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PREPARATION OF THE FIRST REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES

GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTRY REPORTS


These Guidelines are for use in assisting the development of Country Reports as strategic policy documentation covering the state of animal genetic resources, of the art and capacity to manage these resources, and of country needs and priorities.

The Guidelines serve to help support conduct of the country-driven State of the World Process for Animal Genetic Resources, preparation for which is being co-ordinated globally by FAO. The Country Reports will serve as the formative documentation in this Process and the involvement of all stakeholders in the development of these Reports is strongly encouraged.

A broad range of experts and of countries have contributed to developing the Guidelines, which are designed for use in conjunction with the State of the World Reporting Module of the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System http://www.fao.org/dad-is/ following training and in-country coordination of action.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

II. BACKGROUND, CONTEXT AND MANDATE

III. PROPOSED OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND STRUCTURE OF COUNTRY REPORTS

IV. THE INTERACTIVE PROCESS OF PREPARATION OF THE COUNTRY REPORT

V. COUNTRY REPORT PREPARATION

VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT SUGGESTIONS


ANNEX 1 BACKGROUND QUESTIONS TO SUPPORT PREPARATION OF COUNTRY REPORTS

ANNEX 2. WORKING DEFINITIONS FOR USE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY REPORTS AND PROVIDING SUPPORTING DATA


I. INTRODUCTION

1. Genetic resources are among the most valuable and strategically important assets that a country possesses. Many countries have indigenous animal species and breeds that could potentially contribute far more to food and agriculture production than they are currently contributing and meet much wider human needs. The FAO and its inter-governmental Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), which has 161 members and is the major international forum for developing policies on genetic resources for food and agriculture, has requested the preparation, through a country-driven process, of the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This report will provide a foundation for setting country, regional and global priorities and assistance in maintaining and enhancing the contribution of animal genetic resources (AnGR) to food and agriculture.

2. The ultimate objective of this exercise is to develop national capacities and international co-operation to achieve the sustainable intensification of livestock production systems. This will be achieved through the wise use and development of locally adapted AnGR, whilst taking into consideration the constraints and opportunities created by growing demands on the livestock sector and by changing climate, disease status and technologies.

3. These Guidelines are intended to help countries develop their Country Reports on AnGR, which will provide the foundation for the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources. The task is to go beyond description of the resources: to analyze and report on the state of these resources and capacities to manage them, and to draw lessons from past experiences and identify problems and priorities. It also provides an important opportunity to look to the future for predicting needs, demands, trends, and national capacity building requirements in all aspects of the management of AnGR. While it is essential to understand the state of the resources and management capacities, Country Reports must also assess the underlying policies that affect both the resources and the existing capacity to manage them.

II. BACKGROUND, CONTEXT AND MANDATE

4. In 1990, FAO's Council recommended the preparation of a comprehensive programme for the sustainable management of AnGR at the global level. A meeting of experts in 1992, and subsequent sessions of FAO's governing bodies, provided the impetus to initiate the development of the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources (Global Strategy) in 1993. The signing of UNCED Agenda 21 and the ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity further encouraged the development and design of the Global Strategy. In 1995, the FAO Committee on Agriculture reviewed the early development process and the Council supported the Strategy, accepting the need to involve the broad spectrum of stakeholders and the need for additional funds from extra-budgetary sources to ensure its successful further development and implementation.

5. Within FAO, the mandate of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources was broadened in 1995, by including AnGR. In 1996, the importance of AnGR and the Global Strategy were recognized at both the World Food Summit and the third meeting of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The FAO Conference requested the Director-General to establish an Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Animal Genetic Resources, which met on 7-9 January 1997, to prepare for the future work of an Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The Ad Hoc Group stressed the importance of establishing a strong intergovernmental mechanism to facilitate and promote better management of AnGR at global, regional and national levels. At the Seventh Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), in May 1997, the Commission agreed to establish a subsidiary Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITWG-AnGR). The Working Group was given the mandate to provide recommendations on the further development of the Global Strategy to the Eighth Regular Session of the Commission in 1999 (see Table 1 for a schema of the Strategy's constituents).

