Contents -

IV. Activities of FAO

A. General
B. Special problems
C. Specified activities and programs

A. General

Work of FAO in 1950/51
Long-term objectives and associated problems
Program of work for 1952 and 1953
Expanded technical assistance program
Technical assistance fellowships and training

Work of FAO in 1950/51

108. The work of the Organization during the past two years shows encouraging progress in all fields despite the administrative difficulties and interruption in work caused by the transfer of FAO's Headquarters. The Conference was particularly impressed with the efficient way in which the Expanded Technical Assistance Program had been organized and related to the regular activities of FAO. It also expressed satisfaction with the administrative reorganization that had been put into effect during 1951 and commended the Director-General on the preparation of the present Conference and its documentation.

109. The report of the Director-General on the Work of FAO in 1950/51 (C 51/21) was examined by the Conference. It was suggested that it would be helpful if in future a more detailed account could be given of the way in which FAO's funds had been used, and the results FAO's activities had produced; mention should also be made of possible failures, their reasons, and the adjustments that had been made accordingly. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 17
Work of FAO In 1950 and 1951

The Conference

Having examined the Work of FAO in 1950 end 1951,

Commends the Director-General for the results achieved and the striking progress in policy and organization; and

Approves FAO's work to date.

Long-term objectives and associated problems

110. The Report of the Working Party on the Program of Work and Associated Long-term Problems (hereinafter to be called "the Long-term Report"), had been carefully studied by Member Governments. The Conference was unanimous in paying tribute to the Working Party, and in expressing its appreciation to the chairman and members and also to the 30 Member Governments who contributed written suggestions, for having produced a document of lasting value. The conclusions reached by the Working Party met with general agreement and many delegates endorsed with particular emphasis the four principles for planning future programs, contained in paragraph 12 of the Working Party's Report. Stress was laid in particular on the need to give highest priority to all activities designed to increase the supplies of food, as already stated in paragraphs 71, 87, etc. Attention was drawn once more to shortages of animal feed, various raw materials, agricultural requisites and equipment, which required FAO's immediate attention.

111. The Conference noted the relative reduction of FAO's activities in the fields of economics and distribution and agreed with the Director-General that in this direction no further action was required at this time. Many delegations stressed the importance of economic research and fundamental studies to explore the general background and the social environment for FAO's programs in various technical fields. Full consideration should always be given to land classification for proper use, and to such basic problems as investment in agriculture, the increase in productivity of agricultural labor and to commodity policies.

112. As already stated (see paragraphs 46, 47, 48), education, research and extension should be regarded as fundamental methods to be used in Member Countries in promoting the objectives of FAO. The Conference also noted with satisfaction that increasing emphasis will be placed on developing a regional approach to FAO's problems, including regional meetings. Decentralization should be further accentuated through use of outside experts and research institutions.

113. The Conference noted with satisfaction that the Director-General had been able to give due consideration to the recommendations of the Working Party in framing the program for 1952 and 1953 and trusted that he would continue to be guided by the conclusions contained in the Long-term Report. The Conference also suggested that particular attention be paid in future to maintaining the unity of FAO's normal and Technical Assistance Programs and to giving expression to this unity, if possible, in the presentation of future work programs. The Conference drew the Director-General's attention to its belief that the growing importance of technical assistance will make it necessary to gear FAO's normal program increasingly to fit the needs of technical assistance, in preparing technical assistance projects, servicing experts and trainees in the course of their work, and co-operating with governments in the implementation of the recommendations formulated by technical assistance missions. In all these activities, the closest co-ordination should be ensured not only within FAO but also between the Organization and other agencies of the United Nations and international institutions.

114. The Conference then adopted the following resolutions:

Resolution No. 18

Long-term Objectives and Associated Problems

The Conference

Having studied the Report of the Working Party on the Program of Work and Associated Long-term Problems,

Congratulates the members of the Working Party on having produced a most valuable document;

Endorses the conclusions contained in the Working Party's Report, and in particular/ the four principles for the planning of future programs; and

Recommends the Report of the Working Party to the Director-General for the planning and direction of FAO's work.

