. The Conference recommended that every effort continue to be made by FAO to identify possible areas of cooperation with other international agencies and organizations with a view to ensuring maximum complementarily of action and reciprocal understanding of respective responsibilities for mutual benefit.

163. Some Member Nations, while expressing general support for FAO's strategies and priorities, considered that a stronger attempt to select priorities was warranted, in order to avoid FAO spreading its efforts and resources too thinly. According to them, this identification of priorities should lead to concentration of FAO's action in those areas where it had a decisive comparative advantage, and where it could count on maximum support from its membership. The same Member Nations felt that this process would also provide appropriate guidance to the membership and the management in the event of financial shortfalls which might necessitate reductions in programmes. The majority observed in this connection that it was highly desirable that the Organization's Governing Bodies and the Secretariat continue their respective roles in priority-setting, whereby the former issued recommendations and policy directives, and the latter translated this guidance into coherent sets of activities.

Financial framework

164. The Conference addressed extensively the financial aspects of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1988-89.

165. Regarding the currency factor, the Conference noted with concern the consequences of the sharp depreciation of the US Dollar vis--vis the Italian Lira, which was responsible for most of the anticipated increase in assessments on member countries.

166. Several Member Nations whose national currency had depreciated vis--vis the US Dollar drew attention to the fact that the increase in their assessments expressed in terms of national currencies would, in effect, be even greater than the increase in dollar terms. Many of these Member Nations requested the Director-General to approach those Member Nations whose contributions in national currency had gone down as a result of the US Dollar depreciation, to encourage them to continue paying at the same rate in terms of their national currency as in 1986-87. They also urged that the Finance Committee study alternative possibilities of having the burden of payments more equitably distributed in the future. Other Member Nations observed that some countries whose national currency had appreciated against the US Dollar could end up paying lower assessed contributions than in 1986-87, if expressed in their national currencies. The impact would, therefore, greatly vary from country to country. A number of Member Nations advanced suggestions during the debate of potentially effective options for dealing with currency fluctuations. These suggestions included the use of a dollar/lira exchange rate averaged over a representative period, the utilization of a currency basket such as SDRs, and the adoption of the split currency system now in force at the IAEA and UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization).

167. The Conference noted that the other main contributing factor to increased assessments in US Dollar terms, i.e. the lower estimate made for Miscellaneous Income as compared with the estimate in the Programme of Work and Budget for 1986-87, was the consequence of sharply reduced prospects for investable funds and interest earnings, and that this estimate accorded with the guidance provided in this respect by the Finance Committee and the Council.

168. In relation to the problem of arrears, the Conference received a statement by the largest contributor indicating that while its administration had requested full funding for its contribution to FAO in the current budgetary situation it was highly unlikely that funding would be adequate to prevent continued significant shortfalls. The Conference recalled the obligation of all Member Nations to pay their assessed contributions to the FAO budget promptly and in full and appealed to all Member Nations to honour their obligation. Many developing countries felt strongly that there was a clear distinction between the arrears of the largest contributor and those of other countries. Notwithstanding this distinction, they reaffirmed the political will of their governments to pay their arrears as soon as possible.

169. In relation to difficulties likely to be experienced in the collection of contributions during 1988-89, some Member Nations felt that it was unrealistic to consider the Programme of Work and Budget without considering likely income. Some of these felt that the Programme of Work and Budget should have distinguished between "core" activities, which would be implemented at a lower level of resources, and "stand-by" activities, the implementation of which would be contingent on income reaching the level anticipated in the budget.

170. The majority of Member Nations rejected this concept of "alternative" budgets. It was stressed that this would be tantamount to inviting laxity in the timely payment of contributions from Member Nations and would put the Programme of Work and Budget on an ill-assured basis with unpredictable and damaging consequences for the future of the Organization and the orderly management of its operations. In their view, any corrective action which might be required should be formulated by the Secretariat in close consultation with FAO's Governing Bodies as had been done in 1986-87, in the light of actual, constantly updated information on the financial situation. This should allay fears of a "legislative vacuum" in case adjustments to the approved budget For 1988-89 would prove necessary.

Level of the budget

171. In the light of the above, diverging opinions were expressed on the proposed budget level.

172. A few Member Nations stated that they could not support it for one or more of the following reasons: it did not fully meet their objective of zero programme growth and maximum absorption of non-discretionary cost increases by all organizations of the UN system; the sharp increase in assessments, especially if account was taken of possible one-time additional assessments related to the Working Capital Fund and the Special Reserve Account, which was not compatible with national objectives of restraint in public expenditure; unlikely payment of all assessed contributions; and the absence of an indication in the Programme of Work and Budget of alternative budget levels to match likely reduced contribution income.

