BACKGROUND QUESTIONS TO SUPPORT PREPARATION OF COUNTRY REPORTS
The preparation of a Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) was recommended by the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on AnGR for Food and Agriculture (ITWG-AnGR) in 1998. This recommendation was subsequently endorsed by the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the FAO Committee on Agriculture, and the FAO Council and Conference. Creation of the Report is to be achieved through a country-driven process involving the preparation of individual Country Reports, followed by synthesis of information from those reports to produce the first Report on the State of the World's AnGR (SoW-AnGR).
The Country Reports should reflect the particular problems, needs, and opportunities of each country. Ideally, they will serve as a tool for the clarification and development of national and international policies toward AnGR, as well as providing a mechanism for the country to contribute information to the SoW-AnGR Report. Thus, it is important that the Country Report focuses on the specific concerns and opportunities of each country. However, in order to facilitate creation of the SoW-AnGR Report, it is also important that there be a measure of uniformity in the structure of the Country Reports. To that end, FAO has produced and distributed Guidelines for Development of Country Reports.
The Country Reports are to focus on the analysis of information regarding AnGR and on the national capacity to manage these resources; on the synthesis of national priorities for sustainable utilization and conservation of AnGR; and on the identification of recommendations for international co-operation. Country Reports should focus on the analysis of existing data, rather than on the collection and enumeration of large amounts of new information. However, it is recognized that the resulting Country Reports will be built upon substantial amounts of detailed information and intermediate analyses. The capture of that information and of the results of intermediate analyses should be of both immediate and longer-term value to countries. To facilitate the collection and analysis of the necessary background information, these Background Questions provide queries that should be considered in collating the supporting data for use in preparation of the Country Report.
II. USING THE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS
The Background Questions provided in this document are designed to aid accumulation of information necessary for the preparation of the Country Report. It is not necessary or appropriate for each stakeholder in the country network to answer all of the questions. Likewise, the final Country Report should not just be a list of answers to these questions. However, each country is encouraged to consider the entire list of questions, and obtain answers, where possible, from the spectrum of AnGR stakeholders.
- If the issues addressed by some of the questions are not pertinent to conditions in the country, they can simply be marked as "not applicable".
- If information to answer some of the questions is not currently available, that situation can be noted. The identification of important areas where information is not available is one of the uses of these questions and may serve to highlight key areas of need to be addressed in the Country Report.
It is essential that the questions provided in this document be viewed as prompts to support your analysis. The Country Report must provide a strategic analysis of your country's current situation in regard to the management of AnGR; opportunities to better use, develop, and conserve AnGR; and needs and priorities to build the necessary capacity to realize the opportunities.
The answers to the Background Questions will provide an intermediate level of information and analysis of the status of AnGR in each country. The answers to these questions go beyond the straightforward data listings present in DAD-IS (URL: http://www.fao.org/dad-is/) and other FAO databases. Pertinent information from these data sources will be provided to the persons(s) preparing the Country Report. Repeating this data is not required. If additional or revised data of this sort is available, they should be provided directly to DAD-IS using existing reporting tools. (see also para 43 of Guidelines).
The amount of data and information generated in the pursuit of answers to the questions will be greater than can be included in the Country Report. Development of concise answers, based on the information to hand, will help to provide the perspective necessary for the Country Report.
- Answers to each group of questions can usually take the form of 1 or 2 short paragraphs, or can be arranged in tabular format.
- Some questions must be addressed for each species and production system, whereas others are more general.
The responses to these questions will provide a national baseline that can be updated as necessary for future reporting. To that end, functionality will be developed to allow responses to these questions to be electronically entered directly into the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module by country network participants.
III. ANSWERING THE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS
In most cases, answers to Background Questions should be provided by the network of stakeholders (individuals, a small group of experts or farmer associations) established by the National Consultative Committee (see also Section IV-D of Guidelines). It is essential that the National Consultative Committee takes overall responsibility for co-ordinating the collation of this supporting data for the Country Report. It is also critical that the National Consultative Committee undertake the necessary further analyses and synthesis of the answers to these questions to complete the Country Report, and forward the Report for official country approval and submission to FAO. In addition, the Background Questions will be addressed during the planned regional training sessions and during the within-country training process to support stakeholder involvement and consensus building. The answers developed for the questions during these sessions can then be entered into the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module ready for use by the person(s) charged with drafting the Country Report.