Resolution No. 19
National FAO Committees

The Conference

Having taken cognizance of the past experience of National FAO Committees established by a great many Member Nations,

Considering that wherever they exist such national committees have rendered invaluable service to the Organization as well as to their respective governments by ensuring in the most effective manner:

(a) liaison between the Organization and the governments which established them;

(b) dissemination of information concerning FAO among government agencies, national institutions and the broad public in their respective countries;

Recognizing that it is the responsibility of each government to select the type of national committee which it deems most advisable,

Recommends that Member Governments make sure that their already established or envisaged national committees be in a position to assume the above-mentioned function of liaison and information agencies and to this end:

Draws the attention of the interested governments to the fact that the liaison function presupposes that the committee itself or an official service of this committee, be entrusted with such liaison work, while the information function requires that in one manner or another, groups representing the public, in particular producers and consumers interested in the work of the Organization, be associated with the corresponding phases of the work of their national committee;

Invites the Council of FAO to submit to the next regular session of the Conference a report on the manner in which the national committees may be invested with official status in the Organization, proposing, within the prescribed time limits, whatever amendments may be necessary to the Constitution and/or the Rules of Procedure;

Invites the Member Governments to continue to exchange information on their respective experiences in this field;

Recommends to the Director-General that he avail himself to the fullest extent of the services which the national committees can render in the implementation of the program of work of FAO.

Program of work for 1952 and 1953

115. The Director-General's proposals contained in the Program of Work 1952-1953 were studied in detail by the Conference. The presentation of the program won unanimous praise and all delegations agreed that, in general, a proper balance between the various fields of FAO's activities had been struck. The deliberations dealing with the need for increasing the production of food and raw materials as well as the discussions of the activities of FAO induced the Conference to recommend a number of new projects and the expansion of FAO's activities in various directions. The implementation of these recommendations will require additional funds in 1952 and even more in 1953. All these adjustments and additions were thoroughly considered by the organs of the Conference and are specifically stated in recommendations appearing in other parts of this Report. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 20
Program of Work and Budgets for 1952 and 1953

The Conference

Having examined in detail the Program of Work 1952-1953,

Approves the Director-General's proposals contained in document C 51/16 and in the Draft Budget for 1952-1953 (C 51/l7), subject to the observations contained elsewhere in the Report of the Conference;

Invites and Authorizes the Director-General to undertake the additional projects specifically recommended in Chapters II and III of the Conference Report to the extent that funds are available under the budgets for 1952 and 1953 and taking into account the savings specified in Chapter IV;

Requests the Director-General to undertake the implementation of the program as amended and approved, using his discretion in the determination of priorities for the additional projects.

Expanded technical assistance program

116. The Conference was unanimous in its approval of FAO's accomplishments in technical assistance. The appraisal and screening of projects developed by the Organization, as demonstrated by the Basic Activity Summaries, was considered of great value.

117. In screening projects, the Conference agreed that first priority should be given to those which would result in an increase of production. The basic contribution of such efforts toward balanced economic development and higher living standards was stressed. Particular attention should also be paid to measures which could relate the Technical Assistance Program to the financing of economic, development.

118. It was suggested that the pilot project technique should receive special consideration in order to facilitate the successful execution of large projects and to reduce to a minimum the risk of governments in connection with their investments. Both Member Governments and FAO should give particular support to the development of regional projects. In view of the contributions such programs can make to economic development in a number of countries, a well co-ordinated regional program for technical assistance should include regional training centers and also pay attention to all activities where concerted action by several governments is required, such as water use, disease control, etc.

119. Technical assistance should always be related to the economic, sociological and technological structure of the recipient countries, It should be planned with due consideration to the rate at which advances can be assimilated.

120. The Conference recorded its appreciation not only of the technical qualifications of the experts provided by FAO, but also for their understanding of the economic and social conditions in the countries they serve. It hoped that in recruiting experts the Organization would continue to keep these attributes in mind. The Director-General will communicate to the experts in the field this appreciation of their work.

