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Preparation of This Document

This document contains an edited and slightly revised version of a previously published integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) technology information kit1. In response to expressed need for wider distribution, but limited copies of the original document, this reprint was produced. The activity was initiated and supported by an FAO team led by Dr. Ziad Shehadeh, and seen through to finalization in the framework of the integrated agriculture-aquaculture activities of Dr. Matthias Halwart of the Fishery Resources Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The original version of the information kit was externally reviewed by four IAA experts: Mr. Weimin Miao (Wuxi, People's Republic of China), Dr. Le Thanh Luu (Hanoi, Viet Nam), Dr. Dilip Kumar (Bangkok, Thailand) and Dr. David C. Little (Stirling, Scotland). Their reviews, together with comments and information contributed by other experts, were synthesized and implemented where possible and of use, given the objectives of reprinting and the resources available.

In October 2000, a publications team to finalize the document was assembled on the campus of IIRR in Cavite, Philippines, consisting of Ms. Marie Sol Sadorra-Colocado (Editor), Ms. Florisa Norina Luna-Carada (Senior DTP/Layout), Mr. Ivan Roy Mallari (Junior DTP/Layout), Mr. Rizalino S. Bautista (Junior DTP/Layout), Ms. Ely G. Lumdang (Proofreader/Encoder), Mr. Ricardo E. Cantada (Artist/Draftsperson) and Ms. Lilibeth V. Mercado (Encoder/Publications Clerk). The team was supervised by Dr. Mark Prein (ICLARM), Dr. Matthias Halwart (FAO) and Dr. Julian Gonsalves (IIRR).

The FAO editorial style was implemented. Where applicable, figures and tables were revised, redrawn or modified, and in few cases omitted to improve clarity of presentation. As far as these were known, errors were corrected. In contrast to the first version in 1992, this version was prepared for printing fully electronically.

The entire document is intended to be available for downloading from the FAO fisheries website (

The cover diagram shows a hypothetical rural smallholder farm with multiple enterprises and examples of bioresource-flows, i.e. intentionally farmer-managed and farmer-moved plant and animal wastes from enterprises, which act as nutrient inputs to other enterprises, thereby enhancing their productivity. Wastes can be from on-farm and off-farm sources. Aside from waste recycling, non-waste off-farm nutrient inputs such as fertilizers and feeds can play a role, particularly when production capacity is to be increased. For the sake of visual presentability, not all possible flows are shown, as the decision about which wastes to recycle and to which enterprise these should be added, is up to the farmers based on their agroecological and socioeconomic situation. Therefore, only some examples of within-farm nutrient flows are shown, excluding those of off-farm nutrient inputs, flows of wastes leaving the farm, and flows of products to the household for home consumption and to off-farm markets (drawing by Ricardo E. Cantada, designed by Mark Prein).

1 IIRR and ICLARM (eds.). 1992. Farmer-proven integrated agriculture-aquaculture: a technology information kit. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Makati, Philippines.

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