IV. THE QUESTIONS
Background Questions are provided in each of the following sections:
- Introducing the Country
- The State of Production Systems
- The State of Genetic Diversity
- The State of Utilization of AnGR
- The State of Conservation of AnGR
- The State of Policy Development and Institutional Arrangements for AnGR
- For sections 2, 3, 4 and 5: Relevant information, available in FAO databases,
will be provided through the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module to assist in completing
- For sections 2 and 3, this information should be examined and updated,
- For section 6, it will be important to include the views of appropriate Ministries in developing this section.
1. INTRODUCING THE COUNTRY
1.1 Introduction to your Country and its Agricultural Sector
This section should present an overview to allow a person who is unfamiliar with the country to understand the conditions. This overview will help the reader appreciate the context for the remainder of the report.
Countries, which previously contributed to the first Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources, may use the Introduction Section to the Country Report for Plant Genetic Resources to assist in preparing the information for this section (see also para 42 of Guidelines).
Questions that might be addressed include:
- What is the size and location of the country?
- What are its main climatic and geographical features?
- For planning purposes, do you commonly divide your
country into distinct ecological or developmental regions?
- What is the human population and what are the trends in human population growth?
A map of the country, showing the locations and regions mentioned in the report, should be provided.
In two or three paragraphs, give a brief profile of the agricultural sector:
- What are the main farming systems, crops and animal
- How important is employment in the livestock sector,
and what is the overall economic importance of the sector?
- What is the relative importance of animal products
for domestic use and export?
- How is the livestock sector organized (private farmers, international corporations, co-operatives)?
- What are the key characteristics of the main categories of farm size, including the distribution of farm size?
In 2 or 3 paragraphs:
- What are the recent trends in livestock production?
- What are the main reasons for these trends?
1.2 The State of Food Security and Rural Development
This section should allow the reader to appreciate the most important factors affecting food security and rural development in your country.
It has been suggested that the Introduction to the Country Report should be kept to 3-5 pages (see also para 67 of Guidelines)
- Further detail for these below points of section 1.2 can be covered in successive sections (e.g. see section 2.3)
- Has your country achieved food security?
- If not, does the country occasionally or frequently
encounter food shortages?
- How great are the risks of food shortages, and what
are the reasons for these shortages?
- Are some regions at greater risk of food shortages than others?
- How will human population trends in your country
affect demand for agricultural production (remain about the same, increased
- What changes are occurring in the rural population?
- Is the distribution of people between rural and urban
- If so, how are these changes affecting food security
and rural development?
- Is rural poverty decreasing, increasing, or staying about the same?
Role of livestock:
- What changes are occurring in the demand for animal
products in the country?
- What changes in agricultural production systems are
occurring, or will be required, to meet these changing demands?
- What roles will AnGR play in meeting future demands for food and agriculture in your country?
2. THE STATE OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
This section should include basic information on the animal production systems, most important animal products and trends that have occurred in the use and management of AnGR in each of the production systems in the country.
- Relevant information, available in FAO databases, will be provided through the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module to assist in completing this section. This information should be examined and updated, as appropriate.
2.1 What are the Primary Animal Production Systems in your Country?
This section should provide an appreciation of how animals are produced and used in your country. Keep the number of systems that you include to the minimum required to provide a good understanding of animal production in your country. However, all production systems that make significant contributions to food and agriculture, rural communities, or environmental services should be included. The different production systems should be carefully defined in order to provide the reader with a clear picture of the differences among the systems.
For each production system:
- What species are used? Do farmers normally keep animals of more than one species, or do they usually keep animals of only one species?
For each production system and species:
- What is the relative importance of Locally Adapted and Recently Introduced Breeds?
Organizational characteristics of each production system:
- Are the farms - privately (individual farmers), publicly, or co-operatively owned? What is the typical size of the farms - e.g. subsistence, smallholder, small-scale commercial or large-scale commercial units?
Reliance on inputs:
- Which of the primary animal production systems are relatively self-sustaining and which rely on substantial external inputs (e.g. purchased feeds, veterinary care, breeding stock or other services)? How do differences in levels of inputs influence the use of AnGR? Does a reliance on inputs imported from other countries influence the use of AnGR?
Impact of risk factors:
- What risk factors (e.g. drought, disease, social disruptions, access to capital, availability of labor, currency fluctuations, etc.) are present in each of the primary animal production systems? Are the risk factors different for different species within each production system? If so, how do they differ, and why? How do the different risk factors influence the use of AnGR?
2.2 What are the most important Animal Products in your Country? What Secondary Products are important to Farmers or Regions in the Country?