6. The Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture met for the first time on 8-10 September 1998. The Working Group recommended:

`That FAO co-ordinate the development of a country-driven Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, that could provide an assessment of countries' animal genetic resources programmes and the state of domestic animal resources.'

7. The Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources also agreed on the need for preparation of guidelines, in consultation with countries, to be used for the collection and assembly of existing data and information for the Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources. They also recommended the further development of the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) to assist countries in the reporting process.

8. FAO's CGRFA, the Committee on Agriculture and Council subsequently endorsed these recommendations.

9. Moreover, at its 5th conference, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity, endorsed the multi-year work programme on agricultural biological diversity (through decision V/5 on agricultural biological diversity), thus contributing to implementation of COP decision III/11. The four elements of the programme of work, namely Assessments, Adaptive Management, Capacity Building and Mainstreaming have been developed "bearing in mind the need to build upon existing international plans of action, programmes and strategies that have been agreed by countries". It specifically notes the role of the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources process will directly contribute to the implementation of this decision.

10. Preparation of these Guidelines has resulted from a consultative process. FAO began the process by convening a number of informal working sessions of experts that were asked for their advice on both the design and content of the Guidelines. Based on this advice, FAO prepared draft guidelines that were then sent to National Coordinators for AnGR for their review and requesting their written comments. An orientation workshop, held in September 2000, involved National Coordinators from all regions of the world, other country experts, FAO staff and supporting consultants, who further reviewed the draft guidelines. Comments received from the National Coordinators and the advice from workshop participants were incorporated into an information document that was made available to the second Session of the ITWG-AnGR, also held in September 2000.

11. During its second Session, the ITWG-AnGR made several recommendations regarding the preparation of Country Reports. They recommended early completion of the Guidelines and of core DAD-IS functionality to assist countries prepare their Country Reports. The ITWG-AnGR also recommended that all countries that have not yet done so, should identify their National Focal Point, and, where necessary, establish Regional Focal Points to facilitate preparation of Country Reports.

12. The Country Report will be an official government report. In order for FAO to use the Country Report as an input to the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, the Country Report must have been endorsed by each country's national government.

III. PROPOSED OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND STRUCTURE OF COUNTRY REPORTS

A. OBJECTIVES

13. The overall objectives of the Country Reports, and ultimately of the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, are:

  1. to analyze and report on the state of AnGR, on the status and trends of these resources, and on their current and potential contribution to food, agriculture and rural development;
  2. to assess the state of the country's capacity to manage these essential resources, in order to determine priorities for future capacity building; and
  3. to identify the national priorities for action in the field of sustainable conservation and utilization of AnGR and related requirements for international co-operation.

14. The specific objectives of the Country Report should reflect the particular problems and needs of the country. These objectives are intended to appeal to the widest range of interest in AnGR in order to communicate the need for stakeholder involvement in the preparation of the Country Report. All of them may not be achievable in the short term, or be applicable in all countries. The intent of the specific objectives is to convey a broad understanding of the advantages of preparing a Country Report. The specific objectives are:

B. SCOPE OF THE COUNTRY REPORT AND ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED

15. The first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources will address those Avian and Mammalian species that are of interest to food and agriculture. The populations within each species can be classified as wild populations, feral populations, and breeds, including the populations described as landraces, varieties, selected lines, primary populations, standardized breeds, and any in vivo and in vitro conserved genetic material of those populations.

16. Countries may wish to address species other than avian and mammalian species of interest to food and agriculture, to meet their own needs in preparing their Country Reports, but these species will not be addressed in the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources. It is recommended that Country Reports, in addition to the AnGR themselves, also address in context:

While the report is not intended to describe all the facets of the animal production sector of the country, it should highlight those aspects, which are directly relevant to understanding, using, developing, and conserving AnGR.

