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Module 1 - Principles of effective communication - "Getting the message across"
Module 2 - Effective oral communication
Module 3 - Why train? The trainer's role and responsibility
Module 4 - Methods of training - The right method
Module 5 - The art of questioning
Module 6 - Types of training aids - How to make and use them
Module 7 - Planning and delivering a presentation
Module 8 - Evaluating training
Module 9 - Testing trainee trainers - Individual presentations
Module 10 - Organizing and managing a training course


The objective of Section 1 is to address the basic elements necessary for the effective preparation, implementation and evaluation of training, with the aim of that training being "to get the message across".

To achieve that objective, the modules that follow are intended to provide guidance to trainers in the skills of conveying their message successfully and transferring related information.

Training is essentially the instructing of others in information new to them and its application. It may, and often does, involve the teaching of new skills, methods and procedures.

Very few people are born trainers, and most of those who wish to be trainers require training. Even those few who are born trainers benefit from training, and their effectiveness is enhanced as a result.

The most important element in a training situation is the trainer. The trainer who is enthusiastic, energetic and genuinely interested in both the subject and getting his or her message across will evoke the greatest response from the trainees. The trainer who lacks interest in training, who has little or no enthusiasm for the subject of the training and who merely goes through the motions of training is a failure. Such a trainer wastes not only his or her own time but also that of the trainees. The inept trainer is quickly identified by the trainees, who react with inattention, lassitude, undisciplined behaviour and absence from training sessions.

Successful training - that which produces the desired result - lies almost entirely in the hands of the trainer. In the trainer's hands lies the heavy responsibility for ensuring that the trainees achieve the maximum possible from the training.

A measure of the success of training is the relationship that develops between trainer and trainees. In a sound, productive training situation there is mutual respect and trust between them, with the trainer taking care to ensure that even the weakest trainee performs to the highest possible level, and the trainees feeling a desire within themselves to achieve. In this situation the trainer is the motivator and the trainees are the motivated.

It is intended that the modules that follow will be of assistance to those wishing to train and those already training.

The modules have been arranged as follows:

· Module 1: Principles of effective communication - "Getting the message across"
· Module 2: Effective oral communication
· Module 3: Why train? The trainer's role and responsibility
· Module 4: Methods of training - The right method
· Module 5: The art of questioning
· Module 6: Types of training aids - How to make and use them
· Module 7: Planning and delivering a presentation
· Module 8: Evaluating training
· Module 9: Testing trainee trainers - Individual presentations
· Module 10: Organizing and managing a training course

The above arrangement is systematic. Modules 1 and 2 deal with training theory. Module 3 is transitional in that it links the theory with the applied training methods covered by Modules 4 to 7. Modules 8 and 9 cover the important aspect of measuring and assessing the effectiveness of the training and the trainer. Module 10 is related to the management of training or, in other words, creating a favourable environment in which to train.

It is important that all members of a training team be familiar with the principles espoused in the training modules. This ensures that every presentation in a training course embodies the principles and in itself is a demonstration of the application of those principles: the trainees are not only told how to train, but see how it should be done.

It is stressed that the modules are not intended to constitute a textbook on training. Essentially, their contents are intended as memory joggers for those trained to train others. For this reason, and depending on the nature of the subject, some material is presented in point form while other material is covered by full text.

The training segment of this programme provides only the supports of training theory and practice. This places a heavier than normal responsibility on the trainer, who must in the span of ten hours make the deepest possible impression on the trainees if they are to be turned out as proficient trainers. This means not only that the trainer must be familiar with and skilled in presenting the training information and related methods, but that he or she must be at least familiar with many other aspects of training not covered by the modules, for example, motivation theory, the art of public speaking, conducting discussions, course planning, written communication and so on. A knowledge of these subjects enables the trainer to weave appropriate strands from them into the presentations of the modules, thus broadening the trainees' experience. There are many excellent texts on training as well as training manuals produced by training units in government ministries and departments, private companies and other organizations. Dedicated trainers make it an essential part of their continuing education as professionals to locate such publications in libraries or elsewhere, and by so doing keep abreast of theory and practice.

Module 1 - Principles of effective communication - "Getting the message across"


To familiarize the participants with the elementary principles of successful oral communication of information and to heighten awareness of the factors that interfere with communication and reduce its effectiveness

Suggested method of instruction

· Lecture/discussion with maximum trainee participation through questioning and relating of personal experience


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour lecture/discussion


· Effective communication
· Interference
· Ways of avoiding interference

Presentation suggestions

The foregoing module is easily adapted to discussion. The trainer should attempt to elicit from the trainees their experiences with transmission, interference and ways of avoiding interference, which are well within the purview of trainee experience.

Trainees should be asked to tell the course participants about good communicators and poor communicators they have known, describing why they are memorable. The reasons they give should be related to the types of interference and ways in which interference was or could have been avoided.

Such a discussion invariably brings out other indirectly related aspects of spoken communication which provide points of reference when subjects in later modules are being dealt with.

Learning outcome

Participants should be aware of effective communication principles.


Communication specialists compare the way people communicate to the way a radio transmission takes place. That is to say:

Transmitter (Speaker/writer) ® Message ® Receiver (Listener/reader)

Three types of transmission are identified:

· Spoken
· Written
· Gesture/sometimes referred to as "body language"

Transmission is in code:

· Spoken language
· Written language
· Gestures

In spoken language the unit of code is the word, heavily supported by gestures. Some communication specialists believe that at least 40 percent of the full meaning of messages transmitted by speech is conveyed by body language (gestures). In written language the units of code are words and symbols (e.g. figures, punctuation). In the remainder of this module and the modules that follow reference to communication is to spoken communication only and assumes the transmitter can be seen by the receiver.

Successful communication depends on the message being received by the receiver intact and interpreted by the receiver to have the same meaning as when transmitted


Frequently the message suffers from interference. That is, something interferes with the message between its transmission and reception and distorts it. The following are some types of interference.

Weak transmission

· Speaking too softly
· Speaking in a flat voice (monotone) without inflection
· Not speaking in a direct line with the receiver
· Insufficient volume of transmission to prevail over competing transmissions and localized noise (static)

Garbled transmission

The transmitter (speaker) often scrambles the contents of the message so that the facts it contains are not in logical order and often appear unrelated.

Wrong language

The transmitter may use words, terms and expressions unknown to the receiver.

Pitching message at the wrong level

The speaker may transmit information in a context beyond the experience of the receiver (this may involve the use of wrong language). This is sometimes called "transmitting or talking over the receiver's head". Examples are teaching food control procedures or HACCP to people who have no experience in food safety or food processing, or transmitting detailed and profound scientific messages to a receiver without a scientific background.