- What are the most important animal products (meat, egg, milk, wool, hides, draught power, manure, hides, storage of capital, landscape management, leisure etc.) in your country? What is the relative importance (economic, social, landscape management) of the different products? Are there
differences in the importance of these products between different regions
within the country and for different segments of the livestock population?
- Which animal species are used in animal production
and what products does each species produce?
- For each important product, what is the relative
importance of Locally Adapted and Recently Introduced Breeds?
- What per cent of your animal products are for domestic versus export markets? Has this percentage changed significantly over the past 10 years? Is it expected to change in future years? How does the location of the market (domestic versus international) affect the use of AnGR in your country?
2.3 What Major Trends or Significant Changes have occurred in the use and Management of Animals in your Country?
- What changes have occurred in the last 10 years in the relative contributions of the different production systems to food security and the rural economy? What are the reasons for these changes (e.g. government policies, changes in demand, environmental pressures, etc.)?
- Have there been significant changes in the types and
diversity of products produced in the past 10 years? What are the reasons for
these changes? Are these changes related to the productivity and availability
of either Locally Adapted or Recently Introduced Breeds?
- What major recent changes in animal production infrastructure (e.g. policies, technical support, animal recording and breeding, marketing and transport, processing) and
the organizational aspects of these structures in the livestock sector have
significantly affected the use of the different animal production systems?
- What are the limiting factors and major constraints affecting productivity and efficiency within each primary animal production system? How important are constraints involving the use and availability of AnGR? What are possible means to overcome these constraints?
3. THE STATE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY
This section should include information on the diversity among and within animal species. The main topics to be addressed are:
- the state of knowledge of genetic diversity, and,
- the state of genetic diversity.
In developing this section, it may be useful to identify groups of breeds with similar characteristics, breeding structures, management requirements, and uses. One suggested grouping would be:
- Locally Adapted Breeds,
which have been in the country for a sufficient time to be genetically adapted
to one or more of the traditional production systems or environments in the
- Recently Introduced Breeds, whose importation was within the last 5 or so generations for the
species concerned, and which were imported over a relatively short period of
time. These would include breeds that were imported recently but that have not
been reintroduced since that time; and
- Continually Imported Breeds, whose local gene pool is regularly replenished from one or more sources outside your country. Many of the breeds used in intensive production systems or marketed by international breeding companies would be in this category.
- Relevant information, already available in FAO databases, will be provided through the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module to assist in completing this section. This information should be examined and updated, as appropriate.
3.1 What is the State of Knowledge of your Country's AnGR?
This section should provide an overview of the types of information that are available on your country's AnGR. This section should allow the reader to understand what sort of information is available, what information is lacking, and what can be done to improve the available information.
- Has information been collected on the status of breeds within each animal species of importance to food and agriculture production in your country? If so, is the information contained in DAD-IS? Is the information correct and comprehensive?
- How frequently are surveys of AnGR carried out? What
species and breeds are included in these surveys?
- What information do you maintain on the economically
important animal species and breeds in your country? Do you maintain
information on the breeding structure and organization of each breed or group
- What information gaps reduce your ability to use and
develop AnGR? What are the major factors preventing you from collecting the
necessary information? What are your priorities for capacity building to
enhance efforts to improve the current understanding of the state of diversity
of your important breeds?
- Do you have systems for monitoring the status and
trends in breeds of each species? Are you able to monitor breeds that are at
risk of being lost?
- Does your country have, independently from DAD-IS, a
national livestock information system capable of monitoring the status of
breeds of each animal species? If so, is this system interfaced with DAD-IS?
- Have you conducted comparative characterization studies (base-line breed surveys, genetic and molecular genetic characterization, economic valuations) to evaluate the Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced and Continually Introduced breeds in your country for each species?
For each species and primary production system:
- What is the extent of available comparative characterization information (e.g. product yield, product quality traits, male/female reproduction performance, draught power, disease resistance, parasite resistance, feed efficiency, longevity, lifetime productivity, etc.) in your country? Where were these characterization studies conducted (on research stations, on-farm, or both)?
For each species:
- What sorts of characterization studies have been
done? For example:
- Comparison of Locally Adapted with Recently
- Comparison of crossbred and straight bred animals;
- Has a full life-cycle analysis been conducted? Or only single cycles of production (e.g. a single lactation, growth of a single offspring only, etc.)? Are summaries of the
characterization studies available? If so, where can they be obtained?
- Have any molecular characterization studies of AnGR been done? If so, which species and breeds were involved? Which techniques (e.g. genetic distancing, marker-assisted selection, QTL-detection, protein polymorphism, microsatellite, etc.) were used? Did you follow ISAG/FAO recommendations
in selecting your markers for genetic distancing studies? Where have your
results been reported?