17. In line with the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources (Table 1), the range of activities to be addressed in the Country Report should go beyond the diverse activities of conservation of AnGR both in situ and ex situ, their characterization and evaluation. It should also cover their use in production systems and for genetic improvement in livestock development, the related research and technology development and transfer, education and training, the information systems on AnGR (including early warning and reaction mechanisms and related emergency operations), and the national institutional and regulatory framework in which these activities are taking place (for the definitions of these terms, see Annex 2). These activities should not be confined to those of the public sector but include all the stakeholders concerned with AnGR: the private sector, NGOs and in particular, farmers' associations.

18. Although the range of activities and stakeholders to be covered in the Country Report is quite broad, it is not intended to seek new information, for example by further field surveying of or research on breeds or further developing breed utilization activities. Rather, the country status report should draw largely on existing data, which would be collated and analyzed, using the many different sources available from the diverse stakeholders in the country.

19. Moreover, it is recommended that the descriptive elements in the Country Report should be limited to those which are essential to:

For example, detailed information on the characteristics and performance of local breeds should be recorded in the national information system and in the FAO DAD-IS (see also para 55) whereas the Country Report would essentially provide the list of breeds, and including those characterized, those evaluated, those at risk, those in critical state, etc. Similarly, a country may wish to report on education capacity in the field of AnGR but would not need to list all courses or attempt to count the number of trained professionals and technicians working in the field of AnGR. However, an assessment of current capacity to educate and train professionals and technicians and of future needs, would be extremely valuable to expose any gaps and to establish priorities for further education and training (see also para 56).

20. As to the timeframe, it is essential to look to the past (~10 yrs), to the current situation, and to the future (~10 yrs) to provide a perspective on where the country was in this field, where it is now, and where the country is going, in terms of the characterization, use, development and conservation of AnGR. It is critical that the analysis goes beyond description of the resources if the Country Report and the Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources (SoW-AnGR Report) are to serve as a foundation for better management and enhanced policy development of AnGR, to maintain and enhance their overall contribution to food and agriculture and rural development.

21. Fundamental strategic questions must therefore be addressed:

22. It is crucial during this analysis to raise, on each point to be covered the following strategic questions:

The Guidelines suggest many points that should be addressed. It is not being proposed that the Country Report be presented in the form of answers to all the points suggested in the Guidelines (see also para 68). Rather the Country Report should provide an analysis of the situation, clearly identify needs, and provide strategic directions to better use, develop and conserve AnGR.

C. STRUCTURE OF THE COUNTRY REPORTS

23. As many countries will be preparing Country Reports, there are obvious advantages in having a measure of uniformity of presentation in order to facilitate their compilation for the preparation of the SoW-AnGR Report. However, FAO recognizes that there are major differences among countries in many matters relevant to AnGR and that these differences must be reflected in the Country Reports. Thus, not all aspects of the reports call for complete uniformity.

24. In line with the ITWG-AnGR recommendations, the SoW-AnGR Report will provide an assessment in three major areas

  1. the State of Diversity: an assessment of the state of conservation, erosion and utilization of farm animal agricultural biodiversity, and an analysis of the underlying processes;
  2. the State of Country Capacity to manage animal genetic resources AnGR including existing AnGR policies, management plans, institutional infrastructures, human resources and equipment; and
  3. the State of the Art and the available methodologies and technologies to assist farmers, breeders, scientists to better understand, use, develop, and conserve AnGR, and thereby contribute to global food security and rural development.

25. The ITWG-AnGR has emphasized the importance of the process itself in the preparation of the report. This process entails a series of steps such as: evaluating past activities; identifying present and future problems; elaborating appropriate policies and programmes; and assessing requirements for capacity building. This process should also enable the formulation of priorities for future national activities and international co-operation. It is proposed, therefore, that the Country Reports be structured in line with these recommendations and comprise five main parts as follows:

26. After completing the 5 main parts of the Country Report, it may be advisable to prepare an Executive Summary (see also para 62).