121. In order to achieve greater integration of the Technical Assistance Program and to avoid duplication and over-lapping, coordination of the activities of various agencies engaged in technical assistance, both on a bilateral and international basis, should be further strengthened. This was considered necessary for the development of a balanced program not only within FAO, but among all the agencies working in a particular country. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 21
Expanded Technical Assistance Program

The Conference

Having studied the reports on the Expanded Technical Assistance Program,

Congratulates the Director-General on FAO's accomplishments to date;

Urges that projects designed to increase and improve production of food and raw materials should receive high priority;

Recommends that due attention be paid to a careful evaluation of technical assistance in relation to economic, sociological and technological factors; and

Requests Member Governments to give special support to various kinds of regional projects and to their proper coordination.

Technical assistance fellowships and training

122. Delegates emphasized the importance of adequate government services in administration, extension, research and technical work for the implementation of technical assistance. It was stressed that unless these basic activities are considerably strengthened, a great deal of technical assistance effort might be lost. The importance of training suitable personnel for these services was among the reasons that prompted delegates to recommend a liberalization of FAO's fellowship policy The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 22
Technical Assistance Fellowships and Training

The Conference

Realizing the basic value of essential government services in administration, extension, research, and technical work

Urges Member Governments to pay special attention to projects for the improvement of these services;

Considering that a more liberal interpretation of FAO's fellowship policy would be desirable to meet the requirements of Member Governments,

Recommends that the practice of linking fellowship to active projects in progress in the country from which the fellowship request originated be in general adhered to, but that in exceptional cases fellowships be granted:

(a) when related to technical assistance that is bilateral or that is given by other agencies;

(b) when related to government plans in action where the need for the training of personnel is clearly evident, but where no experts are to be provided under ETAP;

Requests the Director-General to satisfy himself in such exceptional cases that the candidates for such fellowships are likely to benefit from the training provided and are intended, on completion of the fellowships, to undertake activities in their own countries in development work connected with technical assistance or government plans as mentioned under (a) and (b) above;

Decides that complete confidence shall foe placed in the judgment of the Director-General in order to ensure that these principles be successfully applied and that the Director-General's decisions in these matters shall be accepted as final.

B. Special problems

Collection of information
Article XI reports
Advisory committees
Land and water utilization and conservation
Range management
Shifting cultivation
Principles of forest policy
Increased production of pulp and paper

Collection of information

123. Acting in compliance with a recommendation of the Council of FAO, and with due consideration to pertinent material contained in the Long-term Report and submitted by the Director-General, the Conference discussed FAO's experience with regard to collection of information and explored methods for its improvement. It felt that a fundamental distinction should be made between current information, which needs to be kept up-to-date, and technical information, where the time element is less important.

124. With regard to current information, it is important to limit delays in transmission to a minimum and to use the most rapid means of communication. Periodic questionnaires should be drafted with due consideration to the local conditions to which they apply and should be confined to such facts as can be supplied by given deadline and which are not received otherwise (see paragraph 125 below) from Member Governments. In particular, crop estimates should only be requested for dates at which they can reasonably be supplied.

125. In addition, governments should transmit to FAO with the utmost urgency all forecasts, estimates and statistics, as they are published and which relate to matters falling within the scope of FAO's responsibilities.

126. In order to facilitate rapid transmission and analysis of these figures, it appears indispensable to establish clear-cut definitions of terms used, both by Member Governments in their publications and by FAO in its questionnaires and that the necessary conversion factors be agreed upon between FAO and governments. Once this is done, telegraph codes could be introduced to simplify transmission and reduce volume and cost.