173. Other Member Nations, in view of their concern at the impact of the proposed budget level on their national contributions, reserved their positions until a later stage, and subsequently declared their positions at the time of voting. They nevertheless confirmed their full support to the programme and their continued commitment to the role and objectives of FAO.

174. The great majority of Member Nations expressed their support of the budget level. Many of these Member Nations considered that the proposed programme increase of 0.25 percent coupled with the planned absorption of a substantial proportion of the cost increases expected to materialize during the 1988-89 biennium would again result in negative growth for FAO's programmes at a time when the Programme of Work and Budget for 1986-87 was being reduced by nearly 6 percent, due to factors beyond the Organization's control. They did not consider that this constituted a fitting response to the growing requirements for FAO's activities and assistance stemming from a variety of factors such as: the complex international agenda of food and agriculture issues; the heavy pressures on natural resources; the massive problems still unsolved in rural areas; the difficult policy choices facing most governments in dealing with internal and external forces affecting agriculture and the scope for expanded inter-country cooperation under FAO's auspices. They nevertheless supported the proposed level as they construed it as a balanced compromise which should permit a renewed expression of unity of FAO's membership through its adoption by consensus.

Programme activities

175. Among the observations made on individual chapters during the discussion, the following main points were stressed regarding programme aspects of the proposals.

(a) Chapter 1: General Policy and Direction

176. The Conference endorsed the further budgetary reduction proposed under this chapter. One Member Nation from the concerned region, however, expressed concern at the large reduction affecting the Liaison Office for North America, especially since it was not matched by commensurate reduction in other Liaison and Regional Offices.

(b) Chapter 2: Technical and Economic Programmes

177. The Conference generally endorsed the proposed medium-term objectives and balance of activities under this chapter, which it viewed as the backbone of FAO's substantive work and the main source of technical backstopping to field projects.

178. The Conference supported the eight principal goals identified for Major Programme 2.1 Agriculture. The need to foster faster increases in food production but also to improve the processing and marketing sectors, was underlined.

179. The Conference confirmed the importance of the conservation of natural resources and environmental protection in this connection, many Member Nations stressed the importance of Bound policies and programmes for soil and water management as essential prerequisites for increased agricultural production and thus for food security. The need of sufficient and assured flows of farm inputs such as fertilizers and improved seeds, especially for the benefit of small farmers was also considered an indispensable element in the planning of rural and agricultural development programmes The preparation of a feasibility study for the expanded provision of aid-in-kind in the form of farm inputs and possible follow-up activities were considered timely initiatives in this connection.

180. Considerable interest was expressed by a large number of Member Nations and firm support given to the growing FAO involvement in the applications of biotechnology to food and agriculture, including in the sector of animal health. Likewise, FAO's attention to food irradiation techniques and to contamination by radionuclides, in cooperation with other international agencies, was supported.

181. Within the framework of FAO's multiple actions for the protection of the environment and in particular of fragile ecosystems, continued efforts were recommended for the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources. The present situation of improved cooperation and full complementarily between the work of FAO and that of the IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources) was noted with satisfaction. All Member Nations were urged to Join the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources.

182. A number of Member Nations referred to the valuable work undertaken under the aegis of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and encouraged the wide adoption and acceptance of Codex Standards for the facilitation of world trade. The assistance provided by FAO to national food control programmes was also appreciated.

183. The further proposed enhancement of the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the assistance given to the development of national early warning systems, particularly in Southern Africa, were largely supported. The proposed consolidation of work on food security as the result of the external evaluation of the Food Security Assistance Scheme (FSAS) was endorsed.

184. Full support was given to FAO's key role in providing policy advice to Member Nations within its sphere of competence and to the desirability of strengthening such a role within the context of needed adjustments to external factors and the reformulation of national development plans regarding the food and agriculture sector. In this connection, the importance of ensuring that FAO was able to make a full contribution on a structured basis to consultative groups and round table meetings was stressed.

185. Some Member Nations urged the Director-General to continue to carry out case studies on the role of transnational corporations in the food and agriculture sectors.

186. Regarding Major Programmes 2.2 Fisheries and 2.3 Forestry, the Conference expressed satisfaction that the formulation of proposals had been rightly guided respectively by the five Programmes of Action adopted by the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development and the implementation of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. In both major programmes the attention to conservation of natural resources was especially prominent and welcomed. The crucial contribution of forestry to halting desertification was singled out. Some Member Nations expressed the wish to see an increase in the relative share of these major programmes in the current biennium and in future biennia.