- What are your country's priorities for capacity building in characterization? How could your country use this information for management and breed development?
3.2 Assessment of Genetic Diversity
This section should provide an overview of the AnGR that are important in the country. This will allow the National Consultative Committee to understand what species and groups of breeds are being used in the food and agriculture sector in the country, and to be able to describe the changes that are taking place in the use of AnGR.
- How many breeds of each species are being used by
farmers in food and agriculture production? Of the breeds that are being used,
how many are also being actively developed? How many breeds are present in the
country, but are not currently being used or are not significantly
contributing to food and agriculture? Of these, how many are being conserved
using a managed process? Do you have programmes in place to assist farmers or
organizations to conserve specific breeds?
- Have there been significant changes in the number of
breeds in each species and in the demographics of herds/flocks? What are the
primary factors causing these trends? What has been the impact of using exotic
genetic resources on indigenous breeds?
- For each species, what is the distribution of the breeds within the country? Which types of breeds are found in the different regions and production systems? Provide outlines of the demographic structure (e.g. number and size of herds/flocks, sex and age structure) for each production system and groups
- Are there any wild relatives of domestic species in the country? If so, what is their status? Are they being conserved? If so, how?
Do these wild relatives contribute to breeding programs for domestic species?
Do they contribute economically to food and agriculture?
- Are there feral populations of domestic animals in
your country that are of interest to food and agriculture? What are their
status and contribution to food and agriculture? What challenges are posed by
feral populations? What actions are being taken to utilize, develop,
eradicate, or maintain these populations?
- Do wild species contribute to food and agriculture in
your country? If so, what are their contributions? Which, if any, wild species
are you investigating as potential resources for integration into domestic
animal production systems?
- What are the priorities for capacity building in order to improve understanding of the state of animal genetic diversity?
4. THE STATE OF UTILIZATION OF AnGR
Utilization of AnGR encompasses both their use and the further genetic development of these resources. Utilization of AnGR refers not only to their current use but also to their development for future use. AnGR may have been in use for many years but, with further development, could better meet community needs. There are important differences among countries in the state of use and development of AnGR, including differences in capacity and in policy development and application.
In completing the following section, it is recommended that you:
- address use of AnGR, and then consider
- the state of development of these resources.
If it is more convenient for you, you may wish to address the state of utilization of AnGR separately for each species or group of species (e.g., grazing ruminants, etc.).
- Relevant information, already available in FAO databases, will be provided through the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module to assist in completing this section.
4.1 The State of Use of AnGR:
This section should describe how AnGR are being used in your country for food and agriculture. You should try to help the reader to understand which genetic resources are most important and how they are used.
4.1.1 Policy and Legal Instruments:
- It is essential that in completing this section that you link policies and legal instrument directly to the management of, or impact on AnGR, and not address all policies and legal instruments that affect livestock management in your country.
- What policies and legal instruments affect the use of AnGR? Do these policies create different use patterns between breeds that are:
Do you have policies and legislation that support, or discourage, the use of particular species or breeds nationally or in particular production systems? If so, describe
these policies and legal instruments concerning the use of AnGR.
Do you have policies and legislation that enable and promote technologies that affect and support the use of particular AnGR? (E.g. policies and legislation concerning artificial breeding technologies, animal health/disease surveying and control, animal housing and treatment/welfare, animal/product market standards and instruments, landscape management.)
Do you have policies and legislation that support and
promote the preservation and use of indigenous knowledge and practices
relevant to the use of AnGR? What mechanisms are being used to ensure the
preservation of indigenous knowledge, and to ensure that such knowledge is
considered in designing and implementing policies that affect AnGR?
Do you have policies and legislation that support the establishment of institutional mechanisms that enable and support the use of AnGR? (E.g. policies and legal instruments concerning research, extension, training, farmer co-operative formation and operation, etc.).
Do you have policies or legal instruments to support and promote sharing of benefits that are derived from the use of AnGR? If yes, describe how these mechanisms work.
Do you have policies or legal mechanisms related to environmental sustainability that have an impact on AnGR? If yes, these impacts, both positive and negative impacts, should be described.
- already available within the country, and
- those that are being introduced from other
4.1.2 State of Use by Species:
- Is improved use of AnGR considered a primary element in your country's strategy for enhancing food and agricultural production and productivity? What is the importance of improved use of AnGR relative to other non-genetic development approaches (e.g. improvements to feeding, health and husbandry)?