Receiver not receiving

· Receiver turned off (gone to sleep!)
· Tuned into another transmitter
· Transmission too weak
· Strength of receiver diminished (lack of interest - boredom)
· Receiver distracted by a competing focus of interest (an attractive person walks by)
· Receiver fatigued

Competing transmissions

The receiver may be unable to select between transmissions (too many people talking at once).

Overloading the message

The receiver does not possess the capacity to retain all of the information contained in the message. This frequently leads to receiver confusion/fatigue and anxiety.


· Speak up and out
· Speak slowly and deliberately
· Use language that the receiver understands
· Do not talk over the receiver's head
· Ensure you have the attention of the receiver
· Only transmit your message in suitable surroundings where there is no, or little, competition
· Make the message succinct (as few words as possible) and transmit it in the simplest terms
· Plan the message in logical order

As a trainer it is essential that you get your message across-otherwise your effort to train will be wasted


To be a successful communicator

· Use your voice effectively
· Know your subject
· Know what you want to say
· Prepare your message carefully
· Arrange your points logically
· Display interest and enthusiasm
· Sound convincing and sincere

Module 2 - Effective oral communication


To assist the trainee-trainers to identify and become acquainted with the essential elements of getting the message across and becoming an effective oral communicator

Suggested method of instruction

· Lecture/discussion with maximum trainee participation through questioning
· An exercise in impromptu speaking to an audience


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour lecture/discussion
· One hour of approximately three-minute impromptu speeches (time depends on the number of participants)


· The importance of being an effective oral communicator
· Essential elements in transmitting a message
· Communication hazards

Presentation suggestions

The trainer should put much effort into preparing for presentation of this module.

The presentation should commence with a discussion based on a series of questions carefully devised by the trainer, for example:

· What makes a good communicator? (This question is a link to Module 1 and offers the opportunity for a few minutes revision of the previous module).

· What are the essential characteristics of effective oral communication?

It is important that the trainees identify the characteristics and convert them to elements by themselves. As each is identified it could be discussed in detail.

The trainer can project transparencies showing the elements to reinforce them in the minds of trainees, but only after they have been identified by the trainees.


Each trainee is required to give a three- to four-minute impromptu talk. The following are examples of possible subjects:

· My reasons for attending the course
· The aspect of my work I enjoy the most
· Why I think HACCP (or food control) is important

In giving this talk the trainee will be expected to take into account the essential elements in transmitting a message.

A handout sheet may be helpful to assist the trainees with their short presentations. The following is an example:

· Describe your work.
· Why is it important to you?
· Which aspect of your work do you enjoy the most?
· Which aspect do you dislike the most?
· What do you think you are best at?
· What aspect of your work would you like to know more about?
· If you had a choice, which aspect of "Quality control" would you like to specialize in and why?

Learning outcome

The participants should be familiar with the essential elements of effective oral communication.


As a trainer much of your effectiveness is measured by your ability to speak with clarity and conviction in getting your messages across.

Men and women in training positions are expected to be highly competent at presenting ideas, giving directions and explaining procedures. In fact, this quality of being an effective communicator is generally considered to be an essential element of the effective trainer's skills.

The information you communicate as a trainer is often critical to the people you train and to the workings of the organization as a whole. The way you explain procedures or give directions can make the difference between an employee being productive or frustrated. Sometimes clear information from you can make the difference between people doing a job safely or unsafely, working efficiently or inefficiently or doing things correctly or incorrectly.

How you present even an obviously brilliant idea can make the difference between whether or not anyone listens to you. The way in which you interpret and transmit information about agency policies, goals, values and procedures has significant influence on the way your staff or subordinates develop their perceptions and their commitments to the organization.

Communicating clearly - "getting your message across" - is not an inherited ability; people are not born with it. It is a learned skill developed through planning and practice.


State the purpose and main point of your message

This encourages receivers (listeners) to focus on your information and be more receptive. They will not be distracted by trying to guess what your point is, but will be mentally prepared to follow along as you develop your discussion.

Stating your main point right away captures your listeners' attention and helps them remember the most important part of your message.

Introductory phrases like the following help to make your purpose clear at the start.

· My purpose in speaking to you is...
· It is important that I discuss with you...
· The subject of what I have to say to you is...
· As a result of new policies adopted by the organization you should know...

After the main point has been made, it can be highlighted with expressions like:

· Now, what this means in effect is...
· Put in another way, this means...
· You can expect that what will happen next will be...
· My main concern about this proposal is...
· The point that I wish to emphasize is...

Strengthen your main point with supporting points

Your explanations, instructions or ideas are more compelling when supported by clear facts and observations. Your objective is to gain respect and belief from your listeners and for them to gain insight into the details of the message you are communicating. The following guidelines will make the transmission of your message effective.

· Use simple language. Avoid technical jargon unless you are sure that everyone understands it.

· Keep your explanation short so you do not risk boring people. Do not swamp them with unnecessary detail (which is called "overloading").

· Choose reasoning that is natural and familiar to your listeners and your topic.

· Make your explanations as colourful as possible, using examples to illustrate your point.

· List all your supporting points first; then return to each point and fill in the details.

· Use visual aids, where possible, to illustrate your points.

Check to see whether you got your message across

You must find out whether you got your message across. Checking this may also introduce you to views of your listeners that were not apparent to you, or reveal misunderstandings that need to be quickly corrected. In addition, checking often helps listeners feel involved: they are being consulted. Their responses might uncover some problems not earlier apparent to you. The best way of checking is by questions. For example:

· Would somebody like to restate the steps of the new procedure?
· What do you think about...?
· What effect do you think the new arrangement will have?
· Is there anyone who disagrees with what is being proposed?
· Which of the points I have made do you think is the most important?

Respond to reactions to what you have presented

It is important that your trainees see you as somebody who is honest with them. A good part of this quality of openness is reflected in the way you respond to people when they question your statements, instructions or opinions.

Listeners question speakers because they have not received (not understood) the message, or because it is unclear, or because the details are vague. Generally, they are not challenging the speaker as a person; they are simply seeking clarification.

In answering questions, make sure you understand the question. If you do not understand the question, ask the questioner to repeat it. If you still do not understand it, start questioning the questioner. For example:

· Do you mean...?
· I understand that you are asking me...
· I am not sure that I understand you, but I think you are saying...

Sometimes you may understand the question or statement but feel that other listeners are having trouble with it. In such cases put the question or statement into your own words and restate it, ensuring that your restatement is correct by asking for confirmation from the person who has proposed the question or statement.

Never, never make fun of a questioner who has completely missed your message. Make light of the misunderstanding, and repeat the message to help him or her understand. You might introduce your statement as follows:

· I think there is a misunderstanding here. Let me repeat my main point again.
· This is a very complicated matter and difficult to understand fully. Let me repeat the main points.

