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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, fao, published in 1985 the papers presented at the International Round Table on Prosopis, held in Arica, Chile, in 1984, condensed in a book entitled “The Current State of Knowledge on Prosopis tamarugo,” having been this species the main subject of the meeting.

Now, fao publishes the papers presented at the Second International Conference on Prosopis, held in Recife, Brasil, in August 1986, summarized in a book entitled “The Current State of Knowledge on Prosopis juliflora,” having been the discussion on this species the objective of the meeting.

fao expects to continue sponsoring, with the support of local governments, meetings and the editing and publishing of the corresponding proceedings dealing with other species of Prosopis of high interest for the development of pauperized arid and semi-arid lands, in order to gather valuable scientific and technical information on this genus, which is recognizedly a most significant resource for the present and future welfare of mankind, providing an insurance against starvation.

The Recife Conference's programme was mainly divided as follows:

Other than the general meetings, the Conference was organized into sub-meetings, panels and committees.

The Conference was made possible by the sponsorship of the Brazilian Government and the International Prosopis Association (ipa). The generous hospitality provided to the many participants of different countries was greatly appreciated by all.

The Field Day deserves special mention. It took place at ipa President's fazenda, located 800 kilometers west of Recife. Over 20 airplanes were necessary to transport the nearly 400 participants from the Recife Airport to the airstrip in the center of the fazenda. The unparalleled hospitality of our host and his family left a deep impression. In trucks, tractors and trailers, everybody had the opportunity of visiting the extensive Prosopis juliflora plantations, the industrial installations and the utilization of Prosopis pod flour in large-scale animal production. Detailed explanations were given regarding the management of the whole concern.

Lastly, to end this short Foreword, I should like to express my deepfelt gratitude to all who made this meeting possible and fruitful, and to hope that this new fao publication shall create added ventures on research, production and utilization of the genus Prosopis.

Fernando Riveros, Ph.D.
Senior Office
Grassland and Pasture Crops Group
Plant Production and Protection Division

II International Conference on Prosopis

Honorary Board

President:His Excellency, Dr. José Sarney, President of the Republic.
Vice-Presidents:His Excellency, Dr. Iris Resende Machado, Minister of Agriculture.
H. E. Dr. Gustavo Krause de Oliveira Sobrinho, Governor of the State of Pernambuco.
Directors:Dr. Enio Antonio Marques Pereira, Secretary, National Agricultural and Livestock Production Bureau, snap
Dr. Jayme Costa Santiago, President of the Brazilian Forest Development Institute, ibdf.
Dr. Camilo Calazans de Magalhães, President, Banco do Brasil s/a
Dr. Dorany de Sá Barreto Sampaio, Superintendent, Northeast Development Superintendency, sudene
Dr. Ormuz Freitas Rivaldo, President, Brazilian Agriculture and Livestock Research Agency, embrapa
Dr. Romeu Padilha de Figueiredo, President, Brazilian Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Agency, embrater
General Secretary:Dr. Fernando Riveros, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, fao

Board of Directors

President:José Inácio da Silva (Brazil)
First Vice-President:Ola Ulf Karlin (Argentina)
Second Vice-President:Lorenzo J. Maldonado (Mexico)
Executive Secretary:Mário de Oliveira Antonino (Brazil)

Organizing Committee

President:Dr. Antonio Pessoa Nunes, Acting Secretary of Agricultural and Livestock Production, Ministry of Agriculture.
Vice President:Dr. Alberto Fernando Ferreira Gomes, Federal Delegate for Agriculture, Pernambuco.
Executive Secretary:Dr. Mário de Oliveira Antonino, Secretary of the International Prosopis Association, ipa.

Technical Director
Dr. Mario A. Habit
fao Consultant

Scientific Committee

Dr. Benedito Vasconcelos Mendes, Professor, Mossoró-esam School of Agriculture, Rio Grande do Norte.