127. In conformity with the decisions of the Special Meeting on Urgent Food Problems in 1946, FAO shall be free to use the best available information whenever governments are not in a position to assure the timely transmission of the necessary data. In these cases, however, FAO should indicate by a special sign that the figure is not of official origin, and should also be ready to indicate to the interested government the sources of such figures. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 23
Collection of Information

The Conference

Notes with satisfaction the Director-General's proposals for the standardization of definitions and the establishment of a manual of statistical methods, designed to improve the international comparability of information;

Stresses again the need to pursue efforts within the Organization and with other agencies of the United Nations to avoid a multiplication of questionnaires and over-lapping requests for information;

Believes that Member Governments should be given adequate deadlines to prepare technical information where the time element is less important;

Requests the Director-General:

(a) to advise governments well in advance of the arrival of staff members visiting their countries to collect information in order to permit them to schedule the visitors' time as efficiently as possible;

(b) to supply Member Governments promptly with reports prepared by staff members concerning such visits in order to enable them to present their observations for FAO's consideration;

Confirms that National FAO Committees constitute the most efficient channel for the rapid transmission of information;

Expresses the hope that these committees be provided in each country with the necessary facilities to fulfill their role;

Suggests that wherever direct contacts between the Organization and services or individuals in a country are authorized, the National FAO Committee receive copies of all correspondence in both directions; and

Recommends that FAO should rely on National FAO Committees to keep itself informed about technical developments in Member Countries. To that end, the committees should either make available to FAO all pertinent publications, abstracts, bibliographies, or else arrange for the preparation of articles and studies by specialists about developments of interest to FAO.

Article XI reports

128. In deciding the future policy regarding reports to be submitted by Member Nations under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Article XI of the Constitution, the Conference studied the views and proposals of the Working Party on the Program of Work and Associated Long-term Problems, of the Twelfth Session of the Council and of the Director-General (Documents C 51/15, C 51/33 and C 51/34).

129. Delegates noted the fact that although most Member Nations had regularly submitted the requested reports, many of these were not received by the Organization in time to permit an analysis for the Conference as mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article XI.

130. It was also recognized that the preparation of the reports and their analyses entailed a considerable amount of work on the part of Member Nations as well as the Organization. The discussion made it clear; however, that there is great interest among Member Nations in the information derived from each other's reports, while a number of delegates pointed out that these reports were also valuable for internal use.

131. The Conference agreed, therefore, that Article XI Reports should be maintained and stressed that it is the primary duty of Member Nations to comply with their obligation under Article XI.

132. Various suggestions were made with respect to the periodicity of the reports, and it was finally decided that two years would be the most appropriate interval in view of the biennial sessions of the Conference The Conference stressed, in this connection, the necessity of submitting Article XI Reports in time to enable the Director-General to prepare an analysis of these reports for consideration by the Conference.

133. This decision does not affect the obligation of Member Governments to supply other information in accordance with paragraphs 4 and 5 of Article XI. Member Governments were reminded that the Director-General, acting on his own initiative or on instructions from the Council, may request at any time, under Article XI of the Constitution, the preparation of reports on any question of major importance to the activities of the Organization. Such reports should be analyzed and distributed to Member Nations, and submitted to the Council and the Conference.

134. The Conference also was of the opinion that in view of the fact that much statistical and other information now regularly reaches the Organization through other channels, Article XI Reports should be considerably simplified, and might well be given the form of concise monographs.

135. In reporting on measures taken to achieve the objectives set out in the preamble of the Constitution and the results obtained, Member Nations should give special attention to those subjects that had been discussed at previous Conferences and on which special recommendations had been made.

136. The Director-General should, by the first of January of each year in which a regular session of the Conference is to be held, request Member Nations to submit their Article XI Reports. In this communication he should remind Member Nations of the resolutions of the previous session recommending specific action on their part, and request them to report briefly on the measures taken and results obtained. in implementing these resolutions. In case a Member Nation has already informed the Organization on any of these subjects at an earlier stage, it may in its report refer to these earlier communications.