- Are different breeds within each species used for domestic and export markets?
If they do differ:
- How do they differ?
- Why do they differ? and
- What impact does this have on AnGR in your country?
- Do different markets or different demands for animal products within the country influence the use of different AnGR? If so, describe the influences for each species.
- For each species, are specialized AnGR being used to exploit unique resources, conditions, or environments in your country? What are these specialized resources and conditions (e.g. feed resources, seasonal labour supplies, irrigated areas, mountain pastures, transhumant systems, etc.)?
- For each species, describe the significance of
cultural, religious, recreational, or other social influences? How does this
affect the use of AnGR?
- What is the relative importance of the contributions to food and agriculture of each of the following three breed groups (as defined above): Locally Adapted; Recently Introduced; and continually Introduced? Have there been changes in these relative contributions? Are there differences among regions or production systems in breed use in each of the three groups?
For each species:
- List the breeds that are available in your country that are currently not making a significant contribution to food and agriculture. Explain the reasons why these breeds are no longer making a significant contribution and describe the status of these breeds (secure - stable, declining, increasing or at risk - stable, declining, increasing)?
For each species and major production system:
- What are the breeding structures (straightbreeding, systematic crossbreeding, unstructured breeding) that are commonly used in your country? What are the reasons for using each of the systems? For each species, what is the relative use of each of the three breed groups (Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced, Continually Introduced or combinations) in each system? Are each of the main breeding systems being employed, self-replacing, or are they dependent on some/all externally provided male/female replacements?
For each species:
- Have the results of the main breeding systems in use been evaluated on farms or on research stations? Which production traits (e.g. product yield, product quality, reproduction rate, disease resistance, parasite resistance, feed efficiency, longevity, lifetime productivity, overall economic impact) were considered in these breeding
- Have measures of sustainability been developed for
breeding systems for each species? Have they been used to evaluate positive
and negative impacts? Describe both success stories and failures.
- If crossbreeding systems are being used describe, for each species where it is applicable, the main reasons for using crossbreeding (e.g. to utilize crossbred animals in structured mating systems, to upgrade local breeds, to replace local breeds, to create new breeds, to introduce or to introgress specific genes or traits into local breeds)? Have there been crossbreeding programmes that are no longer being employed in your country? Why were they discontinued?
4.1.3 The State of Capacity to Use AnGR, by Species:
- For each species and main breeding system, what technologies are currently being employed? Note: include biotechnologies and information technologies (e.g. performance recording, animal genetic evaluation, artificial breeding techniques such as artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, sexing; molecular tools such as marker assisted selection, pedigree confirmation, etc.) and also indigenous technologies. What is the overall
significance of these technologies to the farmers using each breeding system?
- For each species, provide details of the institutions involved in the use of AnGR? How are the private (e.g. farmers, farmer co-operatives, breeders, other commercial interests) and the public sector organized for each species to acquire and
use improved breeding stock?
- For each species, what technical and extension services, training and research capacity are available within the country to support the use of AnGR?
4.1.4 Trends and Future Use of AnGR, by Species:
- Are significant changes occurring in the use of
breeds of each species in your country? Have these changes significantly
affected the composition of your animal populations for each species over the
last decade? Has the combination of species being used by farmers changed?
- Have there been recent and significant changes in the contributions of your different breeds and crossbreeds for each species and production system to your overall food and agriculture sector? What factors (e.g. market driven, government or donor policies, risk factors, opportunities for new products and niche markets, access to exotic AnGR, etc.) have caused these changes?
- How will advancements in technologies and
methodologies potentially affect the use of AnGR in your country?
- How will trends in international policy (e.g. trade, sanitary, environmental, food quality, property rights, benefit sharing, etc.) potentially affect the use of AnGR for each species, and production systems in your country?
4.2 The State of Development of AnGR:
This section should address the further development of AnGR in your country, which should describe the activities that are under way or that are planned to enhance the value of your AnGR. Programs to:
- improve breeds that are already in the country, as
- programs to acquire breeds that are not already available, should be included.
4.2.1 Policy and Legal Instruments:
- What policy and legal instrument are affecting the
improvement and further development of AnGR in your country? Do you have
policies and legislation that support, or discourage the further development
of particular species or breeds nationally or in particular production
systems? Describe these species-specific policies and legal instruments
concerning the development of AnGR.
- Do you have policies and legislation that enable and promote technologies that affect and support the genetic development of particular AnGR? (e.g. policies and legislation concerning artificial breeding technologies, disease surveying and control, animal housing and treatment/welfare, animal/product market standards and instruments, landscape management, impacts on the environment.)