Summarize your main point(s)

Your listeners will probably not be able to remember everything you have said, especially if you have presented several ideas. A short, simple restatement of the essential message(s) helps the listeners to remember and respond.


Nervousness, forgetfulness and losing track

At one time or another all trainers (transmitters) experience these problems. Two ways to prevent these difficulties are:

· Use notes
· Rehearse the presentation of your message

Speakers familiar with their message seldom, if ever, suffer from severe interference.

Letting the audience get to you - becoming defensive

Do not get defensive when a trainee asks a question or makes a statement that is or appears to be a criticism of or an attack on you. As a trainer and communicator you must retain your objectivity. To become defensive and subjective quickly signals to the listeners that you are not sure of yourself or your facts, and they may assume that what you are saying is unreliable. This can lead to loss of your credibility.

Criticism of your presentation

Look upon critical statements or questions as a form of feedback. The information in them can tell you whether you are on the right track. However difficult it might be, handle yourself pleasantly and diplomatically, using responses such as:

· I'm glad you brought that up. It's an interesting question.
· Perhaps you could explain that a little more before we have a look at it.
· I can understand how you feel about the matter, but try and look at it this way.
· I understand your concerns. Let's try to come up with some alternatives.
· I can see that the matter is of great concern to you. Let's discuss it personally at the coffee break.

Module 3 - Why train? The trainer's role and responsibility


To introduce the participants to the basic principles of training in the simplest possible way and to establish fully the responsibility of the trainer

Suggested method of instruction

· Lecture/discussion
· An exercise in identifying the role of each of the senses in learning
· An exercise in planning a skill training session


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour lecture/discussion


· The process of learning
· Factors that hinder learning
· Obtaining and holding the learners' attention
· Facilitating understanding
· Steps in skill training


This module is important because it is essentially the introduction to the training modules that follow.

Discussion should play a major part in the presentation. Because of their life-experiences the trainees will be familiar with learning, even though they may never have analysed the process. Therefore the major task of the trainer is to plan a sequence of questions that will lead the trainees to an identification of the elements and steps in the learning process and the factors that hamper learning. Trainees should be encouraged to recall the good trainers and teachers they have known and to identify the skills that made their training and teaching memorable.

The material in the lecture and overhead transparencies is in point form and requires explanation by the trainer.


· Ask the participants to give a demonstration of a skill related to an industry or food control operation with which they are associated. Have the participants set down in logical order the steps in which they would present the demonstration.

· List ways in which each sense may be used by the trainer to make a sufficient impression to get the message across. For example:





Written word

Blackboard summaries





Learning outcome

The participants should be aware of and understand the trainer's role and responsibilities.

Why train?
To improve the trainee's knowledge and skill

What is the responsibility of the trainer?
To get the message across - that is, to ensure that the trainees have received and understood the message

Training is not easy
Training is hard work
Some trainers merely go through the motions of training
Some trainers are unsuccessful


The successful trainer possesses insight into the process of learning. The learning process conforms to the following pattern: external sensations stimulate the sense organs - ears, eyes, body (touch), nose and tongue - and the nervous system conveys impressions to the relevant sections of the brain. The brain then transmits impulses to the muscles and organs of movement and speech, and the end result is a reaction.

Creating an impression

Receiving an impression is the first step in learning. Therefore, the trainer must ensure that the trainee receives strong impressions. The strength of the impression will depend on:

· The number of senses involved
· The vividness of the impression
· Whether the impression registers

Observing the learners

The only way the trainer can know if people have learned the material is by observing their behaviour:

· Their actions
· Their written impressions
· Their speech


· The learning plateau: at intervals the rate of learning flattens out as the brain rests
· Saturation: if the message is overloaded the receiver rejects the excess and learning stops
· Fatigue: a tired receiver is not as receptive as an alert one
· Inability to concentrate: the longer the message, the more concentration decreases from beginning to end


Before people can learn any material they must focus their voluntary attention on it. The desire to learn comes from within; it is spontaneous.

The good trainer tries to gain and maintain voluntary attention in every session he or she presents.

· Relate what you aim to teach to those subjects in which you know the trainees are interested.

· Introduce the session in such a way that the trainees will not only see and become interested in this relationship, but will want to learn more about it.

· Begin with a good story to which the trainees can relate. An effective trainer makes it his or her business to know the background of the trainees.

· Having done these things, maintain the trainees' attention by doing all that is possible to facilitate their understanding and absorption of the material.

· Ensure that the trainee's learning is an active process in which the trainer and trainees are equal partners in terms of participation.


To facilitate understanding, the trainer proceeds from:

· Known to unknown
· Simple to complex
· Whole to part and back to whole
· Concrete to abstract
· Particular to general
· Observations to reasoning
· Point to point in logical order

To facilitate absorption, remember that trainees learn only by impressions received through their senses.


Having learned a skill, trainees must reinforce its acquisition by using it. Learning by doing is the basic principle underlying the acquisition of any skill.

When teaching skills, the trainer most often achieves the best results by keeping the talk short and by working through a set sequence of discrete steps, as follows:

· Show the trainees the actual skill they are to acquire.

· Demonstrate and explain, step by step, the operations involved (this requires an analysis of the total procedure by the trainer).

· Have trainees imitate the necessary actions.

· Have trainees practise performing the operations.

· Devote at least 50 percent of the session to trainee practice time.


The first rules of training are:

· Make the best use of the most effective channels to the brain - the senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.

· Use a combination of the senses. For knowledge, use the trainees' eyes and ears. For manual skills, use the trainees' hands, eyes and ears.

· Make presentations as vivid as possible.

These are the basic principles of instruction - the means by which the instructor reaches and makes an impression on the brains of the trainees.

Module 4 - Methods of training - The right method


To inform participants of the methods of training available to them, with particular attention given to the lecture, the lecture/discussion, the skill lesson and the on-the-job session

Suggested methods of instruction

· Lecture
· Discussion
· Demonstration
· Exercise


· Overhead transparencies
· Demonstrations
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour lecture/discussion
· One hour of five-minute mini-lectures


· The different methods of training
· Selecting the right method
· The lecture
· The lecture/discussion
· The skill lesson
· On-the-job training (the four-step method of instruction)


This module lends itself to a lively presentation by the trainer. The trainer must be capable of demonstrating personally the methods of training selected for special attention. These methods are believed to be the most appropriate for use in training in food control practices including GMPs and HACCP. It is acknowledged that case studies also have their use, but considerable time is required in their preparation.

The trainer should spare no effort to make this module effective. The methods are the tools the trainees will use when they became trainers. It is essential that the presentation of the module provide them with a base for effective training, on which the trainees can build by practising to improve performance.