137. Member Nations should supply copies of their reports directly to other countries. Moreover they should, upon request, make available to other Member Nations all the additional documentation referred to in their reports. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 24
Article XI Reports

The Conference

Having examined the proposals of the Working Party on the Program of Work and Associated Long-term Problems, of the Twelfth Session of the Council and of the Director-General with regard to reports of Member Nations under Article XI of the Constitution,

Considers it the primary duty of Member Nations to comply with the obligation to submit periodical reports; and

Recommends that:

1. Article XI Reports be submitted at intervals of two years at such dates as will enable their consideration by the biennial sessions of the Conference; and

2. Member Nations supply the Organization upon its request with statistical, technical and other information as may be necessary for the implementation of its Program of Work, including information indispensable for the preparation, every year, of the State of Food and Agriculture;

Proposes that Member Nations forward copies of their reports directly to each other, so as to ensure the widest possible distribution with the least delay;

Requests the Director-General to submit to the Council for approval, plans for the simplification of outline and form of these reports.

Advisory committees

138. In the early days of the Organization, Standing Advisory Committees, established for each of FAO's major fields of activities, rendered valuable services in helping the Director-General to formulate a balanced program for the work of FAO and to adopt suitable methods for its implementation. The progress made in developing FAO's work has gradually reduced the usefulness of broad committees covering an entire field of activity, and the cost connected with meetings of Standing Advisory Committees has prevented the Director-General in recent years from convening these committees. Only the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition has continued to meet at regular intervals since it fulfills a well-defined function with regard to the joint interests of FAO and WHO

139. Guided by the recommendations of the Working Party on the Long-term Program, the Conference decided to abolish Standing Advisory Committees, with the exception of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition, and to replace them by panels of selected experts. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 25
Advisory Committees

The Conference

Considering that the Standing Advisory Committees established in the early days of the Organization should be replaced, with the exception of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition, by developing consultation with leading technicians in the various fields of work covered by FAO's responsibilities,

Requests the Director-General to establish, in consultation with Member Governments and National FAO Committees, panels of experts in as many fields as FAO's activities make desirable;

Recommends that he convene ad hoc meetings of small numbers of experts selected from these panels as the need arises and wherever such meetings can be organized at minimum expense to the governments who will cover the attendance cost of experts from their countries;

Invites the Director-General to communicate from time to time to the Council and Member Governments the names of experts listed for each panel; and

Suggests that panel members be consulted whenever possible by correspondence in order to reduce the number of committee meetings to a minimum.

Land and water utilization and conservation

140. Consideration was given to the resolution of the Twelfth Session of ECOSOC calling on the Secretary-General to submit a report "on the work being done by the Specialized Agencies and other international organizations, whether governmental, semi-governmental or non-governmental, engaged in the broad field of water control and utilization," and the report submitted by the Secretariat was examined (C 51/11-Ag. 1).

141. Special attention was given to the recommendation of the Fifth Session of the Conference "that a meeting of specialists on a world-wide scale be held during 1951 on the problem of water utilization and control. " Following a discussion, it was generally agreed to hold an international meeting on improved irrigation and drainage practices in 1952 at a place to be determined by the Secretariat, in consultation with Member Governments.

142. Emphasis was placed on the need for integrated programs of land and water utilization. The active concern of ECOSOC in this matter was welcomed.

143. The program of work in the field of land and water utilization and conservation received wholehearted support. Attention was drawn to the relations between water utilization and public health, not only in such obvious fields as the provision of safe drinking water, but also in controlling diseases that are water-borne or whose insect-vectors are aquatic during part of their life cycle.

Range management

144. The Conference called the attention of Member Governments to the program of work of FAO on problems of range and wild land conservation. These lands, together with other rough grazings in dry countries, occupy a very large portion of the entire land surface of the world and furnish the livelihood of millions of people.

145. The Conference endorsed the current program of Work of FAO as being an important start on the problems of use and management of such lands. It expressed the hope that, in future, programs in this field of work could be given greater emphasis. It recommended that the Director-General convene a small group of experts in forestry and agriculture to explore the possibilities of greater attention by FAO to range and wild lands and of how this could be accomplished.

146. The Conference drew the attention of Member Governments to the Sixth International Grassland Conference, to be held under the joint sponsorship of the United States of America and FAO, at State College, Pennsylvania, in August 1952. At this congress the grassland problems of the world are to be discussed, range lands having a prominent place in the program.

