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G. Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

386. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's proposals for the implementation of the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development which had been developed over recent years. It expressed its appreciation of the fact that previous Conference deliberations had been taken fully into consideration in the preparation of the programme as well as the resolution adopted by the World Food Conference, in 1974, which called upon FAO to launch a long-term programme. The Conference noted with satisfaction that the Tenth FAO Regional Conference for Africa held in Tanzania in 1978 had endorsed past activities and proposals for action programmes.

387. The Conference noted the comprehensiveness of the long-term strategy for the implementation of the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related
Development which reflects objectively the constraints on rural development imposed by African animal trypanosomiasis, on which the proposed activities and the support for socio economic development are based.

388. The Conference, in a wide-ranging discussion, emphasized the importance of the impact of trypanosomiasis on animal production and its consequences on general agricultural development. It endorsed the activities carried out during the preparatory phase, particularly concerning training. it expressed satisfaction with the close cooperation established with other organizations, particularly WHO and OAU, as well as with bilateral and multilateral sources of financial and technical assistance. It recognized that field projects should be adapted to local conditions taking into account human and environmental factors.

389. The Conference stressed the need for joint action programmes between neighbouring countries and recommended the intensification of research on control techniques such as vaccination, genetic control of tsetse and the use of trypanotolerant livestock. It also noted the need for improvement of general animal health, as trypanosomiasis did not constitute the only impediment to livestock production.

390. The Conference noted that trypanotolerant cattle could play an important role in the development of humid areas in which tsetse eradication is at present impracticable and urged FAO to continue its support for evaluation, multiplication and selection of trypanotolerant breeds.

391. Several members stressed the enormity of the task to be undertaken and of the total costs involved. It was felt however that a beginning must be made now and that the programme was well-designed for present requirements.

392. The Conference agreed that the programme should be developed within the context of integrated rural development and endorsed both the coordinating role of, and the strategy proposed by FAO for promoting balanced area development rather than only unilateral measures to control tsetse and trypanosomiasis. The Conference recognized the urgent need for planned development in West Africa and supported the view that the programme should focus heavily but not exclusively on this sub-region during its early implementation.

393. The Conference agreed that as the aim of the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was to promote and accelerate balanced rural development, programme implementation called for coordinated inter-divisional team work within FAO. In addition coordination with national institutions and collaboration with WHO and OAU was essential in order to avoid duplication of work and ensure optimal resources utilization.

394. The Conference expressed satisfaction that priority had been given and budget allocations made for 1980/81 for the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development. It expressed the hope that the necessary funds would be forthcoming from multilateral and bilateral assistance agencies for the development of the programme.

395. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 8/79



Recognizing the serious constraint on rural development in general and animal production in particular in Africa caused by African animal trypanosomiasis,

Noting with satisfaction the "Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development" proposed by the Director-General in document C 79/29,

Considering that for the purpose of developing and formulating the aforementioned programme and for coordinating its implementation at the intergovernmental level, it would be necessary to establish a body which should comprise in particular the Member Nations that are affected by African animal trypanosomiasis or that could contribute to the effective execution of the programme,

Decides to establish, under Article VI.1 of the Constitution, a Commission to be known as the "Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis", the Statutes of which shall be as follows:

1. Membership

The Commission shall be open to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization. It shall be composed of those Member Nations or Associate Members which notify the Director-General of their desire to be considered as Members.

2. Terms of Reference

The terms of reference of the Commission shall be:

(a) to give advice on the policies to be adopted in the planning and execution of the Programme for the Control of African Trypanosomiasis and Related Development and to keep other relevant activities including training under review;

(b) to appraise progress reports on the implementation and development of the programme;

(c) to review annual action plans to give effect to the programme;

(d) to consider any other matters relating to the execution and funding of the programme;

(e) to advise, as appropriate, on the use of trust funds established by the Organization in accordance with its Financial Regulations to support the activities of the programme.

3. Subsidiary bodies

(a) The Commission may establish such subsidiary bodies as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions;

(b) the establishment of any subsidiary body shall be subject to the determination by the Director-General that the necessary funds are available in the relevant chapter of the budget of the Organization or from extra-budgetary sources. Before taking any decision involving expenditure in connexion with the establishment of subsidiary bodies, the Commission shall have before it a report from the Director-General on the programme, administrative and financial implications thereof.