Dr. Marcelo de Ataíde Silva, Researcher, Pernambuco Agriculture and Livestock Research Agency-ipa, Pernambuco.

Dr. Hemir Maia e Silva, Technical Assistant, National Scientific and Technological Development Center, cnpq/North Agency.

Dr. Paulo César F. Lima, Researcher, Agriculture and Livestock Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropic, cpatsa, Petrolina, Pernambuco.

Dr. Emmanuel Barreto Campello, Associate Professor, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, ufrpe.

Dr. Rafael Sílvio Nunes, Agronomist, Seed Technology, Federal Agriculture Delegate, Pernambuco-dfa, Ministry of Agriculture.

II International Conference on Prosopis
Recife, Brazil, 25–29 August, 1986


August 25, Monday

8:00 A.M.- Registration of participants, continuing through the day (Convention Center)
 Beberibe Auditorium
(Convention Center)
9:30 A.M.- Opening words by the President of the Organizing Committee, Antonio Pessoa Nunes.
 Official Speeches:
 - President of the International Prosopis Association (ipa), José Inácio da Silva
 - fao Representative in Brazil, Pierre Bonnemaison
 - His Excellency, Acting Minister of Agriculture, Senator Lázaro Ferreira Barbosa
 - Tribute to Dr. Guilherme Azevedo (in memoriam)
 - His Excellency, Governor of the State of Pernambuco, Dr. Gustavo Krause Goncalves Sobrinho
12:00 M.- Lunch
02:30 P.M.- Official Presentation
 - National Agricultural and Livestock Production Bureau, snap, by Sebastião Silva
 - Brazilian Forest Development Institute, ibdf, by Jayme Costa Santiago
 - Agriculture and Livestock Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropic, cpatsa, by Renival Alves de Souza
Beberibe Auditorium

First Session
Prosopis in Brazil

Moderators: Cícero Goncalves de Oliveira, Galo Lope and Paulo Cesar F. Lima (Brazil), and Orlando Balboa (Chile)

04:30 P.M.- “Characteristics of the semi-arid zone of Brazil's Northeast,” Benedito Vasconcelos Mendes
 - “Potential offered by Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc in the Brazilian semi-arid region,” Benedito Vasconcelos Mendes
 - “Performance of species of the genus Prosopis, at 24 months of age, in Petrolina,” Paulo Cesar F. Lima
06:00 P.M.- Secretariat Communications
 End of Session
08:30 P.M.- Pernambuco Night (Cocktail Party at the aabb Club)
 August 26, Tuesday
 Beberibe Auditorium

Second Session

Moderators: K. D. Muthana (India) and K. Ibrahim (Kenya)

08:30 A.M.- “Prosopis in Mexico,” Lorenzo J. Maldonado
 - “Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc in urban forestry,” Daniela Biondi
 - “Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc in India,” K. D. Muthana
 - “Activities of the Integrated Development Project in the Keita Region, Niger,” H. Soulay, Massoyi Lawali and Fernando Riveros
10:00 A.M.- Coffee break
10:20 A.M.- Continuation of the Second Session
 - “Prosopis in Tunisia: Present situation and development prospects,” Nouredine Akrimi
 - “Prosopis chilensis: A prospective tree for Sudan's dry zone,” Abdel Rasoul Fadel Mula Mustafa
 - “Shrubs for fodder production,” Kamal Ibrahim
 - “Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc, a fast-growing tree to blossom the desert,” K. D. Muthana
12:00 M.- Lunch
Beberibe Auditorium

Third Session

Moderators: Cristel Palmberg (FAO, Rome) and Girma Bistrat (Ethiopia)

