The effects of HIV/AIDS on farming systems in eastern Africa

Table of contents


FAO Farm Management
and Production Economics Service

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 1995

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103611-X

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FAO 1995



Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 The purpose of this study
1.2 About the disease
1.3 Global and African epidemics
1.4 The nature of the impact
1.5 A diversity of results
1.6 HIV/AIDS and rural livelihoods in Africa
1.7 Who is vulnerable?

Chapter 2 Methodology

2.1 Step I: vulnerability mapping of farming systems
2.2 Step II: selection of research areas
2.3 Step III: selection of national consultants and capacity building
2.4 Step IV: fieldwork
2.5 Step V: data analysis and report writing

Chapter 3 Results: The effect on small farmers

3.1 The direct costs of HIV/AIDS and the process of impoverishment
3.2 The impact on population
3.3 The impact on labour
3.4 The impact on crop production

3.4.1 Reasons for decreasing land use
3.4.2 Decline in crop yields
3.4.3 Changes in cropping patterns: a strategy for survival
3.4.4 The advantages of crop diversification

3.5 The impact on livestock production

3.5.1 Changes in livestock raising practices: coping mechanisms
3.5.2 The impact on pastoralists

3.6 The impact on the agricultural extension services
3.7 The impact on the fisheries sector
3.8 HIV/AIDS and the loss of agricultural knowledge and management skills

3.8.1 The loss of other traditional skills
3.8.2 Loss of skills and the division of labour

3.9 Coping mechanisms: the role of NGOs and self-help groups
3.10 The personal and community trauma of HIV/AIDS

Chapter 4 The consequences of HIV/AIDS impact on small farmers

4.1 HIV/AIDS: a threat to food security?

4.1.1 The situation in Zambia
4.1.2 The situation in Tanzania
4.1.3 The situation in Uganda

4.2 The declining status of nutrition and health standards in epidemic-affected communities
4.3 HIV/AIDS: education and declining school attendance
4.4 The problem of orphans
4.5 HIV/AIDS and changes in the social system
4.6 A change in attitudes to social customs?
4.7 The growing reliance on income-generating activities

Chapter 5 The estate sector

5.1 About the Nakambala Sugar Estate
5.2 Socio-economic conditions
5.3 The incidence of HIV/AIDS on NSE
5.4 HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and absenteeism at NSE
5.5 The spread of HIV/AIDS infection at NSE
5.6 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS at NSE
5.7 The social impact of HIV/AIDS at NSE
5.8 The economic impact of HIV/AIDS.

5.8.1 Production loss
5.8.2 Costs caused by HIV/AIDS
5.8.3 Summary of the costs
5.8.4 Projections of the economic impact for the near future

5.9 The impact of HIV/AIDS on the Kaleya Smallholder Company in Zambia
5.10 The impact of HIV/AIDS on the Tukuyu Tea Estates in Tanzania

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations

6.1 General conclusions
6.2 The impact of HIV/AIDS on programmes and projects
6.3 General recommendations at the planning and policy level
6.4 Determining epidemic impact on labour availability
6.5 The use of vulnerability mapping
6.6 The targeting of assistance
6.7 Donor funding and the role of NGOs
6.8 Taking HIV/AIDS into consideration in project design
6.9 Specific recommendations at the micro level

6.9.1 Crop production activities
6.9.2 Livestock and small-stock raising
6.9.3 Income-generating activities
6.9.4 Health
6.9.5 Nutrition

6.10 Recommendations for specific target groups
6.11 Recommendations relevant to the Estate Sector

6.11.1 HIV/AIDS education and prevention
6.11.2 Improvement of the socio-economic environment
6.11.3 Recruitment policies
6.11.4 Training and staff development
6.11.5 Employment benefits