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R. D. Guerrero, III1
C. T. Villegas2


For decades, fish farmers in Asia and the Pacific region obtained their supply of fish seed from natural sources. In most areas, the availability of seeds from these waters has become scarce. The supply has shown a marked decline which cannot meet the demand of expanding fish culture. The rapid development of aquaculture in the region has required the establishment of fish hatcheries for the mass production of fry. Hatchery operations have been activated in order to produce adequate fry to support the needs of fish farmers. There are presently in operation many commercial and experimental hatcheries in the region.

Larval rearing of finfish, shrimps and prawns, and shellfish in hatcherie entails the culture of food organisms to assure the favourable growth and survival of the young. The culture of certain plankton species for feeding milkfish fry and penaeid post-larvae, for instance, has been practiced in several Asian countries. In hatchery operations, the use of certain-kinds of plankton as food is important. Hatcheries utilize artificially grown food organisms in their larval rearing.

One of the major problems in producing fry stock has been the lack of suitable food organisms for larval rearing at their different stages of development. Culturing sufficient quantities of this live food remains a difficulty in many hatcheries. Although the technologies for the indoor and outdoor culture of food organisms are established, their application is still not widely known. Therefore, there is a need to document and disseminate recent techniques developed in the growing of food organisms for hatcheries in the region.

1 Technical Training Director (Consultant), South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme, Manila, Philippines

2 Senior Instructor (for course) /Researcher, Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines

In order to develop this aspect of hatchery technology in the region, a training course in this field will be very useful. The training in the growing of food organisms aims to impart the technologies for the culture of organisms for the feeding of fish larvae. Participants are expected to acquire the basic and practical knowledge and skills in growing such organisms for application in their home countries. The course will train technicians in the different countries of Asia and the Pacific region in the practical methods of culturing food organisms, which will include screening and identification of potential larval food for fish, crustaceans and shellfish demonstrations or mass culture techniques, and production of food organisms. Participants from countries with existing programmes and with interest in this kind of activity were invited.


The training course was organized by the project, UNDP/FAO Training in Food and Cash Crops Production for Countries in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/79/041) and implemented by the South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme (RAS/74/013), which sponsored 13 participants. Seven other participants from Fiji, Kuwait, the Philippines and Vietnam were supported by other donors or their respective governments.

In the implementation, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) Aquaculture Department (AQD) hosted the training course using the staff and facilities of its Tigbauan Research Station.


The training was conducted in the research station of the SEAFDEC AQD in Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. The duration of the training was three weeks, from 3 to 22 August 1981.


A total of 20 participants, 13 of which were sponsored by Project RAS/79/041 implemented through the SCSP, attended the training. There were 13 countries represented.

The names and addresses of the participants by country are listed in Annex A.


The programme of the training consisted of lectures, laboratory exercises and demonstration, field trips, practical work and discussions.

The detailed schedule of the training course is summarized in Annex B, and the list of lectures, laboratory exercises/demonstrations and practical work are shown in Annexes C, D, and F, respectively.


The course was implemented by a training staff specially recruited by the Project for this training (Annex B). Facilities of the host agency were used during the period.

The opening ceremony was held in the SEAFDEC AQD Tigbauan Research Station Lecture Hall on 3 August 1981 and was attended by the Representative of SCSP, Mr. V. Soesanto; Dr. C. Lim, SEAFDEC Tigbauan Research Station Head; Dr. Chua Thia Eng, FAO/UNDP Senior Training Officer of the Regional Aquaculture Network for Asia and the Pacific, and by members of the AQD research staff.

The welcome address (Annex F) was delivered by the AQD Deputy Chief, Mr. K. Katsutani in behalf of Dr. Flor T. Lacanilao, the Department Chief, Dr. H. R. Rabanal, FAO Aquaculture Consultant, gave the opening remarks (Annex G). Mr. T. Jamandre, Jr., a private aquaculture operator in Iloilo City delivered the keynote remarks (Annex H). The training was officially opened by Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) Regional Director Region Vl Mr. Herminigildo Magsuci.

6.1 Lectures and laboratory exercises/demonstrations

To acquaint the participants with the principles and techniques of growing food organisms for fish hatcheries, lectures and laboratory exercises/demonstrations were performed.

Lectures on the screening of food organisms as potential larval food for finfish and shellfish, culture of phytoplankton, zooplankton, marine yeast and other organisms with possibilities as food for hatchery-raised larvae and fry were given (Part II).

Laboratory exercises/demonstrations on the microscopic examination of planktonic organisms, preparation of laboratory materials, and on techniques for counting, isolation, inoculation, mass production, harvesting, preservation and utilization of food organisms were made (Part III).

In addition to the lectures and laboratory exercises, the participants were provided with background papers on the culture of food organisms (Annex I).

6.2 Practical work

Following the lecture and laboratory activities, the participants were divided into groups and undertook a ten-day practical work on the culture of the following organisms: Brachionus, Chlorella or Tetraselmis, Moina and Artemia. This aspect of the training was deemed important in developing the skills of the participants through first-hand experience and group-work (Annex E).

6.3 Country experience reports

During the training course, the participants prepared and presented their respective country experience reports which were discussed. The account of the reports is presented in Part IV of this report.

6.4 Field trips

The participants visited the SEAFDEC AQD Leganes Research Station and the Brackishwater Aquaculture Center of the University of the Philippines in the Visayas in Leganes, Iloilo. Briefings on the research activities of the two stations were made by their respective station heads, namely Mr. F. Apud and Professor V. Dureza. The participants also toured the laboratory and field facilities of the stations.

The visit to the Guimaras Island Station of the AQD was cancelled because of inclement weather. Instead, the participants were taken on a cultural tour of the historic city of Iloilo.


The participants were encouraged to freely discuss the subject matter after each lecture or laboratory exercise/demonstration. Discussions between the participants and the training staff, and among the participants themselves were also made during the practical work, field trip and country report sessions.

The training course was terminated on 22 August 1981, as scheduled and officially closed by Dr. Chornn Lim, Officer-in-Charge of the SEAFDEC AQD (Annex J). Certificates of attendance were handed to the participants by Mr. V. Soesanto, FAO-UNDP/SCSP Fisheries Training Extension Officer.


At the end of the training, the participants evaluated the course on the following points: (a) the group of participants, (b) contacts, (c) the duration of the activity, (d) lectures and practicals, (e) relevance, (f) organization and facilities, and (g) the activity as such.

Twelve out of 19 respondents believed that the group of participants was “just right”.

Twelve out of 19 said that contacts with the staff were “good”; three said it was “very good” and four thought it was “in-between”.

On the duration of the activity, ten participants said it was“too short”; eight said it was “just right” and one said it was “too long”.

On lectures and practicals, 12 participants said that the balance of time given to lecture/practical/discussion was “good”; presentation of the lectures was evaluated “very good” by six and “good” by seven of the participants; presentation of practicals was evaluated as “very good” by four and “good” by nine.

Relevance of the activity to the personal work of the participants was considered “very high” by two; “high” by seven; and “in-between” by five. Three said it was “low” and two had no answer.

The quality of the facilities and organization were evaluated as “very good” by eight and “good” by also eight participants. Three said it was “in-between”.

In general, the activity was evaluated as “just right” by majority of the participants on the theoretical and practical levels. Most of the participants also believed that the amount of lectures and practical work and programming of activities were “just right”.

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