02:00 P.M.- “Genetic variation for growth charateristics in Prosopis juliflora progenies,” Ismael Eleotério Pires, Guilherme de Castro Andrade and Manoel de Souza Araújo
 - “Phenology studies on some Prosopis species growing in Chile,” Orlando Balboa, José M. Parraguez and Patricio Arce
 - “Internal structure of plant, fruit and seed, and pollen morphology of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc,” J.L. de Hamburgo Alves, M.S. Arcoverde de Melo and G. Dias Alves
 - “Flower induction and differentiation in Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz and their relationship with alternate fruit bearing,” B. Salvo, C. Botti and M. Pinto
 - “Germplasm bank project for the genus Prosopis in Argentina,” F.M. Galera, L. Ramírez. N. Rubin, L. Argüello and N. Julio
 - “Pollination efficiency of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc in Petrolina, Pernambuco,” Viseldo Ribeiro de Oliveira and Ismael E. Pires
 - “Prosopis vegetative propagation through cuttings,” Paulo César F. Lima
 - “Wood structure and ultrastructure of Prosopis caldenia, P. chilensis and P. juliflora and influence of ecological factors,” Aracely Vidal Gomes and Graciela J. Bolzón de Muñiz
 - “Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Prosopis L.,” Marcelo de Ataide Silva
03:45 P.M.- Coffee break
Beberibe Auditorium

Fourth Session
Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Nutrition

Moderators: Fernando Riveros (FAO, Rome) and Merlin Gilles (France)

04:00 P.M.- “Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc,” Avílio A. Franco, Sergio M. de Faria, Valéria C.G. Moreira and Eliane M.S. Monteiro
 - “Some aspects of the biology of Prosopis growing in Chile,” Patricio Arce and Orlando Balboa
 - “Foliar analysis of species of the genus Prosopis in the Brazilian semi-arid region,” Marcos António Drumond
05:45 P.M.- Secretariat Communications
End of Session
 August 27, Wednesday

Fifth Session
Pests and Diseases

Moderators: Avílio Franco (Brazil) and C.M. Mwendia (Kenya)

08:30 A.M.- “Entomological observations,” Geraldo Pereira de Arruda, Eneide Carvalho de Arruda, Arlene Bezerra Rodrigues dos Santos and Auristela Correira de Albuquerque Holanda
 - “Utilization of P. juliflora as culture medium and as an enriching source for phytopatogenic fungi culture,” G.J.C. Santos and M.S.V. Pereira.
10:30 A.M.- Coffee break
Brum Auditorium

Sixth Session
Animal Nutrition and Production

Moderators: Thomas Preston (FAO, Rome) and Abdel Rasoul Fadel Mula Mustafa (Sudan)

10:45 A.M.- “Effect of progressive substitution of molasses by Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc pods in ruminant rations,” Nésio António Moreira Teixeira de Barros and José Leite de Queiroz Filho.
 - “A study on the repletion capacity of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc protein in undernourished rats,” G.G.M. Farias, L.F. Silva, E.L. Leite, C.J. Lima, H. Flores, C.B.S. Nascimento and A.N.M. Negreiros.
 - “Utilization of flour from Prosopis juliflora pods as a substitute for wheat flour in rations for egg-laying hens,” Alberto Soares da Silva.
 - “Ascertaining optimum P. juliflora protein supplementation levels as compared with plant protein used in the Region,” D.F. Lima, G.G.M. Farias, A.N.M. Negreiros, E.L. Leite, C.B.S. Nascimento, L.F. Silva, H. Flores and C.J. Lima.
 - “Use of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc and cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl) for confined sheep feeding during the dry season,” Nésio António Moreira Teixeira de Barros, Carlos Antonio de Gois Bai and Francisco das Chagas Estevam de Fonseca.
12:00 M.- Lunch
Beberibe Auditorium
Brum Auditorium
02:00 P.M.- Continuation of the Sixth Session
 - “Part and total replacement of corn-cotton bran mix by pods of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) dc in rations for caged goats during the dry season,” Gilberto Bitú Primo, Marco de Almeida Lima, Marizene de Jesus A. Coelho, Maria Presciliana de Brito Ferreira, Rogério F. da Silva, Maria Elizabete T. de Miranda and Márcia dos Santos.
 - “Prosopis juliflora pod flour and syrup processing and nutritional evaluation,” A.N.M. Negreiros, C.J. Lima, C.B.S. Nascimento, E.L. Leite, D.F. Lima, G.G.M. Farias and H. Flores.
 - “Prosopis in Sudan: A nonconventional animal feed resource,” Awad Elkarim Ibrahim Abdel Gabar.
03:30 P.M.- Coffee break
 Location: Beberibe Auditorium