(c) Chapter 3: Development Support Programmes

187. The Conference reiterated the importance of developing and maintaining a strong pipeline of viable field projects, which was one of the main responsibilities of the Field Programme Development Division under Major Programme 3.1. Several Member Nations asked that the Regional Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean be strengthened. The Conference endorsed FAO's continued fruitful cooperation with the World Bank and other financial institutions in order to generate greater capital flows to agricultural and rural development in all regions.

188. With regard to the proposed phased establishment of four new Country Offices, several Member Nations expressed reservations in view of their concern at limiting budgetary increases. Many other Member Nations, however, underlined the practical and effective contributions of FAO Representatives to the delivery of external assistance to their country of assignment and their essential role as permanent link with the whole range of FAO Regular Programme activities. They considered, therefore, the proposed expansion as fully justified in view of the strong demand for these new offices from concerned countries.

(d) Chapter 4: Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP)

189. The majority of Member Nations reiterated their attachment to the TCP in view of its proven record of direct and timely assistance rendered to beneficiary countries. Regret was expressed that it had not proved feasible to increase in real terms the level of the TCP appropriation but it was hoped that this would be done in future biennia.

Budgetary appropriations 1988-89

190. The Conference approved the Programme of Work and Budget and adopted the following Resolution:

Resolution 7/87



Having considered the Director-General's Programme of Work and Budget and the conclusions of its Commissions:

Approves the Programme of Work proposed by the Director-General for 1988-89:

Resolves that for the financial period 1988-89:

1. Appropriations are voted for the following purposes:


US $

Chapter 1 - General Policy and Direction 34 205 000
Chapter 2 - Technical and Economic Programmes 233 466 000
Chapter 3 - Development Support Programmes 77 077 000
Chapter 4 - Technical Cooperation Programme 63 148 000
Chapter 5 - Support Services 67 559 000
Chapter 6 - Common Services 16 305 000
Chapter 7 - Contingencies 600 000
Total effective working budget 492 360 000
Chapter 8 - Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund 54 600 000
Total Appropriations (Gross) 546 960 000

2. The appropriations (gross) voted in paragraph 1, shall be financed by assessments on Member Nations, after deduction of Miscellaneous Income in the amount of US$ 11 720 000, thus resulting in assessments against Member Nations of US$ 5.35 240 000.

3. In establishing the actual amounts of contributions to be paid by individual Member Nations, the assessment of each Member Nation shall be reduced by any amount standing to its credit in the Tax Equalization Fund provided that the credit of a Member Nation that levies taxes on the salaries, emoluments and indemnities received from FAO by staff members shall be reduced by the estimated amounts of such taxes to be reimbursed to the staff member by FAO.

4. The contributions due from Member Nations in 1988 and 1989 shall be paid in accordance with the scale adopted by the Conference at its Twenty-fourth Session, which contributions, after the deduction of amounts standing to the credit of Member Nations in the Tax Equalization Fund, result in net amounts payable totalling US $ 481 840 000 as set out in Appendix E to this Report.

(Adopted 20 November 1987)

C. Review of the regular programme, including evaluation of special action programmes

Review of the regular programme 1986-87
External evaluations of three special action programmes

191. For its deliberations on this item, the Conference had before it the reports of the Fifty-third Session of the Programme Committee and the Ninety-second Session of the Council 2/, which contained extensive observations on the Review and the three independent external evaluations. These observations were generally endorsed by the Conference.

192. The Conference noted that the Review of the Regular Programme 1986-87 conformed with the structure and format of the previous edition, which had received the approval of FAO's Governing Bodies. In general, it appreciated the clarity, informative nature and analytical content of the Review. The Conference felt that in the future preparation of the agenda, it would be more useful to discuss the Review of the Regular Programme of the current biennium before the Programme and the Budget of the coming biennium is discussed and approved. A number of Member Nations called for efforts to make the Review more evaluative, especially with a view to assess the degree of achievement in programme objectives through verifiable indicators and to establish the link between the targets set and the corresponding findings emerging from the evaluation. A number of Member Nations emphasized the need to ensure that evaluation results were taken into consideration in programming and priority setting.

193. It was also stated that in the future documentation relating to any agenda item where regional shares in expenditure either in the Regular Programme budget or extra-budgetary resources are shown, a separate table to show the shares of the Least Developed Countries within those regions should be added.

194. The Conference welcomed the independent external evaluations of the three Special Action Programmes prepared by independent consultants. These were found to be candid, useful, timely, and containing sound recommendations.

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