IV. THE INTERACTIVE PROCESS OF PREPARATION OF THE COUNTRY REPORT

27. As far as possible, and within available resources, countries will be supported during the preparation of their Country Reports. FAO has been given the mandate to co-ordinate the preparation of the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, and will therefore support preparation of Country Reports as the key first step in developing the Report. Provision of support will be an interactive process and is described in the following sections. FAO will also encourage the involvement of all international stakeholders in country support, as its Members have requested.

A. THE INFORMATION AND SUPPORT SYSTEM - DAD-IS

28. The information system DAD-IS (http://www.fao.org/dad-is/) will be further developed in order to provide individual countries with information management and communication tools, which should facilitate the preparation of Country Reports. In addition to being the source of basic breed characterization, DAD-IS will provide countries with the following:

29. The involvement of individual countries in the overall State of the World Process, and their use of the DAD-IS State of the World Reporting module will be strongly encouraged. This will also increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of the analysis, synthesis and Report publication processes, together with the future updating of the Report at regional and global levels. The training functionality will also be valuable for the regional and global level training processes. Countries using DAD-IS will also obtain further assistance through direct access to the DAD-IS Moderator throughout the SoW-AnGR preparatory process.

30. This DAD-IS package will be supplemented with basic background documents (e.g. the Global Strategy), and lists of questions on specific subjects, which may assist in the process of analysis and synthesis of information at the national level (see also para 50). The lists of questions relating to the Guidelines have been prepared to assist the collection of supporting data and information, and are provided in Annex 1, Background Questions to Support Preparation of Country Reports.

B. REGIONAL COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING

31. Countries will be invited to involve their key personnel responsible for co-ordinating the Country Report preparation in regional consultations (meetings and e-conferences) as may be required for training and in order to:

C. THE NATIONAL FOCAL POINT FOR AnGR

32. Each country wishing to participate in the SoW-AnGR Process will appoint, if it has not already done so, a National Focal Point designating their National Co-ordinator. (The National Coordinator co-ordinates the development of the country network and is the official contact for communication between the National Focal Point and the Global Focal Point). If this has not already been done, upon Government acceptance of the invitation to the Country to participate in the SoW-AnGR Process, the Global SoW-AnGR Focal Point in FAO should then be advised immediately, of the name, postal address, e-mail address, phone and fax numbers of the National Co-ordinator.

D. THE COUNTRY REPORT PROCESS

33. The State of the World Module in DAD-IS should assist the country to establish, conduct and monitor the reporting process. In addition, and keeping in mind that the process involves both scientific and significant policy matters, establishment of a National Consultative Committee is recommended to identify the primary areas and issues that need to be addressed in the preparation of the Country Report, frame out the Report and oversee its preparation of the Report. In some countries an existing committee, where it is sufficiently broad to address all of the required subject areas and issues, may be entrusted by the Government with the task of preparing the Country Report and submitting it to the Government for approval/endorsement. It is essential that the National Consultative Committee has diverse representation, and also develops a broader network to ensure opportunities for the full range of stakeholders to contribute to the Country Report.

34. It is recommended that the Government establishes at the outset the National Consultative Committee, and that it be given the mandate to produce and present the Country Report to the government for approval/endorsement. It is recommended that the National Coordinator for Animal Genetic Resources be a member of the National Consultative Committee, as either a member of the Committee or in the capacity of Secretary to the Committee, particularly where a more senior official is selected to chair the Committee and that the following concerned parties be represented on the National Consultative Committee:

35. Each member of the National Consultative Committee should review the Guidelines carefully, understand the purpose and nature of the task; and should be fully acquainted with the State of the World Reporting module in DAD-IS and the tools it offers to assist the reporting process and to build capacity.

36. It is recommended that the National Consultative Committee form a small drafting group consisting of members of the National Consultative Committee, including the National Coordinator, to co-ordinate the work of framing and drafting the Country Report, and to interact with the Regional and Global Focal Point. In addition, it is recommended that the National Consultative Committee establishes a broad network to ensure opportunities for the involvement of those with an interest in AnGR in all phases of Country Report preparation, collating supporting data and information utilising the Background Questions... (Annex 1), and considering the draft Report. Special groups or sub-committees may be required to address specific topics or issues.