Seventh Session
Agroindustrial Utilization

Moderators: Alfredo Vorano (Argentina) and Ray Fremlin (Australia)

10:45 A.M.- “Evaluation of flour from Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida pods in bakery and extrusion-cooking products,” Gaston E. Cruz.
 - “Prosopis juliflora as a source of food and medicine for rural inhabitants in Rio Grande do Norte,” Resilda Gomes de Azevedo Rocha.
 - “Volume, weight and product tables for Prosopis juliflora at Rio Grande do Norte,” Enrique Riegelhaupt, Iranor Barbosa da Silva, Francisco Barreto Campello and Frans Pareyn.
 - “A contribution to the study of alternative sources of food: Coffee substitute from Prosopis juliflora pods,” Renata Lúcia Vieira, Edleide Maria Freitas Pires and Nonete Barbosa Guerra.
12:00 M.- Lunch
Beberibe Auditorium

Eighth Session
Management of Silvopastoral Resources

Moderators: Paulo César F. Lima (Brazil) and Rafael R. Bahamondes (Chile)

02:00 P.M.- “P. juliflora (Sw) dc management at the Brazilian Northeast,” Paulo César F. Lima.
 - “Genetic improvement of P. juliflora at the Brazilian Northeast,” Ismael Eleotério Pires.
 - “Management of Prosopis in livestock production systems in the Dry Chaco, Argentina,” R. Ayerza, O.U. Karlin and R. Díaz.
 - “Prosopis tamarugo: A silvopastoral management option for Chile's Region I,” Rafael Bahamondes and Claudio Campos.
 - “Prosopis pallida growth with three trickle irrigation volumes during the first six months of the vegetative cycle,” A. Montesinos, H. Lam, W. Calderón and O. Villarreal.
 - “Progeny trial with Prosopis juliflora at seedling stage,” V.A. Rodrigues and J.A. Silva.
 - “Agroforestry system combining Prosopis juliflora and buffel grass in the Brazilian semi-arid region,” Jorge Ribaski.
03:30 P.M.- Coffee break

Ninth Session
Economic Aspects

Moderators: Francisco das Chargas Pontes (Brazil) and Roberto Delnastro (Chile)

04:00 P.M.- “Cost and return estimates for Prosopis juliflora planting in the Brazilian Semi-arid Northeast,” Carlos Alberto de Souza Rosado and Maria Jose Teixeira Ribeiro.
05:00 P.M.- Secretariat Communications
08:00 P.M.- Cocktail at Campo das Princesas Palace

August 28, Thursday

08:30 A.M.- Organization of Committees
 - Research. Chairman: Ola Ulf Karlin
Brum Auditorium
 - Production and Utilization. Chairman: Lorenzo J. Maldonado
Beberibe Auditorium
 - Regulations of the International Prosopis Association. Chairman: Mario A. Habit
Ribeira Auditorium
 - Election of a Rapporteur by the members of each committee
 - General Discussion
 - Elaboration of recommendations by each committee
11:45 A.M.- Delivery of the recommendations to the Secretariat
 - Translation by the Secretariat and distribution among the participants
12:00 A.M.- Lunch
 Beberibe Auditorium

Tenth Session
Discussion of the Recommendations Made by the Committees

02:00 P.M.- Distribution of Certificates
03:00 P.M.- Report by the Rapporteur of the Research Committee
 Participants' agreement
03:30 P.M.- Report by the Rapporteur of the Production and Utilization Committee
 Participants' agreement
04:00 P.M.- Report by the Rapporteur of IPA's Regulations Committee
 Participants' agreement
04:30 P.M.- Proposals
05:30 P.M.- Closing of the Conference by Dr. Fernando Riveros, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, fao.