Shifting cultivation

147. During a meeting of delegates interested especially in the relationship between agriculture and forestry, the questions of soil utilization and, in particular, of shifting cultivation were examined.

148. The Conference agreed that, as a first step towards mitigating the damage so often caused by shifting cultivation, the Organization should undertake the studies proposed by the Director-General in his Program of Work, and based on the recommendations of the FAO meetings held at Mysore (1949) Bangkok (1950) and Ceylon (195l). Maximum use should be made of the documentation assembled by various bodies and, in particular, by the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. There should be an endeavor to arrive at a satisfactory definition of the term "Shifting Cultivation" at an early stage.

149. Close collaboration between the Agriculture and Forestry Divisions of FAO on the various problems involved was essential.

Principles of forest policy

150. The Conference was unanimously of the opinion that the Principles of Forest Policy contained in the resolution below should be recommended for the attention of all Member Governments. This resolution deals only with fundamental principles which must of necessity be interpreted in the light of the social and economic conditions prevailing in each country. It provides a framework on which every country could elaborate its own forest policy. The adoption by the Conference of the following resolution is of historic significance in securing better forest management the world over:

Resolution No. 26
Principles of Forest Policy

The Conference

Declares its conviction that the forest is a factor of prime importance in the economic, social, and physical balance of the world. Subject to wise conservation and utilization, it constitutes an indefinitely renewable source of products which are indispensable to man. The development of standards of living and the growth of world population create ever greater needs for such products, and many countries insufficiently endowed with forest resources must therefore depend upon other countries for supplies. Also, because it provides or can provide employment for many workers, and is a source of raw material for a wide variety of industries, the forest constitutes an important element in the social stability and progress of the world. The forest also exercises vital protective functions in regard to soil, water and climate and, as a result, influences the agricultural economy, the development of hydro-electrical industries, and the general welfare of rural and urban peoples both in the country itself and in neighboring countries.

Both the protective and productive functions may well be vitiated by destructive and careless practices. In order to enjoy to the full all the benefits which forests can afford, both to the country itself and the world at large, it is essential that each country should formulate a sound forest policy.

Recognizes that forest conditions vary widely from country to country. Great differences exist in the forms of forest ownership. Economic exploitation of the forest and efficient utilization of its products necessitate the application of differing techniques and administrative procedures suitable to varying conditions.

Bearing in mind, however, that there are certain basic principles which govern for any country both the formulation and the implementation of an adequate forest policy,

Recommends, therefore, to governments the adoption of the principles outlined below.

Part I - Principles governing the formulation of a forest policy

1. Each country should determine and set aside areas to be dedicated to forests, whether at present forested or not. This should be done progressively, if necessary, but always in accord with the country's economic and social policy and taking into account the close interdependence of all forms of land use.

2. Each country should apply the best practicable techniques in seeking to derive in perpetuity, for the greatest number of its people, the maximum benefits available from the protective, productive and accessory values of its forests. This implies that:

(a) protection should be afforded against damage or destruction by man, or by such causes as fire, insects and tree diseases;

(b) production should be organized, in quantity and quality, with a view to obtaining at least a sustained yield as soon as practicable, giving consideration first, to any protective role assigned to the forest, and then, to any other interests, whether worldwide, regional, national or local, that the forest should serve. The country concerned must itself adjudge priorities, taking into account that a forest may be called upon to render multiple services, including offering recreational values, protection for wildlife, and a source of supply of many kinds of produce;

(c) economic and rational methods of forest exploitation and of conversion and utilization of forest products should be encouraged, so that the volume and variety of commodities obtained from the raw material furnished by the forest shall be increased to the maximum extent possible.

3. Adequate knowledge of all aspects of forest resources, forestry, and the consumption and utilization of forest products, is indispensable. This includes, in varying degrees at the different stages of development of forest policy, a knowledge of the resources available on forested lands or of those that should be made available on idle lands; of the national needs for forest products; of the natural laws that apply to forests; and of the techniques employed in the production of forest crops and the utilization of their products. To this end, research should be organized and expanded to keep pace with all developments in the fields concerned, and the application of the results obtained should be consistently encouraged.