- Do you have policies and legislation that support and
promote the use of indigenous knowledge and practices relevant to the
development of AnGR? If yes, describe the mechanisms being used to preserve
and employ this knowledge.
- Do you have policies and legislation that support the establishment of institutional mechanisms that enable the development of AnGR (e.g. policies and legal instruments concerning research, extension, training, farmer co-operative formation and operation, etc.)?
4.2.2 The State of Genetic Development, by Species:
- Is the development of AnGR considered to be a primary element in your country's strategy for enhancing food and agricultural production and productivity? What is the importance of genetic development relative to other non-genetic development approaches (e.g. improvements to feeding, health and husbandry)?
- Are different breeds and breeding systems being
developed to supply domestic and export markets? If so, how are they different
and why do they differ?
- Do different markets or different demands for animal
products within the country influence the genetic development of different
AnGR? If so, describe the influences for each species?
- For each species, are specialized AnGR being developed to exploit unique resources, conditions, or environments in your country (e.g. feed resources, seasonal labor supplies, irrigated areas, mountain pastures, transhumant systems, etc.)?
- Do cultural, religious, recreational, or other social influences affect the development of AnGR?
For each species:
- List the breeds that are available that are currently
making a significant contribution to food and agriculture in your country, but
which do not have in operation a planned genetic improvement programme based
on current principles of animal genetics? Why are these breeds not being
- For each species, are there active breed improvement programmes in the country? Have these programmes been planned using current principles of animal genetics? Are all farmers directly involved in the actual breeding, or is genetic improvement concentrated in a small sector of farmers, a government run nucleus, or private, national or international breeding companies? Is superior genetic stock widely disseminated to all farmers using the breed? Are the breeding animals (both male and female) disseminated as straightbred or crossbred animals? Are the programme breeding goals, and animal breeding value genetic trend analyses made regularly available to all farmers? Do these programmes involve Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced, or Continually Introduced Breeds?
For each species:
- For straightbreeding programmes, which production traits and adaptational traits are included in the breeding goals (e.g. product yield, product quality, reproduction rate, disease resistance, parasite resistance, feed efficiency, longevity, lifetime productivity, etc.)?
- Do you consider straightbreeding programmes being operated for each species to be sustainable? Why? If not, why not?
4.2.3 State of Capacity for Development of AnGR, by Species:
- For each of the principal straightbreeding programmes operating in your country, describe the tools used for the selection of male/female animals for breeding (e.g. phenotypic appraisal, pedigree information, progeny information, individual performance, predicted breeding values, multiple-trait selection indexes, marker-assisted selection, etc.)?
- Who is responsible for the principal straightbreeding programmes for each species (e.g. farmers, sub-national governments, national government, co-operatives, breeding organizations, private companies or others)? For each species, what is the comparative total support from each of these sectors to the straightbreeding programmes?
- What institutions are involved for each species in the development of AnGR? How do private (e.g. farmers, farmer co-operatives, breeders, and other commercial interest) and the
public sector contribute to the organization of straightbreeding programmes
for each species? How do these institutions assist in the acquisition and use
of improved breeding stock in your country?
- For each species, what technical and extension services, training, and research capacity are available within the country to specifically support the genetic development of AnGR?
4.2.4 Trends and Future Development of AnGR, by Species:
- Are performance recording schemes in place for each species and breed groups? What are the purposes of these recording schemes (e.g. improved management, genetic improvement, research, etc.)? How do farmers benefit from the recording schemes? Do they pay for part or all of the costs of the recording?
- Who is responsible for the performance recording being carried out for each species (e.g. farmers, sub-national governments, national government, co-operatives, breeding organizations, private companies or others)? What is the comparative total
support from each of these sectors to the maintenance of the recording schemes
for each species?
- For each species, who is responsible for organization and operation of the main breeding systems (e.g. farmers, sub-national governments, national government, co-operatives, breeding organizations, private companies or others)? What is the comparative total support from each of these sectors to the maintenance of the breeding systems for each species?
- How will advancements in technologies and
methodologies potentially affect the genetic development of AnGR in your
- How will trends in international policy (e.g. trade, sanitary, environmental, food quality, property rights, benefit sharing and access, etc.) potentially affect the genetic
development for each species, and production systems in your country?
- Are you aware of species and breeds that are not currently being used in your country, that are likely to be introduced, or could be introduced, for use over the next decade?
4.3 Obstacles, Opportunities, and Needs for Use and Development of AnGR, by Species
- For each species, what are the most important opportunities for improved use of AnGR,
considering the Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced, and Continually
Introduced Breed Groupings as well as breeds not currently in your country?
