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4.1 Manpower training in aquaculture technologies
4.2 Manpower training in management
4.3 Aquaculture research in the region
4.4 Management of credit
4.5 Associations of professionals in the region
4.6 Information for professionals
4.7 Technical assistance projects in the sub-sector
4.8 Capital assistance projects in the sub-sector

4.1 Manpower training in aquaculture technologies

In 1987 it was estimated that more than 15 600 scientific personnel were working in various fisheries institutions in the whole of Asia. It is assumed (for lack of information) that these individuals are dispersed throughout aquaculture research, training, and development work in the industry.

The Directory of Fishery Scientists and Technologists in Southeast Asia, published by SEAFDEC/IDRC, registers 21 from Hong Kong, 73 from the Philippines, and a number from adjacent areas. Most work in the sub-disciplines of aquaculture. About 600 names are recorded.

In China a total of 462 629 State staff and personnel are involved in fishery activities at present. The 1983 statistics show that 33 have M.Sc. degrees, 6 074 graduated from universities, 6 360 from colleges, 16 003 from technical secondary schools, and 3 262 are experienced personnel with no educational background in fisheries.

Japan and the Philippines have large manpower pools of academically-prepared personnel with undergraduate diplomas (in fisheries, zoology, biology, and allied fields), or at the least certificates from two-year fisheries courses. A growing number of professionals have graduate degrees obtained either in national institutes of higher learning or in academic institutes in the region, or overseas, particularly from USA, Canada, and Europe. A large number of fisheries personnel are likewise trained locally or abroad in various fields of specialization under non-degree programmes which run from one to several months.

Aquaculture as a specialization in an undergraduate degree programme in fisheries has been a recent development in fisheries education in the region. Many fisheries colleges and universities offer aquaculture as a major subject.

The 1986 ICLARM/FAO database lists 26 academic institutions (1 in Hong Kong, 1 in Japan, 8 in China, 11 in the Philippines, 1 in Republic of Korea, and 4 in Taiwan PC) with bachelor's degree programmes in fisheries, almost all of which offer aquaculture as a field of specialization. Of this total 16 also offer graduate programmes leading to a master's or a doctoral degree in fisheries and aquaculture. In addition, 3 other universities (1 in Japan and 2 in China) give only graduate degees in fisheries and aquaculture.

The more prominent among these educational institutions are the following: Kagoshima University in Japan; Academia Sinica, Dalian Fisheries College, and Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen) University in China; the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV) College of Fisheries, Central Luzon State University (CLSU), and Mindanao State University in the Philippines; and the National Taiwan University Institute of Fishery Sciences in Taiwan PC.

Education and training facilities in these colleges and universities are, in general, more adequate than others within the same country. The teaching staff are more qualified and a number have graduate and post-graduate degrees in aquaculture themselves.

In Japan there are at least 15 national universities and 3 private universities with bachelor's degree programmes in fisheries and which also offer graduate programmes leading to a master's or a doctoral degree in fisheries. In China the prominent fishery educational institutes are supervised by the Ministry of Agriculture and include Shanghai Fisheries University, Xiamen Fisheries College, Zhanjiang Fisheries College, and Dalian Fisheries College. Other universities which have fisheries departments are supervised by the Ministry of Education.

Since 1981 the UPV College of Fisheries has been awarding senior aquaculturists participating in the FAO/NACA one year training programme with Master of Aquaculture degrees. Faculty are drawn from more than 20 agencies in the region and there are about 150 lecturers and resource persons involved. These include faculty members of UPV, researchers from SEAFDEC-AQD, BFAR, and other agencies in the Philippines. Scientists and fishery technologists of Kasetsart University and the Department of Fisheries in Thailand, and institutions in China and India also take part. The programme has awarded 231 degrees beween 1981 and 1986, of which 121 were international participants from NACA.

The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand has operated an aquaculture training programme since the 1970s. Recently Stirling University of UK seconded one staff member to AIT for this programme. AIT offers a post-graduate programme in tropical freshwater aquaculture. About 20 students are currently enrolled in the programme, and about one-third are specializing in aquaculture.