37. The National Consultative Committee should keep itself informed of:

38. It is recommended that early in the planning process, the National Consultative Committee develop the structure and outline of the Country Report including the scope of the primary issues in each section of the report, considering the strategic questions: Where are we? Where do we need to be? and How do we get to where we need to be? and estimating the length of each section of the Report (see also para 67). For each section of the Report, the person(s) responsible to assemble information and prepare section drafts should be designated, so that they can start work on all sections of the report at an early stage leaving ample time for reflection and analysis. (Note: A common failing of endeavours such as preparation of Country Reports is that too much time is spent collecting background information, leaving too little time to analyse and make good use of it).

39. The SoW-AnGR Reporting Module in DAD-IS provides for the managed development and evolution of the report preparation process through addressing the strategic questions for each section of the Report, followed by a succession of drafts of the Country Report. The National Consultative Committee should meet frequently and regularly to develop these main issues to be addressed in each section of the Report, review progress, consult beyond the committee, as necessary, coordinate the training of the network and collation of further data and information for use in supporting the main issues raised in the Report, and complete the final draft Report. The SoW-AnGR networking facility in DAD-IS should enable the National Consultative Committee to communicate with stakeholders, involve them in the collation of required supporting data, and monitor activity to manage the efficient consultation process and the additional information this process generates.

40. Provision should be made at an early stage for the final review, government approval and endorsement and printing of the Country Report including, if necessary, the designation of: one or more external reviewers; a translator in one of the official languages of FAO; and an editor. While an electronic form of the Country Report on DAD-IS is required, an official hard copy Report must also be sent to FAO.

41. N.B. Subject to available resources, FAO will assist in this Country Report preparation process, but only if the invitation to do so comes from the Government of the country itself. Very limited funds may be available to provide financial support to Country Report preparation meetings, especially those involving scientists, NGOs, the private sector, farmers' groups, etc., in addition to government officials. Some on-site expert assistance may also be available. If assistance is required, The Global Focal Point FAO, Rome, may be contacted by the Country to discuss the country's plans and needs, prior to a possible formal approach to FAO.

V. COUNTRY REPORT PREPARATION

PART 1. ASSESSING THE STATE OF AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY IN THE FARM ANIMAL SECTOR OF THE COUNTRY

42. The Guidelines presented in this Section refer to the preparation of Part 1 of the Report as described in Section III-C.

Countries, which previously contributed to the first Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources, can link through DAD-IS to their Country Report and the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources Report. The Introduction Section to the Country Report for Plant Genetic Resources, in particular, may assist in preparing the Introduction Section of the Country Report for Animal Genetic Resources (see also para 61). The DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Reporting module will also enable countries to collate a platform of critical data on which to base the development of the relevant sections of the Country Report. The DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Reporting module is provided to assist countries to expand involvement in the analysis and synthesis process, and to facilitate the distribution, regular updating and broader use of the Country Report in action planning.

43. It is recommended that the descriptive elements in Part 1 should be limited to those considered essential for an assessment of the situation and the identification of gaps and problems, whereas more detailed information and technical data should be recorded in the national systems and DAD-IS, based upon the Background Questions to Support Preparation of Country Reports (Annex 1). While the structure and contents of Part 1 largely depend on the country conditions, it is suggested that a common process should be followed, including a series of steps (outlined below) in order to facilitate the compilation of Country Reports at a later stage.

1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE COUNTRY'S ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND RELATED ANIMAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

44. Before addressing the aspects of conservation and utilization of AnGR, the general picture of the animal production sector in the country should be reviewed. This overview should cover:

1.2 ASSESSING THE STATE OF CONSERVATION OF FARM ANIMAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

45. This step should include:

1.3 ASSESSING THE STATE OF UTILIZATION OF FARM ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES

46. The state of use of breeds by species, their performance, importance, contribution to food production and agriculture services and other contributions, should be reviewed as well as the trends in their utilization. The related breeding systems and techniques in use, their objectives, achievements and problems should be examined and evaluated as well as the state of this genetic development work by species and related research activities; and an evaluation of the information systems development for breed utilization, their use and linkages.

