Fats and oils in human nutrition

Table of contents



Report of a joint expert consultation

Organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization Rome, 19-26 October 1993

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103621-7

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FAO 1994


Reviewers and contributors
Chapter 1 : Introduction
General conclusions and recommendations of the consultation

Minimum desirable intakes of fats and oils
Upper limits of fat/oil intakes
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol
Isomeric fatty acids
Substances associated with fats and oils
Essential fatty acids
Scientific and programmatic needs

Chapter 2 : Composition of dietary fat

Fatty acids
Other components

Chapter 3 : Aspects of fat digestion and metabolism

Digestion, absorption and transport
Metabolism of fatty acids
Essential fatty acids
Biological roles
Oxidation of fatty acids

Chapter 4 : Global trends in the availability of edible fats and oils

Current consumption of fat
Factors explaining consumption trends
Shifts in fat consumption

Chapter 5 : Processing and refining edible oils

Rural vegetable oil production
Large-scale production
Potential side reactions during high-temperature processing
Physical losses
Fat modification processes
Other considerations

Chapter 6 : Selected uses of fats and oils in food

Cooking oils
Salad oils
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)

Chapter 7 : Lipids in early development

Maternal nutrition
Preconceptional nutrition
Infant nutrition

Chapter 8 : Health, obesity and energy values of dietary fat

Health risks associated with obesity
Causes of obesity
Energy values of fat
Fat substitutes

Chapter 9 : Coronary heart disease and lipoproteins

Epidemiology and experimental evidence
Dietary fat and serum lipids
Specific fatty acids and cholesterol
Dietary effects on lipoproteins
Trans fatty acids

Chapter 10 : Isomeric fatty acids

Occurrence in diets
Metabolic effects in animals
Human studies
Pregnancy and lactation

Chapter 11 : Cancer and dietary fat

Intervention studies
Dietary fat and cancer of the breast and colon
Animal experiments
Cancer at other sites

Chapter 12 : Dietary fat and immune response

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

Chapter 13 : Dietary fat, hypertension and stroke

Cholesterol and total fat
Fatty acids

Chapter 14 : Non - glyceride constituents of fats

Fat-soluble vitamins

Chapter 15 : Nutrition labeIling


Annex : National indices of dietary fat supplies
Bibliography(A - K)
Bibliography(L - Z)
FAO technical papers