August 29, Friday

- Field trip: Visit to the Prosopis juliflora plantations

Committee Agreements

Proposals of the Research Committee

Approved in Plenary Session 28.08.86

Chairman: Ulf Karlin, Argentina

Rapporteur: Orlando Balboa, Chile

The commission considers that the final objective of any research project should be to further development, and that it must be supported by basic research and rigorous methods.

The commission lists the following general objectives for Research:

  1. wood production
  2. animal nutrition
  3. human nutrition
  4. industrial processes
  5. genetic resources
  6. soil conservation
  7. multiple-use systems

No priorization of the general objectives outlined above was forthcoming as each country or region has its own priorities. The objectives should be focused according to production systems and socio-economic analysis.

The establishment of ecophysiological and phytosanitary studies, at a basic research level, was suggested.

The commission recommends that concrete action be taken by forming human resources and creating data banks.

It was suggested, as a strategy of action, to organize work groups in National Prosopis Commissions, under the coordination of ipa.

The commission laid out in extenso each general research objective, which should be taken as a guideline to discuss the priorities in each country or region.

The absence of researchers on human nutrition is noticed.

The commission deems it convenient to create a Permanent Research Commission as an integrated part of ipa.

A. Objective: Wood Production

Wood for energy (firewood, charcoal): priority 1
Rural uses: priority 2
Mechanical products: priority 3

Research lines:

  1. Silvocultural methods aiming at energy production; specifically, plantation density, rotation period, plantation management, soil preparation and establishment techniques;
  2. Silvocultural methods aiming at the integration of wood, fodder and associated crop production, in order to maximize combined output;
  3. Studies on the physical and mechanical properties as they relate to genetic, cultural and ecological variables;
  4. Intensification of productivity studies, expressing them in terms of dry weight and kcal, primary energy and mass units;
  5. Development of specific standards for estimating production and productivity;
  6. Publish a Prosopis Newsletter with a a section on “Wood and Energy Production”, coordinated by IPA.

B. Objective: Animal Nutrition

  1. Development of varieties with few or no thorns.
  2. Evaluation of foliage as feed.
  3. Evaluation of pods as feed.
  4. Determination of phemotypic substances in leaves and seeds and its relationship with variability and management.
  5. The effect of pod storage system on its nutritional value.
  6. The study of the nutritional values of seeds for ruminants and monogastric animals.
  7. To promote the production of fodder biomass of different species and varieties.
  8. To study the combination of Prosopis with other fodder crops.

C. Objective: Industrial Processes

Research program aiming initially at surveying existing industrial projects and performing studies to increase productivity of these processes or to define new ones.

  1. Improving of storage techniques for pods and seeds.
  2. Food: human (flour, coffee, syrup); animal feed (pod composition and production; foliage haying).
  3. Better definition of physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the wood, with a view to improving its industrial utilization.
  4. Charcoal (production technology, characteristics, utilization, conservation objectives related to the caatinga).
  5. Alcohol (production techniques from pods and wood).
  6. Tannins (production techniques).
  7. Small industries, as a means of reaching the small producers directly.
  8. Apiculture (industrialization of honey)
  9. Association with other crops with the objective of increasing both production and income. Crops that could be industrialized together with Prosopis juliflora to be utilized for animal feeding and human nutrition.
  10. Extension: Divulge these techniques to the communities, particularly techniques related to human nourishment.