Preparation of Country Reports for Animal Genetic Resources

Where are we?

Where do we need to be?

How do we get to where we need to be?

1.4 IDENTIFYING THE MAJOR FEATURES AND CRITICAL AREAS OF AnGR CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION

47. The steps outlined above should provide the information and data required from different sources and regions in the country. Most of the material and data collected should not be included in the Report but be stored for current and future assessment in the information system. Out of these, the key elements of assessment should be selected, retained and summarized for inclusion in the Country Report for the overall evaluation of the state of AnGR in the country highlighting the major problems of the present situation. Essential data may also be in the Country Report in the form of tables.

PART 2. ANALYZING THE CHANGING DEMANDS ON NATIONAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE NATIONAL POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMMES RELATED TO AnGR

48. The guidelines presented below refer to the preparation of Part 2 of the Report as described in section III-C.

A four-step process (2.1 to 2.4) is suggested for review and formulation of national policies, strategies and programmes in the field of AnGR. Again, this does not imply that the Country Report should present all the findings and results of each step in this process. Rather, the report should explain the rationale, which leads to important changes and new initiatives and, essentially, outlines the main thrusts of future national AnGR policies and management plans.

2.1 REVIEWING PAST POLICIES, STRATEGIES, PROGRAMMES, AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (AS RELATED TO AnGR)

49. The purpose of this first step should be to identify the causes of, and draw lessons from, past failures and successes in conserving, using and developing AnGR. In particular, to identify the benefits to farmers and systems for sharing benefits with consumers. The economy of past and present breeding methods and the use of local versus exotic breeds for the important species should be analyzed within the diverse modes of production involved. In addition, an assessment should be made of management practices and their impact on: animal biological diversity; the environment; changes in dependencies on sources of animal feeds; changes in animal disease conditions; changes of internal and external market forces; and the impacts of these changes on AnGR within the country.

2.2 ANALYZING FUTURE DEMANDS AND TRENDS

50. The demands and supply trends (type, quality and quantity) for diverse animal products and services in the country and world markets are changing as a result of parallel changes in population patterns, socio-economic conditions, consumer demands, existing and new constraints (e.g. health, environmental standards, sources of feeds and other inputs) and opportunities (e.g. new technologies in production and processing). As a result, the animal production sector is evolving rapidly and calls for a critical analysis of the continuing validity of present production systems with regard to the place and role of AnGR in these systems. In order to facilitate this analysis, FAO will provide the countries, through DAD-IS with relevant background material and data, such as statistics, issue papers and recent perspective studies of the animal sector prepared by FAO and other institutions. Regional consultations and communications should provide opportunities to broaden the analysis of future demands and trends in the country's animal sector and critically review past policies and production systems in relation with the conservation and utilization (use and development) of AnGR. In particular, when a National Management Action Plan for AnGR is established, it should be reviewed in the light of this analysis.

2.3 DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES IN THE CONSERVATION, USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF AnGR

51. The analysis of the future trends in the animal production sector provides the basis for outlining the diverse avenues in the farm animal sector for coping with changing demands and new challenges and considering different ways and degrees in conserving and using AnGR in the country environments. The pros and cons of alternative strategies (benefits to farming communities, consumers and systems for sharing benefits, roles of public and private sectors) should be discussed as well as the comparative advantages of diverse species, breeds and breeding methods associated with diverse production systems in meeting future demands. A long-term perspective should be adopted in this process including the consideration of the prospects and issues created by the development and use of reproductive and molecular biotechnologies and rapidly evolving information and communications technologies.