4. Reporting

At the conclusion of each session, the Commission shall submit to the Director-General a report on its activities and recommendations taking into account the need for the Director-General to be in a position to take such reports into consideration when preparing the draft Programme of Work and Budget of the Organization or other submissions to the Organization's governing bodies. The Director-General shall bring to the attention of the Conference through the Council any recommendations adopted by the Commission which have policy implications or which affect the programme or finances of the Organization. As soon as they become available, copies of each report of the Commission will be circulated to Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization and also to international organizations and agencies that are concerned with the Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development.

5. Secretariat and Expenses

(a) The Secretary of the Commission shall be appointed by the Director-General and shall be administratively responsible to him. The expenses of the Secretariat of the Commission shall be determined and paid by the Organization within the limits of the relevant appropriations in the approved budget of the Organization;

(b) expenses incurred by representatives of members of the Commission, their alternates or advisers, when attending sessions of the Commission or its subsidiary bodies, as well as the expenses of observers at sessions, shall be borne by the respective governments or organizations.

6. Observers

The participation as observers of Member Nations and Associate Members that are not members of the Commission, of states which are not Members or Associate Members of the organization, and of international organizations shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the principles adopted by the Conference.

7. Rules of Procedure

The Commission may adopt and amend its own rules of procedure, which shall be in conformity with the Constitution and the General Rules of the organization and with the statement of principles governing commissions and committees adopted by the Conference. The rules of procedure and amendments thereto shall come into force upon approval by the Director-General.

(Adopted 28 November 1979)

United Nations/FAO World Food Programme (WFP)

396. The Conference was informed by the Executive Director of WFP that since taking over his position two years ago, while the Programme was not easy to manage, he considered that it worked well, bearing in mind the rapidly rising demands on its limited resources, which depended entirely on voluntary contributions. He paid tribute to the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) which had gone a long way towards establishing a working partnership between developed and developing countries as regards both the Programme's operations and the harmonization of bilateral and multilateral food aid policies. The CFA had elaborated guidelines and criteria for bilateral and multilateral food aid programmes at its Seventh Session in May 1979, subsequently endorsed by ECOSOC and the FAO Council, which provided a policy framework for allocating food aid. The Executive Director stressed that the guidelines entailed responsibilities for both donor and recipient countries and that they embodied the kind of cooperation between them envisaged in a New International Economic Order.

397. The Conference noted that the Programme had increased new commitments for development projects to almost $500 million in 1979, compared with $342 million in 1978. Over 70 percent of those commitments were for agricultural production and rural development projects and over 80 percent went to the least developed countries and the most seriously affected countries. Close and productive relationships had been established with organizations providing financial, technical and material assistance which was resulting in parallel inputs into the same development projects.

398. The Conference also noted that the CFA at its Seventh Session had identified practical measures for strengthening the use of food aid in conjunction with financial and other assistance to help establish national reserves and related storage and other infrastructure. WFP had been requested to play an active role in support of such reserves in cooperation with the FAO Food Security Assistance Scheme. The Programme would examine requests for assistance for national reserves on a case-by-case basis to assure that reasonable prospects of success were present. Priority would continue to be given, however, to immediate consumption needs in support of development projects and in emergency situations.

399. The Conference noted further that emergency food relief needs had placed a heavy strain on the Programme's resources during 1979. Since the beginning of the year, with the approval of the Director-General of FAO, WFP had provided assistance in 58 emergency operations at a total cost of over $100 million. Requests for emergency food assistance were being processed which entailed an additional cost of almost $15 million by the end of 1979. Those requests did not include the large-scale emergency assistance required for the people of Kampuchea for which donor countries and aid organizations had agreed that WFP should coordinate food deliveries. The Programme's resources for emergencies came from two sources, its regular pledges and the International Emergency Food Reserve (IEFR). The allocation for emergency assistance from WFP's regular resources for 1979 had been increased by the CFA from $45 million to $55 million. The Committee was being requested to increase the allocation by another $10 million for 1979.