D. Objective: Genetic Resources

  1. Conservation, understood as the maintenance of taxonomically, genetically and ecologically defined clones.
  2. Improvement
  3. Exchange
    Recommendations: Functions:

E. Objective: Soil Reclamation and Conservation

  1. Adaptation of the different species to saline and/or alkaline soils, and to soils of different textures, structures and depths existing in semi-arid regions.
  2. Nutrition factors:
  3. Edaphic factors:
  4. Soil preparation and planting systems.
  5. Stabilization of duncs.
  6. Windbreaks.
  7. Strategy for multiple use of windbreaks.
  8. Protection of the hydrographic basin.

F. Objective: Multiple Use Systems

  1. Analysis of exploitation through regional or local integrated production systems in semi-arid regions.
  2. Development of agro-silvo-pastoral systems in semi-arid regions, compatible with local traditions.
  3. Physiological and sanitary studies resulting from the association of different plant or livestock species with Prosopis.
  4. Economic analysis of the systems.

Proposals of the Production and Utilization Committee

Approved in Plenary Session 08.28.86

Chairman:Lorenzo J. Maldonado, Mexico
Rapporteurs:Benedito Vasconcelos Mendes, Brazil
Eduardo Gándara Welch, Chile

The chair of the Production and Utilization Committee, based on this morning's discussions, submits to this Plenary Session the following proposals:

  1. that the Committee should also consider industrialization;
  2. that priority be given to reforestation with Prosopis juliflora in saline areas;
  3. that specific programs be created for the expansion of Prosopis juliflora to benefit the small farmer;
  4. that the removal of vegetation for charcoal production be discouraged, unless recommended by technical studies;
  5. that the radical removal of native vegetation in afforestation projects, especially in coastal areas, be avoided;
  6. that official banks should implement lines of credit for the financing of Prosopis juliflora plantations alone or in association;
  7. that the utilization of caterpillar type tractors in deforestation be avoided to prevent soil deterioration and erosion;
  8. that the fauna of the Prosopis juliflora plantations be preserved to ensure a better ecological balance;
  9. that a Secretariat be created within ipa to stimulate technological exchange among the various countries interested in the cultivation of Prosopis juliflora and to lend them assistance with financial institutions to obtain resources for development of specific projects;
  10. that national Prosopis associations be created in the various countries;
  11. that ethnic studies of Prosopis and associated genera (Atriplex, Opuntia, etc.) be encouraged;
  12. that in the next meeting on Prosopis, the participants may transmit their technical knowledge as well as developed products and technologies;
  13. that the exploitation of Prosopis juliflora be carried out in an integrated scheme to ensure that the important and multiple uses of this species can be taken advantage of, not using it solely for energy production purposes;
  14. that the establishment of industries utilizing Prosopis juliflora products be stimulated in rural areas with the objective of absorbing local manpower;
  15. that research regarding utilization of Prosopis juliflora products for medicine and cosmetics manufacturing be encouraged.

IPA Regulations Committee

Chairman:Mario A. Habit, Chile
Rapporteurs:Lectícia Scardino Scott Faria, Brazil
Enrique Marmillón, Argentina

Committee's Proposals Approved by the General Assembly
(28 August 1986)

  1. Regulations.
  2. Election of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee.
  3. The permanent seat of the Executive Committee shall be the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil.
  4. Members of the Association shall pay an annual fee of US$ 20 or its equivalent in Brazilian currency.
  5. The Third International Conference on Prosopis shall be held in North Africa, in two years' time, preferably in Tunisia. The President of the Board should start negatiations as soon as possible. For this purpose cooperation should be requested to fao and unesco/mab.
  6. The Executive Committee should seek donors among International Organizations, Foundations and others.
  7. The Newsletter should be edited and published by the Executive Committee as soon as possible and distributed among the Association's members and other interested parties. It should be published every four months.

International Prosopis Association (IPA) Regulations

Chapter I


Article 1.The International Prosopis Association (ipa) is a technical non-profit association, of indeterminate duration.