There is a variety of short term non-degree training courses offered at present in the different countries of the region - a number of which are open to international participants. The majority of short-term training programmes, however, cater to local technicians, field personnel, and private fish farmers. NACA and SEAFDEC-AQD have contributed much towards the training of professional personnel in the region, especially SEAFDEC-AQD in the 1970s when it was practically the only regional institution with capabilities in training.

The regional training course on integrated fish farming offered by China in the 1970s at the Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, and later at the Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre for Integrated Fish Farming at Wuxi in 1980s has also contributed to the development of integrated fish farming in many developing nations in Asia. Since the founding of the Wuxi Centre in 1978, more than 200 trainees from 16 countries have been trained at the Centre.

The short-term training courses given by various institutes in the region under the umbrella of FAO/UNDP, such as those offered in conjunction with the South China Sea Fisheries Coordinating and Development Programme and the FAO/ASEAN Small-scale Coastal Fisheries Development Programme, have likewise benefited many countries in the region. Together these regional training programmes have produced large manpower pools of better trained technical personnel who are now at the forefront of aquaculture development in their respective countries. NACA alone has so far (1988) trained 426 technicians including 286 who participated in different short-term courses and the rest (about 140) graduates of the senior aquaculturists' programme.

The SEAFDEC-AQD in the Philippines, in over a decade of existence, has provided training for more than 6 000 technicians, many from outside the region. The training programmes cover a wide range of topics, from techniques and methods, practical culture, to harvest and post-harvest handling. The approach also varies depending on the target group (aquaculture managers, senior aquaculturists, technicians, field workers, or fish farmers). Course duration likewise differs from two weeks to six months.

4.2 Manpower training in management

There are few opportunities for manpower training in aquaculture management in the region. Most of the training programmes focus on aquaculture production rather than the administration and management of aquaculture operations.

Some universities in the Philippines offer graduate courses in agribusiness management, and graduate students with technical fisheries/ aquaculture backgrounds frequently select topics on the business of aquaculture for their research theses; the University of the Philippines at Los Banos is one example of such an academic institution, and it also accepts students from other countries. There are private universities which offer programmes leading to post-graduate degrees in business administration and management, with possibilities for theses in aquaculture-related topics. Two universities in this category are Ateneo de Manila University and De La Salle University.

The Asian Institute of Management (AIM) is a regional academic institute based in Manila which offers only graduate programmes in business. AIM has degree programmes leading to a Master in Business Administration, which is a two-year course, and to a Master in Management, a one-year course. Only middle-level managers with several years of work experience are accepted in the courses. AIM also offers short-term training courses in various aspects of business management, including planning, development, and management for Government managers. Some of the project managers of Government agencies with foreign-funded projects, including those involving fisheries and aquaculture, are given training at AIM.

The ADB runs short workshops on project management for managers of ADB projects, including fisheries and aquaculture. Such workshops focus on ADB procedures but also touch on fund management/disbursement and related subjects.

SEAFDEC-AQD has collaborated with the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Agriculture to organize an Aquaculture Project Development and Management training course. This was designed specifically for aquaculture investors and entrepreneurs, and focused on management aspects with technical information given only for familiarization purposes.

In the Philippines there are a number of private corporations and foundations which offer short courses on aquaculture business management for feasibility study preparation and evaluation (for bankers and individuals involved in credit and lending). The Center for Research and Communications and the Economic Development Foundation are two examples.

4.3 Aquaculture research in the region

Most countries of the region have their own research facilities and aquaculture research programmes. These institutes are fisheries colleges, or universities, or research agencies established by the national governments specifically for the purpose of undertaking fisheries research.

The greatest research strength is in Japan. Japan has seven regional fisheries research laboratories, six of which (plus an additional two institutes) coordinate research on coastal aquaculture, and 100 prefectural fisheries research stations and branch laboratories. The most important among these is the National Research Institute of Aquaculture established in 1979 with six divisions and with excellent research facilities. Japan has individual laboratories for aquaculture disciplines, particularly fish pathology, which provide services to the industry.