400. Regarding the IEFR, the Conference noted that the CFA had revised the modalities of the Reserve at its Sixth Session in October 1978 whereby it was established on a continuing basis with yearly replenishments and a minimum annual target of 500 000 tons and placed at the disposal of WFP. Total contributions to the IEFR for 1979 had, however, only reached 306 006 tons, lower than those made in 1978, not all of which had been made available to the Programme. The Conference registered its deep concern that requests for emergency food assistance were being held in abeyance for lack of resources.

401. All members expressed their appreciation of the work of the Programme. Special tribute was paid to its efforts in assisting the people of Kampuchea. Project food aid, as provided by WFP, had proved to be one of the best ways of helping hungry and poor people in a tangible manner. The Programme's assistance had been particularly useful in supporting pioneering or innovative approaches designed to improve the conditions of the needy in developing countries. Note was also taken of the catalytic role WFP had played in obtaining assistance from other sources. Members commended the efforts being made to coordinate the Programme's aid with that of other organizations which provided financial, technical and material assistance.

402. There was general approval of the priorities established for the allocation of WFP assistance in terms of countries and types of projects. While some members called for an increase in the Programme's emergency allocations, others felt that WFP should primarily be an agency for development with emergency food aid needs being met mainly bilaterally and through the IEFR. Members agreed, however, on the important role that the Programme should play in coordinating emergency food aid. They also appreciated the need to increase WFP staff to assist recipient countries in making effective use of food aid for development projects and in times of emergency.

403. The Conference agreed that food aid needs were likely to increase substantially in the 1980's. It took note of the consensus reached at the Seventh Session of the CFA that the Secretariat estimate of 17 to 18.5 million tons provided a useful indicator of requirements for cereal food aid by 1985. That estimate did not reflect the full needs of recipient countries to meet their nutritional requirements or for major emergencies and was significantly higher than the present annual target of 10 million tons of food aid in cereals established by the World Food Conference. Members observed that neither that target nor the target for IEFR contributions had been attained.

404. The Conference urged the speedy resumption and conclusion of negotiations for a new and enlarged Food Aid Convention with the aim of at least reaching the target of food aid in cereals. It also appealed to current and potential new contributors to attain the target set for the IEFR as soon as possible and to place their contributions at the disposal of WFP.

405. The Conference unanimously approved the pledging target for voluntary pledges to WFP for the 1981-82 biennium of $1 000 million. In doing so, it stressed that it was a minimum target. The Conference recommended that every effort should be made to reach the target and to surpass it should major increases in commodity prices and transportation costs, or in food aid requirements, occur before or during the 1981-82 biennium. The Conference also emphasized the importance of cash, as well as commodity, contributions to WFP. It recommended further that donors should ensure that not less than one third of total contributions should be in cash and/or services, as required under the Programme's general regulations. A number of members announced their governments' intention to increase their contributions to WFP for the biennium 1981-82.

406. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 9/79



Recalling the provisions of Resolution 4/65 that the World Food Programme is to be reviewed before each pledging conference,

Recalling the provisions of operative paragraph 4 of its Resolution 10/77 that, subject to the review mentioned above, the next pledging conference should be convened at the latest early in 1980, at which time governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1981 and 1982, with a view to reaching a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

Noting that the review of the Programme was undertaken by the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the World Food Programme at its Seventh Session and by the FAO Council at its Seventy-fifth Session,

Having considered Resolution 2/75 of the Council as well as the recommendations of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes, Recognizing the value of multilateral food aid as implemented by WFP since its inception and the necessity for continuing its action both as a form of capital investment and for meeting emergency food needs;

1. Establishes for the two years 1981 and 1982 a minimum target for voluntary contribution of $1 000 million, of which not less than one third should be in cash and/or services in aggregate, and expresses the hope that such resources will be augmented by substantial additional contributions from other sources in recognition of the prospective volume of sound project requests and the capacity of the Programme to operate at a higher level;

2. Urges States Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, to make every effort to ensure the full attainment of the target, and to appropriately surpass it should major increases in costs of commodities and transportation, or in food aid requirements, occur before or during the biennium 1981-82;

3. Requests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the Director-General of FAO, to convene a pledging conference for this purpose at United Nations Headquarters early in 1980;

4. Decides that, subject to the review provided for in Resolution 4/65, the following pledging conference at which governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1983 and 1984 with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization, should be convened at the latest early in 1982.