Ask participants to give a five- to seven-minute mini-lecture on a subject of their own choice that is related to food quality control. Instruct the participants to prepare a point outline on the subject of their lecture for use during their presentation.


You have a choice of the following methods to prepare for effective training:

· Lecture
· Lecture/discussion
· Skill lesson
· On-the-job training (the four-step method)

There are other methods of training, but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture. Some of those methods include:

· Role play
· Assignment
· Case study
· Training games
· Group exercises
· Programmed learning


All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors, and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material.

· What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group?
· How many trainees are in the group and why are they there?
· How much time do you have to prepare your material?
· Can you cover your topic fully in the time available?
· What aids do you require?
· Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence?
· Are you aware of the limitations of aids?

Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions.



· When the group is large - say 30 or more
· When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert
· When a body of factual information has to be communicated in a short time
· When information is not readily available to group members


Essentials of good delivery:

· Words must all be clear
· Words must be spoken at a suitable pace
· Pauses should occur at logical places
· Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner, connecting parts and using illustrations in a conversational way

Preparation and lecture notes

Preparation is important. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery. Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing method and matter).

Notes may be too brief. The lecturer may then improvise, and he or she may be vague or may forget important elements. On the other hand, notes may be too extensive. The lecturer will then read them, and this is undesirable.

Given an outline of the material, prepare the notes by asking these questions:

· What is it safe to assume that the listeners know?

· What are they likely to find difficult?

· Hence, what will require special care or illustration?

· What will the illustrations (in detail) be? Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted?

· What demonstrations will be appropriate? Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points. The more important the point, the more spectacular the demonstration should be.)

· What new terms will be introduced? What unusual names? Mark these in the notes. They will need to be written on a blackboard, whiteboard, chart or overhead transparency.

· What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re-examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points.)



· Statement of aims

· Relation of this lecture to those that came before and are to follow

· Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant needs

· Outline of thoughts that are to be developed

Body of lecture:

· Step-by-step building up of subject matter

· Logical development

· A few well-developed steps, strongly made (more effective than many steps)

· Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity

· Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered


· Summary of lecture material

· Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series

· Reference to additional material that should be read or seen

· Setting of any assignments


· Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur)
· Participants sit passively without interaction



· When the group is small - say 20 or less
· When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors
· When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily, at least in part, or when there is some prior knowledge of it


Refer to preceding section.


The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question. Some uses of questions:

· At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions
· During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the lecture
· End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding

Desirable features of questions:

· They should be clear
· They should be brief
· They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt
· They should stimulate thinking, rather than suggest the answer


· Repeating the answer (Do not repeat. Move on.)

· Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group, e.g. "Would anyone like to add to that?")

· Trampling the incorrect answerer

· Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross-examined.)

· Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully. Remember the objective of your discussion.)


· Introduction
· Body of lecture
· Discussion
· Conclusion



· To teach correct and safe job methods
· To develop confidence in job performance
· To achieve accuracy and speed
· To encourage conscientious effort



· Development (body of skill lesson)
· Demonstration by trainer (complete)
· Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage, in sequence
· Practice of demonstrated job skill Conclusion


Step 1

· Prepare the worker
· Put the worker at ease
· State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it
· Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job
· Place the worker in the correct position

Step 2

· Present the operations
· Tell, show and illustrate one important point at a time
· Stress each key point
· Instruct clearly, completely and patiently, but teach no more than the worker can master

Step 3

· Try out the worker's performance
· Have the worker do the job, and correct errors
· Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again
· Make sure the worker understands, and continue until you are certain of this

Step 4

· Follow up
· Put the worker on his or her own
· Designate to whom he or she should go for help
· Check frequently
· Encourage questions
· Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow-up

Example of an on-the-job training session: training workers in the correct method of hand washing

Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. In order to educate the workers in better hygienic practices, the correct hand washing method is one of the topics demonstrated in fish processing units.

The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from the hands. Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. It is therefore essential that hands be washed thoroughly. The following procedure for washing hands is recommended:

· Wet palms and arms, from the elbow down, with fresh water
· Apply soap
· Work lather on and around fingers, nails and arms from the elbow down
· Rinse palms and hands with fresh water
· Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel

Module 5 - The art of questioning


To provide guidance to the trainee-trainers on how to ask questions, and to make them aware of the dos and don'ts of questioning

Suggested methods of instruction

· Lecture/discussion
· Discussion
· Handouts


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour presentation


· Importance of questioning
· Types of questions
· Purpose of questions
· How to ask questions
· Preparation of questions
· Dos and don'ts of questioning
· Questions asked by trainees


This module is of great importance, as skilful questioning is essential to a trainer's effectiveness.

Learning outcome

The participants should have the knowledge and ability to utilize questioning to support effective training.


To be effective, trainers must be skilled questioners. Carefully devised questions, skilfully asked, are the basis of the lecture/discussion method of training, and questions should also feature prominently in other methods of training. Few people question well, and to do so requires careful preparation and practice.

· Questioning is one of the essential skills for any good trainer.
· Unless you question properly you cannot hope to know how much (if any) of your message is getting across.



A rhetorical question is a question to which no answer is expected. Examples:

· Now that is simple enough, isn't it?
· What could be clearer?
· Anybody could understand that, don't you agree? Do not overuse this type of question.


A direct question to a named person can be a useful management device in a class situation.


· Prakash, what detergent would you use for washing fish crates?

Do not overuse direct questions.


An overhead question is asked to the whole group, and then a person named to answer.


· What detergent is used for washing fish crates? Prakash, do you know?


A leading question suggests the answer.


· If chlorine kills microorganisms in water, what is it likely to do to them elsewhere?

Leading questions are of limited use.


Questions are used for all sorts of purposes in training. Some of the more common purposes are:

· Getting trainees to participate
· Checking on a trainee's understanding
· Attracting a trainee's attention
· Testing a trainee's knowledge of the subject
· Breaking the ice and initiating a discussion
· Stimulating confidence in shy trainees
· Reviewing earlier work
· Changing the topic


· Ask the question in a friendly and natural way to the group. Pause, then name one individual to answer.

· Vary tempo with pauses.

· Spread questions throughout the group at random.


· Prepare questions before the lesson, but use them flexibly.
· Introduce questions with such words as: what, when, explain, compare, how, why, outline, contrast, define, trace, describe, illustrate.