Chapter II

Objectives of the Association

Article 2.To promote the utilization of the Prosopis species in the different continents, with the objective of:
 I.Creating favorable conditions for improvement and development of arid and semi-arid regions.
 II.Strengthening research and encouraging transfer of technologies which lead to the improvement of agro silvo-pastoral ecosystems and of socio-economic conditions.
Article 3.The aims and objectives of the International Prosopis Association (ipa) shall be exclusively technical, non-political and non-lucrative.
Article 4.The International Prosopis Association (ipa) will undertake the following activities:
 I.To promote and organize national, regional and sub-regional technical cooperative networks.
 II.To organize international, regional and national training courses.
 III.To publish a periodical Newsletter, to be distributed among the members and other interested parties.
 IV.To carry out any other activity, decided by the Board of Directors, for better acomplishing the aims and objectives of the Association.

Chapter III


Article 5.The International Prosopis Association (ipa) is constituted by:
 I.The General Assembly
 II.The Board of Directors
 III.The Executive Committee
Article 6.The General Assembly is the Association's policy-making body, and shall adopt decisions by simple majority voting of the members in full standing with the treasurer.
Article 7.The General Assembly corresponds to the programmed Plenary Session called to the effect by an International Prosopis Conference, every two years.
Article 8.The General Assembly of the International Prosopis Association (ipa) will be presided by a Board composed of the following members:
 -1st Vice-Predsident
 -2nd Vice-President
Article 9.The President of the General Assembly has the responsibility of presiding the meetings of the Association with the assistance of the remaining members of the Board.
Article 10.The President of the General Assembly, whenever unable to perform his or her duties, shall be replaced by the 1st and 2nd Vice-President, successively.
Article 11.The General Assembly has the following responsibilities:
 a.To modify, alter or amend the present Regulations, in order to meet suggestions made by the Board of Directors.
 b.To elect the members of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee.
 c.To define, through a proposal made by the Executive Committee, the monthly fees of the members.
 d.To promote and organize meetings regarding Prosopis.
 e.To determine the Administrative period or the Board of Directors and Executive Committee.
 f.To replace all or part of the members of the Board of Directors or Executive Committee.
Article 12.The Board of Directors shall be composed of the following members:
 -Three representatives from America (North America, Central America and the Caribbean, South America)
 -two representatives from Africa
 -one representative from the Middle East
 -one representative from South-East Asia and the Pacific
 -one representative from South Asia
 -one representative from Europe
 -one representative of an International Organization
 -three representatives of Producers and Commercial Enterprises
 -two representatives of Researchers.
 The Board will be directed by the following members:
Article 13.The Board of Directors has the following responsibilities:
 a.To prepare the Association's working program.
 b.To maintain a permanent exchange with organizations or entities, public and private, nationally and internationally, with the aim of attaining a broad exchange of knowledge and experience.
 c.To fulfill and enforce the decisions made by the General Assembly.
 d.To install offices, and to designate representatives of the International Prosopis Association (ipa).
Article 14.The Board of Directors shall meet as often as necessary, in conformity with the decision of the majority of its members.
Article 15.The Executive Committee shall be comprised by a:
 -Director General
 -Executive Secretary
 If necessary, the Executive Committee can co-opt any member of the Board of Directors in their work.
Article 16.The Executive Committee has the following responsibilities:
 a.To maintain contact with national or international organizations on subjects related or of interest to the association.
 b.To act on the recommendations of the Board of Directors.
 c.To edit, print and distribute a Newsletter.
 d.To promote the Association, at national, regional and international levels and to encourage membership.
 e.To maintain permanent contact with the Board of Directors, assisting it in the organization of Prosopis Conferences, and in other matters related to the Association.
 f.To collect membership fees.
 g.To administer the Association's funds, presenting to the Board of Directors, at least every three months, a detailed report on the physical and financial performance of the Association.
 h.To propose to the General Assembly the annual fee to be charged to the members of the Association.
 i.To prepare and disseminate invitations, pamphlets, etc., for promotion of the Association.
 j.To organize and/or promote training courses and seminars.
 k.At the end of the Executive's Committee mandate, to prepare a final report.