In China there are at present 9 fisheries research institutes supervised by the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences. Of these, 3 are marine institutes (i.e. the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, and the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute); four are freshwater institutes (i.e. the Heilongjiang Fisheries Research Institute, the Changjiang Fisheries Research Institute, the Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, and the Wuxi Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre); one is the Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute, and one is the Fishery Engineering Research Institute. Coordination of fisheries research in the country is carried out through the Scientific and Technology Department of the Bureau of Aquatic Products, Ministry of Agriculture.

In addition to these nine fishery research institutes supervised by the Ministry of Agriculture, there are three research institutes supervised by the Chinese Academy of Science; these are the Zoology Research Institute in Beijing which deals with the classification of fish and biology: the Hydrobiology Research Institute in Wuihan which deals with basic research on taxonomy of aquatic animals, limnology and fish diseases; and the Oceanography Research Institute in Qingdao which conducts basic research on seaweeds and marine biology.

Major provinces and cities in China also have fisheries research institutes which conduct applied research in fisheries, and are supervised by the provincial or city bureau of aquatic products. For example, in Quingdao (Shandong Province) there is the Institute of Oceanology working on marine culture of algae, marine shrimp, flatfish, and sea bream. It is also working on the production of mussels and scallops. Although working mostly on culture and production it is interested in enhancement. The Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute is also working on marine culture with many of the same species with the exception of studies on fish. It concentrates on marine algae, marine shrimps, and molluscs, including clams and abalone. It also has a unit dealing with processing of aquaculture products.

In Shanghai Autonomous Region there is the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute. The Institute works on marine culture of algae spp. and clams, as well as abalone and scallops. In addition to marine shrimps it also works on crab. A number of studies are also being carried out on mullet and tilapia spp.

In Fuzhou (Fujian Province) there is the Freshwater Aquaculture Research Institute working on the freshwater prawn and a number of fish species, Including tilapias, carps, and catfish introduced from Egypt. In addition it carries out research in the disciplines of fish diseases and nutrition. In Zhangzhou there are a number of farms where applied research is carried out, such as the Aquatic Development Centre at Zhang Pu. Here the staff work closely with farmers on their problems, such as water management, broodstock management, spawning, propagation, feeding, etc. The Centre also provides loans to farmers, and there are close associations with farms producing freshwater eels, prawns, and scallops on the coast.

In Donghan (Fujian Province) there is the Marine Hot Springs Aquaculture Development Centre where marine shrimps are maintained in the geothermal waters under both experimental and production conditions. There is also an experimental Pacific oyster farm on Dongshan Island. The Dongshan Aquaculture Development Centre is involved in applied research and experimental culture of pearl oysters, marine shrimps, abalones, and scallops.

In Xiamen the Fujian Fisheries Institute has a number of departments of which the largest is for aquaculture. Work concentrates on marine shrimps, molluscs, and algae. The Department of Oceanography at the University of Xiamen works on the general biology of marine shrimps and clams, and behaviour of aquatic animals in cultured conditions. At the Fujian Institute of Oceanology the interests are marine shrimps, scallops, and algae at the Xiamen Experimental Station, and marine sites for aquaculture at the Gulangun Island Laboratory where there is scientific interest in planktonic organisms. At the Xiamen Fisheries College marine and freshwater aquaculture is one of four departments, and research is centred on management operations for marine shrimp production, and the culture of crabs and brackishwater fish.

In the Philippines both basic and applied research are carried out at the universities, most important among which are the UPV College of Fisheries Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, the UPV Institute of Fisheries Development and Research, the University of the Philippines Marine Science Center; the CLSU Freshwater Aquaculture Center, and Mindanao State University. Other fisheries colleges and universities in the country conduct their own aquaculture researches but on a much smaller scale, as do some other Government agencies which conduct specialized work in aquaculture. All research in fisheries and aquaculture is coordinated by the newly organized Philippine Council for Marine and Aquatic Resources Research and Development.