An effective question

· Is simple and direct
· Is clear and well expressed in a complete sentence
· Contains one main thought
· Has only one correct answer;
· Requires more than a "yes" or "no" answer



· State questions clearly, concisely and audibly

· Ask in a friendly and natural way

· Use questions carefully and time them appropriately - to create interest, lift attention and evaluate

· Involve the whole group

· Include one main thought in each question

· Know the answer


· Interrogate people
· Embarrass people
· Trick people
· Get sidetracked by answers
· Ask questions with more than one correct answer
· Answer your own questions
· Ask more than one question at a time
· Ask questions with a "yes" or "no" answer



Answer if you can. Do not bluff. If you cannot answer, say so, but indicate that you will try to find out the answer.


A trainee may be trying to embarrass the trainer or someone in the group. The options are:

· Ignore the question
· Reply negatively: "Let's leave that. I don't think it's entirely relevant."
· Relay the question: "Would somebody in the group like to answer that?"
· Reverse to questioner: "What do you think the answer might be?"

Module 6 - Types of training aids - How to make and use them


To introduce participants to training aids and to instruct them in their correct and most effective use

Suggested methods of instruction

· Lecture
· Demonstrations
· Exercises
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour presentation
· One hour making and showing aids


· Why use training aids?
· Classification of instructional aids
· Selection of aids
· Principles to follow in adopting a visual approach
· Charts and diagrams
· Handouts
· Overhead transparencies
· The computer pallet
· Colour slides
· Videos


· You are to give a training session to workers in a processing plant about one of the following:

- Plant hygiene
- Vermin control
- A processing technique
- Moisture control
- The life cycle of an insect
- Factors adversely affecting quality
- The importance of food control
- The application of HACCP

Prepare a chart that may be used in the session you elect to give, or alternatively, in your presentation during the conclusion of this course.

· Prepare a single-page handout on a topic of your own selection (perhaps for use as part of your presentation during the conclusion of the course) and for an audience you designate, e.g. quality control officers, factory workers, management, export inspectors.

· Prepare an overhead transparency on a topic of your choice (perhaps for use as part of your presentation during the conclusion of the course), keeping in mind the rules of overhead transparency preparation.


All learning is through the senses. The more senses are brought into use, the more effective is the learning; 97 percent of learning is achieved through simultaneous appeal to the eye and ear. It is because of this that we should make use of audiovisual aids in training.

Effective use of audiovisual aids can be included in any sort of presentation. Charts, slides, videos, overhead transparencies and films can be used to add interest as well as supplement verbal explanations.

Proper use of instructional aids saves time, adds interest, helps trainees learn and makes your job easier. But remember that aids to training are aids only. They are not substitutes for training.

Trainers should use training aids to supplement their training rather than to replace all or part of it.

The trainer who shows a chart or illustration without any explanation, or who shows slides, videos or films without preparing the trainees to receive them, is guilty of not doing his or her job



· Motion pictures
· Videos
· Colour slides
· Overhead projector transparencies
· Computer pallet


· Chalkboard
· Whiteboard
· Charts and diagrams
· Models
· Exhibits
· Handouts
· Tape recorder


In selecting aids, take into account the following:

· Practicability
· Attractiveness and interest; vividness
· Suitability
· Complexity
· Clarity
· Portability
· Serviceability
· Availability
· Location
· Preparation and presentation
· Time factor


· Anything that can be quantified or is factual can be presented visually

· Obtain and select the necessary data; confusing data and confusing information will result in confusing visuals

· Know clearly what you want to say in your visuals; write it down

· Plan your visuals; know what you want to include (Sketch an outline of ideas you think will work.)

· Try the visuals out on others before you use them

Tips to ensure the trainees do not go to sleep during presentation of your visuals

· Make your visuals visible
· Ensure that the trainees can see them
· Use colour for headings
· Take care with drawings; they can be misinterpreted
· Make them simple; eliminate details
· Ensure the key feature occupies a prominent part of the screen or display
· Minimize reflection
· Show all the key points (oral presentation includes everything necessary to sell the key points through the ears; visual presentation includes everything necessary to sell the key points through the eyes)

Whatever instructional aid(s) you choose to use as a trainer, it is important to remember practise....practise....practise


· Plan carefully the use of instructional aids
· Make sure that the aids can be seen clearly from all areas of the room
· If you write, write clearly
· Use colour for emphasis


These fall in two main categories:

Bold and simple

These are for use during a training session. They should:

· Be large enough to be seen by all
· Not necessarily be self-explanatory
· Be functionally coloured
· Include only the essentials


These are for close study at leisure. They should:

· Be more or less self-explanatory
· Be of medium or small size
· Be suitable for semi-permanent display
· Be artistically produced


Handouts are specially prepared sheets and notes. They are used:

· For reference purposes during the session or course
· To substitute for note taking
· To retain as a permanent record for reference after the course

A handout can:

· Introduce a topic
· Provide revision
· Provoke discussion

Handouts should:

· Be brief and sharp/containing only essential details
· Be accurate and complete
· Be designed clearly and attractively, with good use of white space
· Include diagrams if appropriate
· Always have a title
· Be planned
· Be of a standard size
· Be presented in a logical sequence
· Be pitched at a level appropriate to the audience

Why use handouts?

· They carry the stamp of authority
· They provide a record of important information
· They supply data to reflect the presentation
· They can provide background documentation (longer and more comprehensive)
· They can be studied at the reader's own pace
· They convey with certainty the same data to a number of people
· They appeal to the sense of sight

When should handouts be distributed?

· Before the presentation
· During the presentation
· At the end


The overhead projector is one of the most useful training aids. It can replace the need for chalkboards, whiteboards and charts. The overhead projector can be used for presentation to a group of any size.

All material for use on an overhead projector needs to be reproduced on to transparencies using either special pens or printers with either non-permanent or permanent ink (the latter if the trainer wants to keep and reuse the transparencies). It is also possible to make either black and white or colour transparencies using a specially designed photocopier. Computer-generated transparencies can be excellent.

Design of overhead transparencies

· Keep them simple
· Include only essentials
· Make sure lettering is of sufficient height (>5 mm)
· Use colour on colourless film or contrasting colours on coloured film
· Do not clutter (no more than seven principle points to a transparency)
· Illustrations can be useful

Using the overhead projector

· Make sure the projector is placed so that all can see
· Focus correctly
· Use masking technique: cover part of the transparency so only the material you are discussing is shown

The overhead projector is probably the most flexible of the aids available to the trainer. Used correctly, it will enhance trainee learning by making presentations more interesting and explanations clearer.


The computer pallet is a device that replaces the computer screen. It is placed on top of an overhead projector, allowing the instructor to project material that has been prepared and stored on a computer disk.

The same basic principles that apply to the design of overhead transparencies also apply to the preparation of material on a computer for use on a computer pallet. The benefits of using a computer pallet include flexibility and the ability to amend material easily. Particular computer programs, if available to the instructor, can provide a large selection of graphic materials and presentation packages.