Are specific action plans in place?
- For each species, what are the most important opportunities for increased genetic development of
AnGR considering the Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced, and Continually
Introduced Breed Groupings as well as breeds not currently in your country?
Are specific action plans in place?
- What is the strategy for maintaining and developing
your Locally Adapted Breeds for each species and each major production system?
Is there a strategy to develop markets for products derived from traditional
- Are there opportunities to use Locally Adapted AnGR for: diversification of animal production; to improve product quality; develop new agricultural products; use by-products and under-utilized feed resources; improve lifecycle productivity; and provide environmental services?
- For each species, has information on characterization (production and adaptational characteristics) of
Locally Adapted, Recently Introduced and Continually Introduced Breed Groups
been collected in relevant production systems throughout the country and used
to support use and development of AnGR. Have specific breeds been identified
as priorities for development?
- What are the priorities for additional characterization work (e.g. surveying, monitoring and early warning, evaluation of breeds and crosses for use in particular production systems, molecular characterization, economic valuation of breeds) that would enhance understanding of the state of AnGR for each
species, and provide a basis for improved use and development of these
- What are the priorities for enhancing public
understanding and awareness of the roles and values of AnGR and the need for
sustainable development and conservation of these resources? What are the
obstacles to, and opportunities for improving public understanding and
- Are there opportunities to improve the use and
development of AnGR by further recognizing the particular roles of women, men
- What are the primary constraints to the improved use of AnGR (e.g. knowledge, education, training, ownership of the resources, availability of resources - human, capital, animals, land, and infrastructure)? What are the priority capacity building needs in your
country to improve use of AnGR?
- What are the primary constraints to genetic development of AnGR (e.g. knowledge, education, training, availability of resources - human, capital, animals, land, and infrastructure)? What are the
principal capacity building needs required to enhance development of AnGR?
- Are there policy related constraints to the improved use and to the increased genetic development of AnGR that are not directly related to
capacity building needs, for example, problems associated with access, or laws
preventing the importation or export of animal genetic material, policies
concerning the maintenance of entire male offspring, etc.?
- Are there any potential major changes in the structure of the livestock industry - both from internal and external pressures and markets (e.g. changes in the relative contributions to national food and agriculture of your country's main production systems, change from subsistence production to market production or to peri-urban production)? How might these changes affect the use and the development of your country's AnGR?
For each species and production system:
- Are there AnGR that your country would significantly benefit from, but currently does not have access to? How would your country benefit from access to these genetic resources? What are the main breeds that your country is pursuing and why are they needed?
For each species:
- Are there Locally Adapted breeds in your country that are considered to have globally unique characteristics? Are there opportunities for sale or exchange of these breeds, or for more widespread use outside your country? Are these breeds/genetic resources at risk or in need of conservation initiatives?
For each species:
- At the regional level across countries, what actions could be taken to enhance use and development of AnGR? Are networks established for sharing resources, data, information and knowledge? If not, how can networks be better developed? Which, if any, regional institutions could be used to enhance regional co-operation in the management of AnGR, and how could the role of these institutions be improved?
5. THE STATE OF THE CONSERVATION OF AnGR
The primary purpose of this section is to identify the state of conservation programmes in your country which include:
- in situ conservation in the environment in which the breed developed its
distinctive properties, and
- ex situ conservation maintenance of small closely managed populations outside their adaptive environment e.g. in artificial or semi-artificial settings, and freezing or cryo-conservation of genetic material, semen, embryos, DNA, cells or ova.
- Relevant information, available in FAO databases, will be provided through the DAD-IS SoW-AnGR Module to assist in completing this section.
5.1 Conservation Questions
- How is the conservation of AnGR generally perceived in your country? Is there, generally, an understanding of the roles and values of AnGR? Are the roles and values of indigenous breeds recognized? Is there an understanding of the role of conservation
in terms of sustainable use and development of AnGR in the future, as a result
of changes in environmental conditions and market preferences?
- Are there programmes in your country to promote
awareness and understanding of the roles and values of AnGR and the need to
conserve them for future use and development? Have there been efforts to
develop niche markets or specialty products to support the conservation of
breeds at risk? If yes, describe them.
- Does your country have conservation strategies or action plans for AnGR? If yes, what are the objectives (e.g. maintain breeds at risk to meet future demands, maintain within breed diversity, for social/cultural/economic values, research and education, and ecological values, etc.) of the strategy? How are conservation priorities
established? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies/action
- If you do not have a conservation strategy, what are believed to be the main reasons for not having a strategy (e.g. lack of awareness, lack of financial resources, lack of technology and technical capacity, lack of trained human resources, or perceived as a private sector responsibility)?
