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Appendix I: Group Discussion Points
Appendix II: Oakley Indicators of Group Development
Appendix III: People Interviewed
Appendix IV: Individual Statements Regarding PPP

Appendix I: Group Discussion Points

1. Current activities

* what income generating and social activities is the group currently engaged in?
* what projects are currently underway or being planned for the near future?
2. Projects undertaken in the past three years
* what projects has the group undertaken since PPP closed in 1986?
3. Changes in group membership
* how has membership changed of the years 1987-1989?

* what is the current composition of males and females?

* what factors explain turnover of members over time?

* has the group resolved problems of size, new membership, and how to dismiss members who do not abide by the rules?

4. Bylaws and governing structure
* does the group have bylaws? If so, what subject areas do they cover?
* how are bylaws amended?
* do participants abide by the rules? If not, what are the sanctions?
* how are important decisions made?
* is the group happy with its leader? Is there a process to remove him/her?
* has a leader ever been removed? If so, why?
* what systems are in place to resolve conflicts? (get information by posing problems to groups)
5. Finances, savings and credit
* what are the rules governing revenue, savings and expenditures?
* what internal control measures exist?
* are records accessible and understandable to all members?
* does the group have a savings account? With the bank or a group treasurer?
* has the group taken out any loans in the past three years? If so, from whom and for what purpose?
* does the group give loans to its members? If so, in what form and how are they repaid?
* how are losses and gains distributed?
* how is produce marketed?
6. Women’s participation
* how do women participate in the group? (specify activities)

* are women vocal in the presence of men?

* do women hold leadership posts? If so, which ones?

* do women’s plans or needs differ from the group’s? If so, what resources are available to them and what impediments do they face?

7. Enabling linkages
* what linkages does the group have with other organizations (MRDSSY, MANRF, CAF, BPRDP, CCD, CES, BARCLAYS, etc.)?

* how have these organizations assisted the group?

* how often do extension agents visit the group?

* has the group entered into any IGA relationships? If so, for what purpose?

8. Monitoring and evaluation
* does the group keep a record book? What information recorded in it?
* are records accessible and understandable to all group members?
* who maintains the records?
* are the books used for monitoring and planning purposes?
9. Replication
* does the group know of others who have started a group modeled on PPP principles?

* what do individuals outside of PPP think of PPP?

* do non-PPP groups/people seek the assistance of the PPP group in organizing themselves? If so, in what way?

10. General topics
* are the groups goals clearly defined and prioritized? What is planned for next year?

* does the group undertake new projects on its own? If so, they in line with PPP objectives?

* do leaders feel sufficiently trained to carry out their duties? What additional training do they feel would be helpful?

* what are the main obstacles to the group’s achieving its goals?

* what do members perceive to be the main benefits and drawbacks of group participation?

* what factors make a group succeed or fail?

Appendix II: Oakley Indicators of Group Development

Stage One: Group Characteristics

a. genuine and spontaneous participation in group meetings
b. emerging feeling of group purpose and solidarity
c. positive and regular interactions between group members
d. awareness of issues and problems
e. enthusiasm and support of group activities.
Stage Two: Self-Reliance
a. groups themselves meet/discuss to identify problems and propose solutions
b. ability of groups to plan and organize group activities
c. reduction of group dependence on field staff for (a) and (b).
Stage Three: Independence
a. organizational growth and development of the group
b. ability of group to progress without field staff
c. establish contacts with other agencies
d. linking up with other groups
e. formalization of group organizational structure, e.g. cooperative.

Appendix III: People Interviewed

I.B. Kamara, Director, National Training Center

M.S. Kanneh, Assistant Chief Social Development Officer, MRDSSY

Mrs. N’jai, Chief Social Development Officer, MRDSSY

Mustafa Dabo, Zone Supervisor, MRDSSY/Bo

Harold Rodgers, Zone Supervisor, MRDSSY/Bo

Angela Koroma, SDW, MRDSSY/Bo

Foday Mansaray, Farmers’ Associations Officer, FAO Inland Valley Swamp Development Project, Moyamba

Lawrence Buani, SDW, Coordinator of Small Farmers and Community Development Initiatives, MRDSSY/Kailahun

Mr. Kallon, Social Development Officer, MRDSSY/Pujehun

James Sandi, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Agnes Minah, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Betty Minah, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Paul Bundu, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Jaia Lamin, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Mamei Koroma, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Henry Kondar, Agro-technician, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Anna Fofanah, SDW, Women’s Coordinator, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Janet Kamara, SDW, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Michael Sundifu, Zone Supervisor, MRDSSY/Pujehun

Brima Ngombi, Agricultural Officer, MANRF/Pujehun

Berth Adema, Team Leader, CES

Philip Walker, Associate Director, CCD

James Patewa, Director, CCD

David Koroma, Director, FALP

Mr. Cole, Manager, Barclays Bank/Pujehun

John Musa, Director, Agricultural Department, Barclays Bank

Mrs. Tholley, Director, Growth Center/Pujehun

Hans J. Bosel, Director, CAF Programme, BPRDP

Naomi Robinson, Coordinating Officer, CAF Programme/Pujehun

Eunice Kallon, Fisheries Division/Pujehun

John Karimu, Rural Development Officer, BPRDP

Barry Haggarty, Communications Officer, BPRDP

Approximately 987 group leaders and group members participated in discussion sessions.

Appendix IV: Individual Statements Regarding PPP

There is a marked difference in Pujehun in the way people view themselves - a spirit of communal work exists where PPP functioned. M.S. Kanneh

(PPP) has greatly helped to give women an increased role in development and in leadership. Naomi Robinson

The success of BPRDP in this area is largely based on PPP groups. Mr. Kallon

PPP staff are equipped with knowledge and training to make excellent social workers. Foday Mansaray

(PPP) assisted many groups to increase production and self-esteem. I.B. Kamara

If you are in a group you will benefit. Without group work there is no development. Group Member, Foindu

Group work has brought unity and cooperation, the ability to solve small social problems and divisions within the village, and has helped to attract money for large projects. Group Member, Yaubu

Cooperation has drawn the attention of development agencies to our town. Group Member, Walima

Being in a group has increased access to inputs, built community pride and motivation and increased cooperation. Group Members, Tongay

We get ahead through our own effort. Group Member, Tambiyama

(We) have the respect of men - work together - play and joke in common. Female Group Member, Tambiyama

Organizing ourselves as a productive group has helped us to cut the ropes of hunger and debt. Group Member, Tambiyama

FAO was the only organization to help the poor; other organizations helped only who they reached (large, wealthy farmers, “big men”). Group Member, Mongeray

Working together gives us unity, security and power (to undertake developmental activities). Group Member, Gandorhun

One tree does not make a forest. Female Members singing, Kengema

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