At present this technology is not widely available. An instructor who wishes to utilize a computer pallet should be trained and familiar with its use.


Main features

· Slides are relatively inexpensive to procure
· They are easily used
· They facilitate study of a topic one step at a time
· All trainees get the same clear view
· Each frame can be studied and discussed at leisure during the screening
· They can be used in conjunction with a tape-recorder (tape/slide sequence)

How to use slides effectively

· Do not treat as entertainment
· Select slides that are relevant
· Plan your presentation
· Include an introduction and conclusion
· Do not prolong the presentation
· Ensure the equipment is sound and well set up before the presentation


· Make sure videos are directly related to the subject; do not use them merely for entertainment or to give yourself a rest

· Make sure all trainees can see the monitor

· The video should be introduced; trainees should be told what it is about and what they should look for

· Review the video in a discussion after screening



· Allow ample time for preparation: sufficient time to plan and construct and sufficient time to rehearse

· Make a file copy of your visuals

· Check on your worst seats, those on the extreme right and left

· Mount screen high enough for all to see

· Remove competing attractions; competition will reduce impact of your visuals

· Check all arrangements before you go on, even if it means going without your breakfast, lunch or dinner; make sure you have done everything possible for a smooth presentation

· Maintain constant contact with your audience; know your visuals well enough that you do not have to break your commentary to check points

· Time your visuals to coincide with your comments; mistiming is distracting

· Make your presentation straightforward; be sincere and win the confidence of your audience

· Keep your visuals moving; parallel the flow of your words with the flow of visuals

· Use only the required number of words; avoid excessive wordage

· Use only well-trained assistants who know the visuals as well as you do

· Keep your visuals; they may be needed again

Module 7 - Planning and delivering a presentation


To guide and advise participants in the skill of planning a presentation and delivering it

Suggested method of instruction

· Lecture/discussion


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts

Time frame

· One hour presentation


· Importance of planning
· Steps in planning a presentation
· Delivering a presentation

Learning outcome

Participants should be aware of the importance and methods of effective presentation planning and delivery.


Every presentation in a training programme should be planned. The trainers who do not plan their presentations are not doing their job properly Unless the trainer is particularly gifted, it is most unlikely that the presentation will be successful and effective if it is unplanned. All effective trainers plan their presentations. They know precisely how the presentation will flow before they begin. The trainer who does not plan presentations is attracting trouble. Trainees are quick to sense a lack of planning, and their response will reflect their disdain for the trainer.

· The most important part of the presentation is preparation
· The first step in preparation is to have a plan
· Take a sheet of paper and commence planning


Determine what the trainees need to learn


· How to achieve a high level of personnel and plant hygiene
· How to peel a prawn correctly
· How to use a thermometer
· How to disinfest cashews correctly
· How to apply HACCP
· How to establish export/import food control

State objective

Select the objective to be reached in satisfying the trainees' needs. Select it on the basis of what you expect the trainees will know or be able to do at the end of the training session. Consider:

· Time available in which to conduct the session
· Facilities available
· Prior knowledge and abilities of the trainees
· Relationship to the needs of the trainees
· Are you concerned with knowledge, skills or attitudes?

Choose an appropriate training method

· Appropriate to objective: is the objective to solve problems? to change attitudes? to teach skills?

· Appropriate to the trainee

· Appropriate to you, the trainer

· Appropriate administratively

Organize your material

· Decide on what the trainees must know
· Decide on what the trainees should know
· Decide on what the trainees could know
· Select key ideas
· Arrange (sequence) key ideas in logical order, e.g. known to unknown, simple to complex, concrete to abstract

Write the session plan

· Needs

· Objectives

· Method of training

· Organization of material: introduction, body, conclusion (keeping in mind time, questions, subheadings, details)

· Aids to be used

· Questions to be asked

Prepare and check aids

· Overhead transparencies, chalkboard plan, prepared charts, film, slides, tapes
· Check readability sequence, volume levels, suitability
· Handouts: notes, supplements

Presentation checks

· Check session plan, particularly timing and trainee activities
· Check equipment, aids, ventilation, seating and lighting


· Obtain feedback on students' learning during the session; use test questions
· Self-evaluation (How can I improve the session?)
· Write down on the session plan any comments for future reference before you forget them

Presentation planning checklist

Use the above outline as a checklist to be sure you follow all the necessary steps.

Use a plan - you will be more confident and training will be more effective


Remember that the trainer's job is to help the trainee learn and remember. This is hard work. The trainer must be fully committed to the job. Trainees quickly sense whether a trainer is positive about what he or she is doing or is simply going through the motions. The trainer must motivate the trainees and spark their desire to learn new ideas and skills.

How is this done through delivery? The personal variations in manner and style employed by trainers are important in that they make instruction animated and interesting. Good delivery requires practice!

Influence attitudes through your manner

· Project enthusiasm regarding the training - through use of voice (modulation), body language (gesticulation) and eye contact

· Be confident and positive (this comes from sound session planning and preparation and from sound knowledge of what you are doing)

· Be firm

· Be energetic and lively - do not stay glued to one spot, move around the trainees (but don't overdo it)

· Introduce humour, if you can do so effectively (forced humour may be counterproductive, and too much humour may be damaging)

· Be pleasant, relaxed, and sympathetic to trainees; do not talk down to them

· Involve trainees in the training process, taking them into your confidence

Desirable qualities of speech

· Clear
· Pleasant
· Fluent
· Varied
· Coordinated with gesture

Set an example

· Convey a sense of the importance of the subject
· Take the subject seriously


· Distracting mannerisms
· Not giving your best at every presentation

Module 8 - Evaluating training


To introduce participants to both the need and methods for measuring the effectiveness of their and others' training, as well as evaluating their own personal performance as trainers

Suggested method of instruction

· Lecture/discussion


· Overhead transparencies
· Handouts
· Model course evaluation questionnaires

Time frame

· One hour presentation


· The need for evaluation
· Guidelines for course evaluation
· Course evaluation questionnaires
· Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use before the session
· Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use after the session

Learning outcome

The participants should be aware of the importance of evaluation in training and of methods that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training.


It is not good enough for a trainer to feel self-satisfied with his or her training performance without evaluating it. All effective trainers not only evaluate or measure the degree of success of their course, they also evaluate their personal performance at the conclusion of each session or at least at the end of each training day.

Neglecting to make any attempt at evaluation reflects disinterest and lack of professionalism and is symptomatic of a non-caring attitude. Evaluation is a must; it is an integral part of effective training.