Chapter IV

Representation and Responsibilities

Article 17.The International Prosopis Association (ipa) shall be represented actively and passively, judicially and extra-judicially, by the President of the Board of Directors and, whenever he or she is not able to do so, by the Vice-President.
Article 18.The members of the Board of the General Assembly, Board of Directors, Executive Committee, and the members, will not, individually or subsidiarily, respond for the obligations of the International Prosopis association (ipa), nor will the association be held responsible for any obligations assumed by its members, be they members of its Board or not, unless they are duly authorized to do so.

Chapter V


Article 19.The General Assembly of the International Prosopis Association (ipa) will be directed by a Board which is elected from among its members, with a mandate of two years, beginning in August, 1986, and the Board may be re-elected.
Article 20.The Executive Committee will be elected by the General Assembly.

Chapter VI


Article 21.The funds necessary for the functioning of the Association shall be obtained from:
 I.Subscription fees of the members.
 II.Finacial assistance from regional, national and international organizations.
 III.Donations made by persons and/or juridical entities.
 IV.Contributions made by any other source approved by the Executive Committee.

Chapter VII


Article 22.The International Prosopis Association (ipa) shall be composed of the following categories of members:
 1st.The following persons and juridical entities are considered as founders:
  a.Those who participated in the First Round Table on Prosopis, in Arica, Chile, from 11 to 15, June, 1984, who will be notified of this decision by the Executive Committee, and,
  b.those who participated in the II International Prosopis Conference, in Recife, Brazil, from 25 to 29, August, 1986.
 2nd.The following persons/entities are considered as Contributors:
  -any person or entity who, upon request to the Board of Directors, be indicated by it to the General Assembly, as well as those who participate in future International Conferences on Prosopis.

Paragraph: Those participants of International Conferences which do not wish to become members of the Association, shall communicate their decision by letter.

 3rd.The following persons/entities are considered as Honorary Members:
  -Persons or entities who have distinguished themselves through the performance of relevant services to the International Prosopis association (ipa), through a proposal made by the Board of Directors to the General Assembly.
Article 23.The Founders and Contributors are obliged to pay an annual fee, to be determined by the General Assembly.
Article 24.The Honorary Members are not obliged to pay the annual fee, stipulated in the previous Article; they may, however, contribute on a voluntary basis.

Paragraph: All those who participated in the ii International Conference on Prosopis shall become members of the Association. The contribution fee shall correspond to 20% of the fees paid in the Conference, and shall be deducted from the latter.

Chapter VIII


Article 25.Dissolution of the International Prosopis Association (ipa) shall occur through a decision of at least two thirds of the votes in the General Assembly, in an extraordinary convocation for this purpose, and with the attendance of at least three fourths of the members in full standing with the treasurer.
Article 26.In case termination occurs, the patrimony of the Association, represented by its goods and assets, shall be given to social benefits in the country the goods and assets are located, respecting the rights of third parties.

Chapter IX

General and Transitory Dispositions

Article 27.The members of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee will not be paid for the posts they hold, or for the services which they may perform for the International Prosopis Association (ipa), but they shall be reimbursed for authorized outlays which they may make on behalf of the association.
Article 28.Vacancies which may occur in the Board of Directors, or in the Executive Committee, will be refilled in any General Assembly.
Article 29.At the end of each International Conference on Prosopis the dates and the country which will host the next conference shall be chosen.
Article 30.Membership may terminate by means of a formal request addressed to the Board of Directors, by non-payment of the annual fees, or by improper conduct, incompatible with the objectives of the Association.
Article 31.Any modification of these Regulations shall only occur by means of an absolute majority vote of the members.
Article 32.The present Regulations were approved during the ii International Conference on Prosopis, from 25 to 29, August, 1986, and shall be in force at the date of their publication.

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