In Taiwan PC the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute under the Provincial Government is responsible for all phases of fisheries research, including fish culture and fish processing. It has four field stations, each concentrating on specific areas of culture, namely Chupei for freshwater fish culture; Lukang for mullet, eel, and oyster culture and tilapia breeding; Tainan for milkfish, shrimp, and Gracilaria culture; and Kaoshiung for fisheries technology. In addition the Tungkang Marine Laboratory operated by the Institute (originally established and maintained by a Rockefeller Foundation Grant through the Taiwan Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction) works on shrimp propagation and the culture and induced spawning of grey mullet.

Aquaculture research in Hong Kong is conducted by the Territorial Fisheries Division under four units: aquaculture, fisheries environment, fish culture, and fisheries regulation. The Freshwater Fish Culture Research Unit works on fish production of carps, tilapia, and freshwater prawn, and the Marine Fish Culture Research Unit on red groupers and marine shrimp. The Marine Science Laboratory of the Chinese University of Hong Kong undertakes marine culture research on seven species including penaeids, mussels, abalone, grouper, red bream, and tilapia. The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries research station at Kat O Chan works on induced spawning of green and red grouper, and black sea bream.

In Viet Nam the Institute of Shrimp Culture Research in Haiphong, established in 1974, does some research on shrimp culture. The Institut Pasteur and the Fisheries Research Laboratory of the Directorate of Fisheries carry out research on fish quality.

A number of regional and international research organizations operate in East Asia, the most notable of which are SEAFDEC-AQD, ICLARM, and NACA.

SEAFDEC-AQD conducts research mostly in brackishwater and freshwater aquaculture but recently announced greater emphasis on marine culture research. Its main research station is in Tigbauan, Iloilo, where it has been conducting research and development work on the jumbo tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, milkfish, and molluscs, mainly green mussels. Its freshwater research station is in Binangonan, Rizal (in the middle of Laguna Lake) for aquaculture and supportive limno-ecological research. SEAFDEC-AQD has made valuable contributions to the development of shrimp hatchery technology as well as in the development and refinement of technology of fish pen and cage culture. SEAFDEC-AQD has a staff of about 700 professional and support personnel, and a budget of about US$ 3 million per year.

ICLARM conducts research on specific aquaculture problems through collaboration with other research and/or academic institutions in the region. It has no research facilities of its own other than resource information. Through multilateral and bilateral agencies it obtains grants and contracts for collaborative research and provides senior specialists for joint research teams. ICLARM now has a Coastal Aquaculture Centre in the Solomon Islands and is planning to develop a Genetics Unit in the Philippines and an Integrated Farming Unit in Thailand. ICLARM's tilapia genetics research has been with CLSU and the Marine Science Institute of the University of the Philippines at Diliman. ICLARM is linked with SEAFDEC for the Asian Fisheries Social Science Research Network, of which SEAFDEC is a member. ICLARM, like SEAFDEC-AQD, publishes research results and findings in newsletters for circulation throughout the region, and in reports and books. Newest among these is the Asian Fisheries Society's Journal "Asian Fisheries Science" which includes aquaculture.

NACA is also involved in research and development through its network of four regional lead centres. These form the framework for research on a number of specific technologies; for example, the Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre for Chinese carps and integrated fish farming in China; the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute in India for Indian carps; the SEAFDEC-AQD for shrimp and milkfish; and the National Inland Fisheries Institute in Thailand for freshwater prawns, catfish, and other species endemic to Southeast Asia.

NACA has organized a regional research programme on fish disease in which 18 scientists from 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region are coordinating their work to find a solution to a regional epidemic in cultured fish. NACA has also developed a programme for the secondment of junior scientists to research centres. The secondment programme is designed to build up research capabilities of NACA-member countries by providing them with in-service training in research methodologies in which the host centre has expertise.

The AIT Aquaculture Programme has several grants and contracts for research projects with emphasis on low-cost, low-energy systems. Priority is given to fish low on the food chain with low production costs which make them appropriate for small-scale farming.