· To improve training by discovering which training processes are successful in achieving their objectives (to "sort out the good from the bad")

Evaluation affects learning

· If we set examinations at the end of a course we affect the nature of learning

· If we study trainees' job behaviour after a course we have generally changed their job behaviour

· Since testing affects learning we can use it as a training aid

Two aspects of evaluation

· Course evaluation
· Trainer evaluation (self-evaluation)


Break evaluation into clear, achievable steps:

Evaluating reaction

How well did the trainees enjoy the session(s)/course?

· Find out how well the trainees liked a particular training session or sessions or the course as a whole

· Does not include measurement of learning

Evaluating learning

What principles, facts and techniques were learned?

· Written test questions, oral test questions, skill tests
· Avoid questions like "Have you learned anything?"

Evaluating behaviour

What changes in job behaviour resulted from the training?

· Best evaluated through appraisal by on-the-job supervisors
· Remember: good trainers have on-the-job experience; they know the best way of doing things

Evaluating results

What were the tangible results of the training in terms of improved job performance?

· Some types of training results are easily measured (e.g. typing)
· Others are not easily measured (where management and attitudes are involved)


· Determine what you want to find out
· Use a written comment sheet covering the steps above
· Obtain honest reactions by making the form anonymous
· Allow trainees to write additional comments not covered by questions

Two model course evaluation questionnaires are included at the end of this module. Model 1 is intended for evaluation of a complete training course. Model 2 can be used to evaluate either a specific training session or module or the overall training course.



· Do the notes show clearly the limited, definite scope of this training session?

· Is my session planned to enable my specific purpose to be fully accomplished?

· Have I allowed for an adequate introduction; a presentation with participant activity; and a recapitulation which will clinch the chief points?

· Have I arranged for all necessary equipment/materials and teaching aids?


· Will this step excite the interest of the trainees from the start - is it original or linked strongly with an emotion-stirring activity, or some matter of topical or personal interest?

· Will it pave the way for what is to follow so that the presentation will not discourage or bore by excessive difficulty?

· Will it provoke curiosity and interest for what is to come, generating a need which will be satisfied?

· Does it provide adequate revision of what has gone before?


· Is the instruction broken up into steps of reasonable length?

· Will each step offer maximum trainee participation and activity?

· Will each step win trainee interest and attention?

· Will each step offer some way of evaluating the trainees' comprehension before the next step is undertaken?

· If there is a written exercise to be done, have I something useful ready to occupy the quicker trainees so that slower ones may finish comfortably?

· Is there adequate provision for holding the interest of the strongest trainees and giving them worthwhile activity?

· Have I allowed for a period of relief for trainees and myself after a period of intense concentrated work?


· Will this step adequately recall and test the vital points of the session?
· Have I timed my session so that there is time for this important step?

Chalkboard summary

· Will my chalkboard or whiteboard summary show what I expect to appear on the chalkboard at the end of the session?

· Is the arrangement (use of colour, diagrams, etc.) attractive?

· Have I thought out ways of obtaining the maximum help from the chalkboard with a minimum loss of contact with my group during the session?

· Are there any parts of the chalkboard that I should not use because they are not clearly visible because of poor lighting, shining sun, etc.?

· How will arrangement of any other visual aids fit in with my use of the chalkboard?


· Are there any other aids that will assist me?

· What rabbits have I ready to pull out of a hat if interest flags?

· Have I taken into consideration the intellectual level of the group, the time of day the session will take place and interruptions?

· Have I thought out how this session will fit into the general syllabus for the group?

· Am I sure of the correct pronunciation of unusual words that I will be using during the lesson?

· Am I sure of my subject-matter and of the correctness of the questions I intend to use?

· Am I sufficiently familiar with my questions and steps to be able to carry on the session at maximum effective speed without allowing the thin edge of the wedge of inattention to be inserted?



· Was my voice clearly audible in all parts of room?
· Was it restrained enough not to irritate trainees or disturb other session leaders?
· Did I vary the speed, pitch, volume and tone so as to give maximum interest to whatever I said?


· Was my manner reasonable, brisk and alert?
· Did I sincerely convey a sense of earnestness and enthusiasm for what I was instructing?
· Was my manner reasonably pleasant and general without being affectedly so?

Group management

· Did I get off to a clean brisk start, stimulating the group from the beginning?

· Did I stand in such a position that I could be seen and heard by all trainees?

· Did I keep all trainees under my eye and control whenever necessary?

· Did I take steps to see that no trainee disturbed the work of the group or failed to take adequate part in the session?

· Did I see that at the beginning of the lesson the floor and chalkboards were clean, the desks in order, the windows open and the class settled and ready?

· Did I have the trainees pulling with or against me?

· Did I refuse to be sidetracked?


· Were my questions audible to all trainees?

· Were most questions easy enough for all trainees to be able to attempt an answer?

· Were there some particularly stimulating questions?

· Where the response to a question was unsatisfactory, did I take measures to improve the response (e.g. reframing the question) rather than waste a good question by immediately giving an answer?

· Did my questions follow rapidly without hesitation and uncertainty?

· Did I insist on answers being given loudly and clearly?

· Did I refrain from unnecessarily repeating answers?

· Did I distribute questions widely, encouraging weak trainees?


· Did I cover the steps of my session adequately?
· Was my recapitulation or other final step unhurried?
· Did I maintain my aim throughout the session?
· Did I keep as far as possible to the plan of my lesson?
· Did my trainees and I enjoy the session?
· What did the trainees gain from this session?
· What have I learned by leading this session?


To assist in the planning of future courses it would be of great value if you would complete the sections that follow. Please be frank with your responses. Remember, only your honest reactions will enable adjustments and improvements to be made. The questions asked may not cover all of the aspects about which you wish to comment. For that reason a space headed "General comments" has been provided, and it is hoped that you will use it if appropriate.


Were you comfortable?
What improvements, if any, do you suggest for the accommodation of future courses?
Were the seating arrangements satisfactory?
Could you see and hear satisfactorily?
Were the morning and afternoon sessions well balanced?

Course content

Were the subjects covered the ones you expected would be?
Were there any surprises? Why?
Was the coverage sufficiently wide? If not, what subjects would you have liked included?
Was each subject covered in sufficient depth? Name any that you think were not.
Was the course sufficiently practical in the sense that you will be able to apply knowledge and skills taught?
Did the subjects sustain your interest?
What additional subjects would you suggest for future courses?
What subjects would you omit from future courses?


Were all sessions presented in a clear and interesting way?
Were there any sessions that left you confused or uncertain? Please specify.
Do you think trainers could have done more to improve their presentations? If so, what?
Were the lengths of sessions satisfactory?
Did the aids used help sustain your interest and understanding? Name any particular aid that impressed you.

General comments


You are not required to identify yourself on this form unless you desire to do so.