2.4 OUTLINING FUTURE NATIONAL POLICY, STRATEGY AND MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR THE CONSERVATION, USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF AnGR

52. The result of the above process should be to review and, where necessary, to elaborate and/or re-formulate the national approach to and modalities of AnGR conservation, use and development in the country, outlining the future directions for their sustainable management. The National Consultative Committee should play a key role in promoting this process in co-operation with the diverse contributors and other stakeholders involved in the preparation of the Country Report. Expertise from national and foreign sources may be required to provide advice. The National Consultative Committee should also ensure that overall policy guidance is provided by the Government. The regional consultations planned by the National Consultative Committee may provide opportunities to discuss policies and strategies and identify common requirements and opportunities for co-operation.

53. The constituents of the national strategy resulting from the above process should in general reflect, as appropriate, those of the Global Strategy developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group for Animal Genetic Resources and the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, with specific thrusts to address the particular objectives and needs of the country. The Country Report should not describe in detail the rationale and content of national policies, strategies, and management plans. Rather, it should highlight the aspects which support the country's requirements and opportunities for further international co-operation; in particular, in such areas as capacity building, exchange of information and material, research and technology development and transfer, and regulatory frameworks.

PART 3. REVIEWING THE STATE OF NATIONAL CAPACITIES AND ASSESSING FUTURE CAPACITY BUILDING REQUIREMENTS

54. The assessment of national capacities should be made in the light of future policies, strategies and management plans (as determined in Part 2), as future national programmes and the present national capacities should determine the requirements and opportunities for capacity building. No specific guidelines are proposed but this area will be addressed during regional consultations. The National Consultative Committee should involve the whole range of stakeholders concerned, both in the public and private sectors, in the process of assessment of national capacities.

3.1 ASSESMENT OF NATIONAL CAPACITIES

55. The descriptive material and the list of capacity building requirements to be included in the Country Report should be kept to the minimum required for the assessment of the present situation and priority needs and opportunities. Other detailed information should be included in the national information system and in DAD-IS and used in the formulation of specific requests for support to national capacity building endeavours.

56. Depending on the country's circumstances and conditions, the process may cover assessment of some or all of the following points:

PART 4. IDENTIFYING NATIONAL PRIORITIES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF AnGR

57. The process of priority setting in Part 4 of the Report should be based on future national policies and directions of work (Part 2) and assessing capacity building requirements (Part 3). The priority setting should involve several stages of consultations of stakeholders at several levels and in different sub-sectors and activity areas. The list below is illustrative and indicative of possible priorities and how they may be grouped for presentation in the Country Report; the contents of this section will, of course, depend on the country situation, policy, objectives and strategy.

4.1 NATIONAL CROSS-CUTTING PRIORITIES

58. These may include, for example:

4.2 NATIONAL PRIORITIES AMONG ANIMAL SPECIES, BREEDS, COUNTRY'S REGIONS AND RURAL COMMUNITIES

59. These may include, for example:

PART 5. FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENHANCED INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY

5.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

60. Recommendations provided in Part 5 of the Report may cover bilateral, regional, inter-regional and global co-operation. They should also include an assessment of ongoing co-operation and what the country can offer and would require for further co-operation development. This section would also provide the country's comments and recommendations on the Global Strategy. The list below is given for illustrative purpose only:

PART 6. OTHER ELEMENTS SUGGESTED FOR INCLUSION IN THE COUNTRY REPORT

6.1 HOW THE COUNTRY REPORT WAS PREPARED

61. In the introduction of the Report, it is suggested that a brief indication of how the Report was prepared is provided. This should also refer to an annex giving the list of institutions and persons involved in the process of preparation with their address, fax number and e-mail address.

6.2 AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

62. In addition, an Executive Summary giving the main findings and recommendations would be highly desirable. This should ensure that the summary covers the results of the assessment in the three main areas: state of diversity; state of capacity; and state of the art; and identifies critical needs and priorities for action.

6.3 ANNEXES

63. Annexes may also be added to the Report to provide important information, maps, diagrams, relevant national statistics and other illustrative material, supplementing what is included in the main body of the Report, particularly Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4; together with a list of references of other sources of information. This additional material may also be compiled in the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Reporting module for use in the further development of the Country's information platform for use in action planning and policy.