4.4 Management of credit

The organization and management of credit and the provision of financial services to the fisheries sector, including aquaculture, is a major concern of most governments in the region. A number of countries (e.g., Japan, Hong Kong, China, the Philippines and Taiwan PC) have Government-supervised credit facilities and various lending programmes in support of the production sub-sector. Private commercial financing institutions (mainly banks and some investment houses) also provide credit for aquaculture development.

Credit in Japan is administered by the Japan Fisheries Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries Finance Corporation for Government loans. These are more advantageous to fish farmers than commercial banks. The Government also guarantees loans issued by commercial banks to small-scale fish farmers with poor credit ratings (no collateral) and who would otherwise, without Government guarantees, be ineligible. Loans are also available from other sources, such as the Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation which is a non-profit organization for the promotion and support of fisheries development. It supports private sector cooperation projects in fisheries. Foundation loans are provided to Japanese firms or organizations with projects overseas in which they are involved as partners of joint ventures. Loans are either interest-free loans for procurement of facilities and equipment to be transferred to foreign governments, or low-interest loans to be used for capital investment in overseas joint venture projects.

In China the State provides financial assistance to production in the form of loans or credit based on its priority in the national or regional economic development plan and socio-economic and ecological benefits. Over 30% of the funds required in development are usually self-accumulated, with the balance supplemented by loans or credit from a bank. Credit is channelled through the cooperatives in the various localities, which are linked to the China Agricultural Bank, the main banking system involved in fisheries credit.

Hong Kong has the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund from which low-interest loans are provided to producer farms for capital and operating costs. These loans are supervised loans, i.e. Government fisheries extension personnel visit the farmers regularly to find out how the loan funds are being utilized, monitor their progress of construction and operation, and in general, ensure that the loans are properly used and repaid in due time.

In the Philippines the various Government fisheries credit programmes have traditionally been supervised by Government banks, mainly the DBP, the Central Bank of the Philippines, the Philippine National Bank, and the Land Bank of the Philippines jointly with the fisheries executing agency, usually BFAR. DBP has the most extensive involvement in aquaculture credit disbursement and supervision. It has a national network of provincial offices and a complement of fisheries field workers.

4.5 Associations of professionals in the region

Professionals in the region have access to membership in professional organizations (regional, national, and local) in their respective countries.

The Asian Fisheries Society which was organized in 1987 is based at the ICLARM offices in Manila. It is open to all fisheries professionals in Asia. The Society had its first large scientific meeting in Manila in 1987 which was attended by fisheries professionals, including a significant number of aquaculturists.

Within each country there are national or local associations or societies which are open to membership for aquaculture specialists; for example, there is the Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines. Like others it holds an annual convention which serves as a forum for exchange of experiences in aquaculture, and sponsors small workshops on special topics of interest to aquaculture on a regular basis.

Many professionals in Asia are members of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS). This society is based in the USA and disseminates scientific research information and arranges annual conferences. An affiliate of WAS is the EAS, based in Belgium; this society also has members from the region and arranges conferences in which the development of aquaculture in Asia is often discussed. Membership is individual or commercial, and materials can also be obtained through library membership. Many of these professionals obtained their postgraduate education or training abroad and joined the aquaculture societies in the regions where they studied.

4.6 Information for professionals

Aquaculture professionals in the region have access to a rich variety of information sources in the form of published material of all kinds (technical/scientific, semi-technical journals, newsletters, magazines, agency annual and progress reports, hand-outs, brochures, among others); audio-visual aids (e.g., slides, film strips); data bases (e.g. ASFIS); and even workshops, seminars, and various conferences.

Most of the technical and scientific journals published within the region by SEAFDEC-AQD, ICLARM, IDRC, FAO/UNDP, and ESCAP, to name a few, are available in the main libraries within each country. These libraries also have the international journals like "Aquaculture" on their shelves and professionals can have their own copies through subscription.