You have just completed the training. Now we would like you to tell us about your feelings on what has just been presented. This information is valuable in helping us make following training sessions more interesting and useful to you. Below you will find a number of questions dealing with the just completed training session. Most questions can be answered by circling a number on the scale to the right of the question. Where a written response is required, please write your reply clearly in the space provided. Please consider your responses carefully and answer truthfully. Everything you say will be held in strictest confidence. The information will be used only to help us make this training activity more responsive to your needs.

Topic discussed:_____________________

I. Content

1. Relevance of the topic to your job

Not relevant







2. Clarity of the module's objectives

Not clear

Very clear






3. Level of instruction

Too basic

Too advanced






4. Lecture coverage


Very comprehensive






5. Time allotment

Too short

Too long






6. Emphasis on details

Too brief

Too detailed






7. Organization and direction


Well organized






8. Treatment of the topic








9. Additional comments you may have on these or other aspects of the content of this training module/session


II. Training aids and handouts

1. Effectiveness of teaching aids

Not effective

Very effective






2. Readability of

Not readable

Very readable







3. Clarity of message of

Not clear

Very clear







4. Appeal of

Not appealing

Very appealing







5. Usefulness of

Not useful








* Here you would insert the names of instructional aids used: handouts, slides, videos, overhead transparencies, etc.

6. Additional remarks you may have on these or other aspects of the teaching methods, aids, and handouts used in the training session


Instructor effectiveness

1. Mastery of the subject

Not knowledgeable







2. Ability to transfer/communicate information and knowledge effectively

Very poor







3. Ability to arouse and sustain interest

Very poor







4. Openness to ideas of trainees

Not receptive







5. Encouragement of trainee participation

Did not encourage







6. Time management

Very poor







7. Speed in talking

Too slow

Too fast






8. Clarity of speech

Not clear







9. Additional remarks on these or other aspects of the instructor's effectiveness


IV. General

1. Please state the three most important ideas or concepts that you have learned from this session


2. Suggestion(s) to improve the session


V. Training logistics/administration

1. Quality of the meals

Very poor

Very good






2. Quality of accommodation

Very poor

Very good






3. Quality of transportation

Very poor

Very good






4. Contact with staff members

Very poor

Very good






5. Quality of training facilities

Very poor

Very good






6. Please use the space below to indicate any suggestions you might have that will help us to improve the facilities and administration


Module 9 - Testing trainee trainers - Individual presentations


To evaluate the training capability of trainees following their training

Suggested methods of instruction

· Clear instructions to trainees of what is expected of them - both orally and in writing
· Personal assistance with preparation of presentations


· Handouts

Time frame

· Presentations of 30 minutes each


· Individual presentations as a means of testing trainees
· Notification of presentation requirements
· Discussion to aid in preparation of presentations

Learning outcome

Participants should demonstrate knowledge of the subject material and skills developed based on the foregoing training.


There are a number of ways of testing trainees: written and oral examinations, seeing how well they have mastered the skill taught, demonstrating the new on-the-job procedure. A proven method of testing trainees who are training to become trainers is to see how they perform in a training situation.

The material that follows is self-explanatory and is offered as a guide only. It is important that the trainee discuss his or her proposed presentation with the trainer to ensure that pitfalls that often confront novice trainers (e.g. inappropriate choice of subject, topic too broad for coverage in the time available, insufficient time in which to prepare suitable aids) are avoided. The trainer should be sure to be available at all times to assist and advise trainees on the preparation of their presentations.


Trainees should first be advised of the presentations at the beginning of the course, and the following notification should be distributed halfway through the course.

Guidelines for individual presentations

During the concluding days of the course each trainee will present a 20-minute training session on a selected topic related to the HACCP system or another nominated area of food control. Topics will be chosen by the trainer (or trainees). As part of the presentation the trainee will:

· Produce a plan for the session
· Produce a handout for distribution to other course members following the presentation
· Prepare visual aids (charts, overhead transparencies, slides, etc.) for use in the presentation

The presentation may be pitched at any level, that is, plant employees, inspection staff, quality control personnel, plant management, interested organizations, etc.

In the presentation trainees will be expected to make use of training skills (including communication techniques, visual aids, questions, etc.) and technical knowledge learned during the course.

Presentations should be developed progressively by trainees during the course, and maximum guidance in their presentation should be available from the trainer.

Each presentation will be followed by a ten-minute evaluation by the group.


Trainees should be requested to complete a form comprising the following questions for discussion with the trainer before preparing the presentation.

· What is your subject?
· Have you given thought to a plan for your presentation? (brainstorming)
· Have you jotted down thoughts, especially main points you wish to emphasize?
· Do you need assistance with information?
· Have you determined at what level you wish to pitch your presentation?
· How do you propose making the greatest impact?
· What aids do you propose to use?
· Do you propose giving a demonstration?
· Do you propose using handouts?
· Have you in mind to ask questions?
· Have you discussed your subject or its presentation with others? Do you intend to do so?

Module 10 - Organizing and managing a training course


To provide guidance and advice to participants about the issues to be considered in course planning and management

Suggested methods of instruction

· Lecture/discussion using the course of which this module is a part as a model


· Handout

Time frame

· One hour lecture/discussion


· Organization and management checklists

Learning outcome

Participants should be aware of the considerations for the planning and management of a successful training course.


The need for the trainer to be informed about course organization and management is self-evident. The details that follow amount to little more than a checklist. However, it is valuable for the trainer to go through each list item by item/stressing the relative importance of each and relating the whole to the course of which the module is a part.


· Establish whether the course is part or full time

· Establish duration

· Establish content

· Plan syllabus and timetable

· Identify and engage appropriate instructors

· Secure suitable training accommodation (well-lit, well-ventilated room)

· Select and notify trainees, through appropriate channels, of the dates, time and place

· Select and brief session leaders

· Select and review preliminary reading materials

· Prepare course documentation

· Arrange training equipment: lectern, microphone, chalkboard and chalk, writing materials, visual aids (slide projector, video equipment, screen, spare bulbs, etc.), other aids

· Arrange training room: seating arrangements, namecards, position of chalkboard, screen, etc.

Don't forget... to arrange coffee and lunch breaks


· Remind session leaders
· Arrange transport for outside speakers/trainers
· Introduce and thank session leaders
· Meet emergencies (give session yourself or rearrange sessions)
· Check facilities and equipment (projectors, boards, charts, etc.)
· Ensure trainees receive documentation
· Introduce visitors
· Coordinate all aspects of the course
· Evaluate training (based on trainees', session leaders' and own observations)
· Leave room tidy; return equipment and aids to proper place
· Prepare thank-you letters
· Prepare reports on course
· Prepare any statistics
· Each day appoint a "Monitor for the day" from among the trainees to assist with the conduct of the course

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