6.4 CASE STUDIES

64. A few brief case studies (e.g. success stories or critical cases) of general interest may also be provided in the annexes. These may then be used later on for illustration (boxes) in the Global SoW-AnGR Report. Brief outlines of priority project ideas for international co-operation and national emergency requirements may also supplement some of the recommendations presented in Part 5.

6.5 MATERIAL OF A CONFIDENTIAL NATURE

65. As the Report will be provided to FAO and be available publicly, material of a confidential nature should NOT be included in the report. Confidential country-specific data can also be declared using the DAD-IS databases. If a government wishes to convey confidential information to FAO, it is suggested that it be provided under a letter to the Director General (for the attention of the Director, Animal Production and Health Division).

VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT SUGGESTIONS

66. Consistency: Country Reports will be much more useful in the preparation of the Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources if they all follow a consistent framework and process as suggested in this document so as to facilitate comparisons and synthesis at regional and global levels. However, although these Guidelines suggest elements to be addressed in Country Reports, not all these suggestions will be relevant to all countries. It is strongly suggested that the Country Report should not address points on which there is nothing significant to report merely because these points are included in the Guidelines. The Guidelines were deliberately presented not in the form of a questionnaire but as a series of steps to cover a set of subject areas in a dynamic process of assessment, policy formulation and priority setting. In the framework of DAD-IS, questions are provided as a means to help shape the country's response and to provoke rigorous, creative analysis.

67. Length: It is suggested that the Country Report be as brief as possible. It should not exceed 60 pages. 25-30 pages is the recommended optimum size for the main body of the Report without the annexes. The smaller it is, the more effective it will be, simply because it will be easier to have it widely distributed and read. No guidelines are proposed as to the length of the main sections of the Report but it is anticipated that the sections, which report on the State of Diversity (Part 1), and on the State of Capacity (Part 3), will necessarily be longer than the other sections.

68. Style: To keep the report within the recommended length, the style should be focused, direct and succinct. To achieve maximum impact it should be analytical, practical and realistic. The guidelines suggest many points that should be addressed before deciding what to write. It is not being proposed that the Report be presented in the form of answers to all the points listed in the guidelines.

69. Coverage: As the Country Report is part of the contribution to the preparation of the Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, it should identify national priorities and the country's proposals for international action. It is intended that the process outlined in the above Guidelines will assist individual countries in launching a process of sustainable management of their AnGR through strengthening their national programmes and international co-operation in this field, while contributing to a global assessment and enhanced international action in this sector.

70. Timeframe: The deadline for the submission of the Country Reports is February 28, 2002. Submission of all the Country Reports by that date will be essential so as to ensure that each Country Report will be given adequate attention in the preparation of the SoW-AnGR Report. The occurrence of some gaps in a Country Report should not delay its submission as these gaps may be filled during the proceeding interactive process of consultations, which will involve National and Regional Co-ordinators and the Global Focal Point. If countries are not able to submit their Reports by February 28, 2002, they are requested to submit a preliminary report of their findings to contribute to the identification of global priorities for AnGR.

71. Follow-up: Completion and submission of Country Reports on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources should not be considered the end of a process, rather completion of reports should be perceived as the beginning of a broader process. To ensure continued involvement of countries and stakeholders in the development of the Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, and most importantly to ensure effective implementation of strategic priorities identified during the preparation of the Country Report, the following activities are planned:

72. Contacts: A broad range of information on the SoW-AnGR Process and key contact persons within the Country (developed by the National Focal Point), regionally and at Global level will be available through the SoW-AnGR Reporting module of DAD-IS Stage 3. Interactive SoW-AnGR advice will be available via online DAD-IS and by e-mail through the DAD-IS Moderator (dad-is@fao.org). Correspondence matters should be addressed to the Global Focal Point: The Secretary, State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Telephone: (39) 06 5705 2439, Fax: (39) 06 5705 3927, http://www.fao.org/dad-is/

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