SEAFDEC publications include those produced by the Secretariat in Thailand and those published by the three different departments. The former include a quarterly newsletter; Fishery Statistical Bulletins for the South China Sea Area (which include statistics on aquaculture production volumes and values); and a Directory of Scientists and Technologists in the fields of fisheries research, development, and management in the Southeast Asian region. The SEAFDEC-AQD in the Philippines produces research papers, technical reports, extension manuals, a newsletter, and "Aqua Farm News". The SEAFDEC-AQD library maintains a good collection of scientific literature as well as other published materials in the fields of aquaculture. The library maintains over 250 subscriptions to journals in fisheries and aquaculture, and has over 8 000 volumes. It also has audio-visual materials (film strips) on various aquaculture production methods and systems.

ICLARM has a well-developed Information Programme comprising a special library, publications unit, and research projects. ICLARM has 7 technical publications series:

(i) Studies and Reviews,
(ii) Conference Proceedings,
(iii) Technical Reports,
(iv) Bibliographies,
(v) Translations,
(vi) Education,
(vii) Software,

as well as six Newsletters, and the quarterly magazine NAGA. A Selective Fisheries Information Service provides in-depth answers to enquiries from researchers. The ICLARM library maintains an up-to-date collection of material relating to fisheries and aquaculture in tropical countries. Its book and monograph holdings exceed 8 000 volumes; there are 650 serial titles and 3 400 reprints. A microfiche reader/printer is available. Databases from other organizations such as FAO, US National Agricultural Library, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, can be searched online by the library's modern link, Two electronic mail services are used to facilitate overseas retrieval. The CD-ROM version of the major aquaculture database, FAO's ASFA, is also available.

IDRC in Singapore publishes scientific monographs and technical reports as well as more general materials on aquaculture and aquaculture research. There are also printed and audio-visual materials, including films and slides, relating to IDRC projects in developing countries.

There are a number of smaller libraries in the Asia region to which professionals have access. For example, the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and the NACA office, both in Thailand, as well as the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (BIOTROP) library in Bogor, Indonesia all provide fisheries scientists with information. The National Inland Fisheries Institute in Thailand has a collection of papers on aquaculture but many are written in Thai with abstracts in English.

The libraries in the important fisheries academies and research institutes in Japan and China are rich sources of information on aquaculture but much is in Japanese and Chinese.

Professionals have access to a considerable volume of information about aquaculture because of their access to the Mediterranean and European regions, and also to North America. These are usually through library membership, individual membership, or personal subscription.

The EAS based in Belgium publishes a regular Newsletter for members which also contains the contents of some abstracts of the more important aquaculture journals. It also publishes special volumes on aquaculture technology available at reduced rates to members. The EAS is an affiliate of the WAS which is based in the USA, and members have reciprocal benefits. The WAS produces the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society which is free to members.

The other specialist journals on aquaculture are obtained on subscription. These are Aquaculture (the Netherlands), Aquaculture and Fisheries Management (UK), Aquaculture Engineering (UK), Bamidgeh/Journal of Aquaculture (Israel), Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture (France), Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Canada), Diseases of Aquatic Organisms (Federal Republic of Germany), Journal of Fish Biology (UK), Journal of Fish Diseases (UK), Progressive Fish Culturist (USA), Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (USA), etc.

The largest resource of information for scientists and technical professionals in the sector is FAO in Rome, Italy. FAO produces a series of publications many of which are specific to aquaculture. These are FAO Fisheries Reports, FAO Fisheries Technical Papers, and FAO Fisheries Synopses. All titles are categorized and lists are regularly produced. Some documents are free and others are sold at cost. It also maintains a large serial collection on all subjects related to fish and fisheries received from fisheries institutes, government departments, and commercial publishers throughout the world. It also maintains a special collection of documents on a country basis, and subject files.

FAO maintains a database in which aquaculture information can be found. ASFA is an international bibliographic database providing comprehensive coverage of publications on the science, technology, and management of marine and freshwater environments. The database can be searched via terminals and personal computers to retrieval systems in Europe and North America; the database is also available on compact disc. Aquaculture Abstracts from ASFA are available in printed form through subscription.

ICLARM and SEAFDEC-AQD maintain ASFA-I (Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts), BRAIS (Brackishwater Aquaculture Information System), and SEAFIS (Southeast-Asian Fisheries Information Service).

