食品安全

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This paper compiles the state of knowledge on fish safety and quality with the view to providing a succinct yet comprehensive resource book for risk and fish quality managers. After an introduction to world fish production and consumption and the developments in safety and quality systems, it provides a detailed review of the hazards that cause public health concerns in fish and fish products. Several chapters are devoted to risk mitigation and management tools, with a detailed description of the requirements for the implementation of the Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and of the monitoring programmes to control biotoxins, pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and chemical pollutants. Chapters on the use...
2004
A joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Animals, including Fish was held at the Headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome from 17 to 21 November 2003. The objective of this Consultation was to provide scientific advice to FAO/WHO and their Member Governments on the safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified animals, including fish (hereafter "GM animals"). The Consultation focused on discussing what strategies are appropriate and applicable to the food safety assessment of GM animals. Additionally, it addressed specific issues originating from the production of GM animals as well as environmental and ethical issues. The Consultation did not address all environmental issues...
2004
Listeria monocytogenes is widely dispersed in the environment and foods, and is capable of growing even at refrigeration temperatures. Foodborne listeriosis, although relatively rare, is a clinically serious disease with a high case-fatality rate that largely affects specific higher-risk segments of the population. Cases of listeriosis appear to be predominately associated with ready-to-eat products. FAO and WHO have undertaken a risk assessment to addresses the risk of listeriosis associated with such foods and to answer specific risk management questions posed by the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH). This volume provides a summary of that risk assessment. The interpretative summary includes an overview of the risk assessment with a particular focus on information that would be relevant to risk managers...
2004
Listeria monocytogenes is widely dispersed in the environment and foods, and is capable of growing even at refrigeration temperatures. Foodborne listeriosis, although relatively rare, is a clinically serious disease with a high case-fatality rate that largely affects specific higher-risk segments of the population. Cases of listeriosis appear to be predominately associated with ready-to-eat products. This volume addresses the risk of listeriosis associated with such foods. It has been prepared and reviewed by an international group of experts, with input from FAO/WHO expert consultations, the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, and peer and public review. The sections in this volume include data and methodology relevant to the four steps of risk assessment � hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization and risk...
2004
In recent years, public concern about the safety of foods of animal origin has heightened due to problems that have arisen with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), as well as with outbreaks of food-borne bacterial infections, and food contamination with toxic agents (e.g. dioxin). These problems have serious implications for national food safety, the development of the animal products industry and for international trade in livestock products. The purpose of this manual on Good practices for the meat industry is to provide updated comprehensive information and practical guidelines for the implementation of the new Code of hygienic practice for meat, when adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The publication is intended to guide managers of abattoirs and the meat industry. It...
2004
This paper provides an extensive review of different aspects of five shellfish poisoning syndromes (paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, neurologic shellfish poisoning, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning), as well as one fish poisoning syndrome (ciguatera fish poisoning). Various aspects of these poisoning syndromes are discussed in detail including the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods of the toxins, habitat and occurrence of the toxin producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations. Based on this analysis, risk assessments are carried out for each of these different toxins, and recommendations elaborated to better manage these risks in order to reduce the harmful effect of these toxins on public health.
2004
Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs, as well as to ensure fair practices in food trade. Various factors play a role in decision-making processes focused on setting limits for mycotoxins. The last comprehensive overview on worldwide regulations was published as the FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64 in 1997. At that time, 77 countries had specific regulations for mycotoxins in different foods and feeds and 13 countries had general provisions, while about 50 countries did not have data available. The number of countries with specific regulations for mycotoxins has increased over the years. This reflects the general...
2004
Microorganisms, and in particular Enterobacter sakazakii, in powdered infant formula are considered to be an emerging public health issue. This issue was recently brought to the attention of the Codex Alimentarius, which has decided to revise its Recommended International Code of Hygienic Practices for Foods for Infants and Children in order to address concerns raised by pathogens that may be present in infant formula. FAO and WHO convened an expert meeting with the objective of providing scientific advice to facilitate this revision process. This volume reports on the findings of that meeting. E. sakazakii has caused disease in all age groups. Statistics indicate that infants, in particular pre-term, underweight or immunocompromised infants, are at greatest risk. Powdered infant formula is...
2004