4. Public consciousness values should be developed by all means possible.

Part II - Principles governing the implementation of a forest policy

5. Forest law to give effect to the forest policy should be enacted in consonance with the juridical forms and customs of the country. Such legislation should be developed in keeping with the economic and social progress of the country, and should in fact anticipate such progress.

6. A Forest Service should be established and staffed by suitably qualified personnel in all its grades to develop and implement forestry policy in collaboration with any suitable organizations which may exist, and to administer the forest law. Such a service should be formed on a permanent basis; it should be endowed with adequate authority and financial support, and should work in close association with other governmental agencies concerned.

There should be an effective organization to deal with forest research, its co-ordination, and the dissemination of results.

7. Adequate training should be provided for all concerned with the management of forests or the utilization and processing of forest products. In particular, foresters and allied technicians should be trained in sufficient numbers to staff public services and other interests concerned with forestry and forest products.

For the higher grade personnel, such training should be provided at schools of university standard, established, to the extent that this is possible, in the country concerned. Subordinate personnel should receive suitable basic training to enable them effectively to fulfill their duties.

Increased production of pulp and paper

151. The Conference had before it Resolution No. 374 (XIII) of the Economic and Social Council wherein a request is addressed to FAO to lend its assistance in efforts to overcome the world shortage of newsprint and printing paper. In his address to the inaugural meeting of this Conference the Director-General of UNESCO had emphasized the seriousness of the present situation and stated that the position had markedly deteriorated since FAO organized the Preparatory Conference on World Pulp Problems at Montreal, Canada, in 1949.

152. The Conference recognized that a serious situation existed and that FAO bore a major responsibility for efforts directed toward its solution. The Organization was already working in some degree to this cud, but should intensify its work. The Conference accordingly adopted the following resolution:

Resolution No. 27
Increased Production of Pulp and Paper

The Conference

Considering the urgency of alleviating and gradually overcoming the present shortage of newsprint and printing paper in many parts of the world, and desiring to comply with the request addressed by ECOSOC to FAO in its Resolution No. 374 (XIII);

Considering that increased output of newsprint and printing paper should be brought about only at the same time as general increases in the production of pulp and paper for all major uses and without endangering forest conservation of the satisfaction of wood requirements for housing, mining, and other purposes;

Considering that the use of lower specifications and inferior species, and raw materials other than wood, wherever appropriate, should contribute materially towards the desired objective;

Recognizing that the production, consumption, and distribution of pulp and paper, especially in its short-term aspects, is currently under consideration by the Pulp and Paper Committee of the International Materials Conference and that work undertaken by FAO should not duplicate the work of IMC or of other intergovernmental agencies;


1. FAO, in consultation with IMC and other interested inter-governmental agencies, survey the possibilities of increasing the production and transportation facilities for pulpwood;

2. that Member Governments:

(a) take action aimed at increasing pulpwood supplies including adjustments in forest policy such as planting quick-growing pulpable species, and developing and using suitable supplementary or substitute raw materials;

(b) consider the advisability of establishing or encouraging new pulp and paper manufacturing plants in areas where permanent supplies of raw materials (including processing materials) in adequate quantities are assured;

3. that Member Governments avail themselves of facilities provided under ETAP by addressing formal requests to FAO for:

(a) exploratory missions to assist in selecting possible sites for new pulp and paper mills taking into account local technical and economic conditions;

(b) advisory missions to help in drawing up detailed plans for such mills with due consideration to the conservation of forest resources and the establishment of the necessary transport facilities;

Invites the Director-General to facilitate the rapid conclusion of technical assistance agreements in this connection, and to report periodically to ECOSOC on the progress achieved.

153. To that end the Conference recommended that the funds necessary to carry out this additional project be made available to the extent that they cannot be found from technical assistance funds. The amount required in 1952 was estimated at $ 20,000.

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