At ICLARM the DIALOG system of over 120 databases can be searched interactively through a teletype facility. The SEAFDEC Secretariat in Thailand has established a Fisheries Information Service which is a clearing house for extension materials for small-scale fishermen and fish farmers in Southeast Asia.

4.7 Technical assistance projects in the sub-sector

External funding for aquaculture research and training continues to be abundant in the region on account of the presence of the regional research organizations which receive numerous research grants from various donors. The Government of Japan has directly supported the work of SEAFDEC-AQD for almost twenty years. Although now funded mostly by the Philippine Government SEAFDEC-AQD is the beneficiary of funding assistance from JICA, and it receives technical assistance from IDRC, DANIDA, the FAO/UNDP, and USAID through the Oceanic Institute of Hawaii, among others. Many donors support collaborative research work through SEAFDEC and other organizations, such as ICLARM.

The ADB is active in providing technical assistance in the conduct of research on aquaculture and related fields. ADB has provided funds for the Environmental Reassessment Study of Laguna de Bay to validate and update the findings of an earlier FAO/UNDP/UNEP study on the water quality of the Lake, in support of the fisheries development programme of the Laguna Lake Development Authority.

ADB has approved a technical assistance grant on tilapia genetics research to be executed by ICLARM in collaboration with three Philippine-based agencies, including SEAFDEC and CLSU. A technical assistance grant for integrated rice-fish farming has also been approved by the Bank for implementation also by ICLARM and CLSU, and the International Rice Research Institute.

IDRC provides funds for a six-country fish genetics network in Canada, India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Canada also contributes aquaculture personnel and facilities at the Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Many donors, now numbering 21 in all, support the collaborative research of ICLARM. The Centre's aquaculture research programme, one of three programme areas of ICLARM, focuses on coastal aquaculture (specifically bivalve molluscs), genetics (specifically of tilapias and carps), and integrated farming systems. While ICLARM's aquaculture programme has been centred in Southeast Asia, with particularly strong links with institutions in the Philippines and Thailand, it has now expanded to the South Pacific and to southern Africa. ICLARM also coordinates two aquaculture-related networks -the Asian Fisheries Social Science Research Network and the Network of Tropical Aquaculture Scientists.

The Government of France contributes to the SEAFIS database and provides funds for on-the-job training for documentation specialists at the Asian Institute of Technology.

UNDP technical assistance in the sub-sector is mainly through support for the activities of NACA at its regional Lead Centres, of which SEAFDEC-AQD is one, and the Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre at Wuxi, China is another.

The International Foundation for Science (Sweden) supports a number of researchers in the region. In China it provides two scholarships for work on fish reproduction and genetics, and hybridization of shrimp. In the Philippines it is awarding eight scholarships for many aspects of aquaculture from fish nutrition, seaweed culture, and farming systems with animal husbandry. In Viet Nam it has two scholarships for artificial reproduction of catfish and nutrition of crustaceans.

In Korea the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (Japan) has provided research equipment to the Fisheries Research Development Agency; and Japan provides a considerable amount of research equipment to SEAFDEC-AQD in the Philippines.

The Overseas Development Administration (UK) supports complementary research activities in the UK and in the region, and has a joint project in the Philippines on tilapia genetics at the University College of Swansea (UK).

4.8 Capital assistance projects in the sub-sector

Capital funds have been provided by multilateral and bilateral agencies for the construction and equipping of a number of research facilities in the region.

The facilities of the SEAFDEC-AQD were constructed primarily with funds from the Government of Japan, but also some other donors. The Tungkang Marine Laboratory in Taiwan PC was constructed through a Rockefeller Foundation grant to the Taiwan Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction.

The NACA Regional Lead Centre in China was equipped by UNDP and IDRC.

The CLSU Freshwater Aquaculture Centre in the Philippines was an Inland Fisheries Project of the Philippines with USAID capital support. The research facilities were constructed by USAID with additional equipment provided by JICA and IDRC.

BFAR's National Freshwater Fisheries Center was also constructed as a joint project of the Philippine Government and USAID.

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