(Adopted 28 November 1979)

H. Relations and consultations with international organizations

Relations with WFC and IFAD
Recent developments in the United Nations system of interest to FAO
Evaluation of services of the joint inspection unit to FAO
Relations with intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations, including international trade unions.

Relations with WFC and IFAD

(i) World Food Council

407. The Conference noted the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the World Food Council at its Fifth Ministerial Session (Ottawa, 3 - 7 September 1979). It welcomed the support expressed by the World Food Council for FAO programmes.

408. The Conference was informed that the report of the World Food Council on its Ottawa session was currently before the General Assembly.

409. The representative of the World Food Council drew attention to the political and catalytic role of the World Food Council in mobilizing resources and strengthening the political will to combat hunger and malnutrition. He emphasized the close collaboration between the World Food Council and other UN agencies and organizations, particularly FAO.

410. The Conference reiterated the need to maintain close ties between FAO and WFC.

(ii) International Fund for Agricultural Development

411. The Conference noted that the international Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), with initial resources of about $1 billion, had now been in existence for almost two years. From its inception FAO had given maximum support to the Fund in all its activities. For its part, the Fund had increasingly relied upon FAO, and in particular upon the Investment Centre of the Development Department, for help in identifying and preparing investment projects for IFAD financing.

412. The Conference considered that FAO and HAD were natural partners, complementing each other. FAO was the specialized agency within the United Nations responsible for food and agriculture; IFAD was the only multilateral lending agency devoted exclusively to financing agricultural development. Increasing food production, improving the living standards and nutritional levels of the rural poor in the poorest countries, were the common objectives of both IFAD and FAO. The Conference urged that this partnership be strengthened.

413. The Conference welcomed FAO's cooperation with HAD as reported in document C 79/30, paragraphs 17-23. It noted that the great majority of projects supported by the Fund so far had been co-financed with other lending institutions. Many of these projects had been originally prepared with the assistance of FAO.

414. The main thrust of FAO's support to IFAD, however, had been and would continue to be in building up the Fund's own pipeline of "Fund-initiated" projects, whose beneficiaries were IFAD's special target groups. This was a lengthy process, involving the identification and subsequent detailed preparation of investment projects.

415. The Conference noted that the first two Fund-initiated projects had been approved for financing in September 1979. Both projects had been identified or prepared with the help of FAO's Investment Centre. Since IFAD began operations, FAO had assisted in the formulation of 25 Fund-initiated projects. Some of these were expected to be approved for financing in December 1979; others would be submitted for approval in 1980.

416. IFAD had already begun to finance technical assistance activities and was increasingly turning to FAO to carry out or supervise investment-related studies. Arrangements for this joint activity were being negotiated.

417. The Conference noted that it was expected that the Fund's initial resources would be largely committed by the end of 1980. It recommended that urgent consideration be given to ensuring that the Fund's resources were replenished on a regular basis, so that it could continue its valuable investment work to increase food production and raise the living standards of the rural poor.

Recent developments in the United Nations system of interest to FAO

418. It was recalled that the Council at its Seventy-fifth Session had already discussed the contents of document C 79/31. The main event since this Council session had been the holding of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) in August 1979. The report now before the Conference contained information on the Programme of Action adopted by UNCSTD and its possible implications for FAO. The Conference noted that FAO had made considerable contributions to the preparations for UNCSTD.

419. The Conference recognized that the UNCSTD Programme of Action was laid down on the basis of general policies and not of sectoral activities. It would, however, need to be carried into effect largely in specific sectors. The Conference noted that an Interim Fund for Science and Technology was to be established with a target of $250 million for 1980/81, to be administered by UNDP. A Pledging Conference was to be called by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, probably in February 1980. It was important that the Ministries of Agriculture of developing countries should be aware of the potential of the Interim Fund for projects relevant to science and technology in agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

420. Attention was drawn to the institutional arrangements resulting from UNCSTD. These included an Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development, an Advisory Group of Experts and a group for intersecretariat coordination. It was estimated that the potential cost to FAO of participating in these and other follow-up activities during the coming biennium could be just over $1 million, but no specific budgetary provision had been made for this purpose, since UNCSTD had taken place after the Programme of Work and Budget had been drawn up. The Conference noted that the Director-General would be submitting to the Council at its Seventy-eighth Session in November 1980 estimates of the cost to FAO of coordination activities and requested that this same information, brought up to date as appropriate, should be made available to the Conference at its Twenty-first Session in 1981.

421. The Conference gave particular attention to aspects of the restructuring of the economic and social sectors of the UN system called for by the UN General Assembly in Resolution 32/197 of 20 December 1977. Paragraph 34 of the annex to that resolution provided for the designation of a single official at country level to be responsible for various functions connected with the coordination of operational activities. Agreement had been reached at secretariat level in the Administrative Committee on Coordination regarding arrangements for the implementation of this paragraph, through the designation in each developing country of a Resident Coordinator of the United Nations System's Operational Activities for Development. However, the entire question had been reopened by the Economic and Social Council and it was understood that discussions were under way in the General Assembly regarding a new resolution on the subject.

422. The Conference emphasized that coordination of external aid, including that from the UN system, was a prerogative of the recipient governments. Arrangements to ensure cooperation among the UN organizations had already been laid down by the UN General Assembly in the 1970 Consensus and were generally working well. It would not be desirable to establish new bureaucratic procedures at the country level which could result in slowing down the action of FAO rather than making it more effective. Furthermore, any new arrangements should not affect the relationships between the Director-General and the FAO Representatives, nor those between FAO and the governments concerned, and should allow for the fact that FAO was responsible for the activities which it carried out at the request of governments.

423. The Conference therefore requested the Director-General to consult the Council regarding any new recommended arrangements which could affect the efficiency and effectiveness of FAO Country Offices.

424. The Conference was advised that there was a proposal before the UN General Assembly at its current session for a new round of global negotiations on international economic cooperation. Such negotiations would cover raw materials, energy, trade, development, money and finance. They would therefore be of direct interest to FAO. The programme and time frame for the global negotiations would be worked out by the Committee of the Whole of the General Assembly (set up under Resolution 32/174) and they would be launched at the Special Session of the General Assembly, which was now expected to be held in the summer of 1980.

425. The Conference noted with satisfaction that FAO was continuing to collaborate with the UN in the implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

426. Finally, attention was drawn to the scope for enhanced cooperation between FAO and the United Nations University (UNU). The Conference noted that FAO was already working together with UNU on problems of nutrition and post-harvest food losses, and was ready to develop links with other aspects of the UNU programme.

Evaluation of services of the joint inspection unit to FAO

427. The Conference welcomed the information contained in the document, the comments of the
Director-General, and the note from the JIU.

428. The Conference noted that the text of the document was mainly historical, factual and analytical, including information on both direct and indirect costs to FAO. The appendix to the document presented in tabular form the views of the Programme and Finance Committees and the Council on those Reports which had dealt with matters of concern to FAO over the years since 1968.

429. The Conference agreed with the conclusions of the Director-General and welcomed the efforts to improve the relationship between JIU and FAO.

Relations with intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations, including international trade unions.

430. The Conference took note of a report on some of the more significant developments Chat had taken place since its Nineteenth Session on relations between FAO and intergovernmental organizations (other than the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies) and international non-governmental organizations, including international trade unions.

431. The Secretary-General of the International Sericultural Commission (ISC) made a statement in which he outlined the situation regarding silkworm breeding in the world, pointed out the interest of this activity for the developing countries and explained the objectives of this intergovernmental organization. He requested that the cooperation between FAO and ISC be intensified. This statement was supported by certain members.

432. It also noted the report on an informal meeting of representatives of International non-governmental organizations attending the Twentieth Session of the Conference.

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