- Who is responsible for AnGR conservation programmes and what are the relationships amongst various organizations (e.g. government, the private sector, non-profit breeding and conservation societies, local and indigenous communities, and others in terms of conservation)? How are conservation programs funded? Is funding secure
for the next 5 years?
- What are the main factors (e.g. replacement of indigenous breeds with exotic breeds, crossbreeding without maintenance of straightbreeds, social or economic disruption, market forces, environmental pressures, animal health issues, access to new technologies, etc.) affecting the security of each breed
within each species in your country.?
- Do cultural, religious, recreational or other social influences affect the conservation of AnGR in your country?
For each species:
- How many breeds have been identified as being `at risk'? What sort of conservation programmes are being implemented for:
- in situ (e.g. on-farm,
on-station [public institutions], nucleus-herds, conservation farms, others);
- ex situ (e.g. live conservation, cryo-conservation)
Who is responsible for these programmes? Are there action plans and ongoing monitoring of `at risk' breeds for each species?
- Are there collections and storage programmes in your country for genetic material for breeds that are not at risk? What are the objectives and methodology
for sampling for these programmes? How and where is the data and information
on this material stored?
- What is the status of your conservation programmes (by species/technique)? Indicate the conservation
objectives, activities and results achieved. What breed conservation
incentives are in place in your country? Can the private sector play a larger
role in conservation? If yes, how could their participation be increased?
- Have there been significant shifts (increased, decreased, or remained the same) in the levels of support for conservation programmes in your country over the past 10 years from both internal and external sources? What have been the impacts of these shifts (e.g. closure of facilities, development of new facilities or significant investments in exiting facilities)?
- What impacts, (e.g. improved output/efficiency, response to an environmental pressure, establishment of niche markets, etc.) have conservation programmes had on agricultural
production and food security in your country?
- Are there any disincentives to support conservation efforts in your
- What are the main constraints, challenges and opportunities in implementing conservation programmes within the country (e.g. lack of awareness, lack of financial resources, lack of technology and technical capacity, lack of trained human resources, perceived as a low priority, etc.)?
- What information and communication systems and tools
are employed in the conservation of AnGR? What communication mechanisms exist
between conservation organizations and between these organizations and the
government? Do you use manual or electronic means to manage information? What
capability exists for using each of these tools? Has a clearinghouse mechanism
for information on AnGR been established? What opportunities exist to improve
networking between all those with an interest in conserving AnGR, both within
the country and within the region? How can traditional and local knowledge be
better preserved and shared?
- What are the priorities (e.g. human development, research capacity, institutional/policy development, acquire financial resources, technology transfer, enhance infrastructural/storage facilities) for enhancing capacity to develop and implement conservation programmes? What comparative advantages (e.g. training facilities available, significant in-country expertise, existing higher level education/training facilities and programmes) does your country possess in this area?
- What action should be taken at a cross-country regional level to ensure the conservation of AnGR?
6. THE STATE OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR AnGR
The purpose of this section is to examine institutional arrangements, organizations, and programmes for AnGR and the policy and legal frameworks that underpin them.
- It will be important to include the views of appropriate Ministries (e.g. Planning, Economy, Agriculture, Education, Natural Resources/Environment, etc.) in developing this section.
6.1 Questions on Policy Development and Institutional Arrangements
- How are AnGR activities organized and sponsored in
your country? Is there a formal national programme; a single, integrated,
government-funded programme; or a combination - formal or informal,
co-ordinated or not - sponsored by various ministries, sub-national
authorities, research institutions, NGOs, etc.?
- How are various AnGR interests organized in your country (e.g. species groups/ national co-ordinating body, sub-national groups, breeder and/or farmer organizations, other NGO's, etc.)? Do existing co-ordinating mechanisms facilitate or inhibit the
better use of AnGR and conservation objectives? What sorts of interactions
occur between public and private organizations? Are there sources of public
support for private-sector activities?
- What mechanisms exist for involving all interested parties (e.g. government agencies, commercial firms, farmers, breeders, local and indigenous communities, non-commercial non-government organizations, etc.) in policy development for AnGR?
- Are there incentives or disincentives to the use and
development of AnGR? Are these incentives/disincentives neutral in terms of
providing equal support for locally adapted or exotic genetic resources, or do
they preferentially target local or exotic genetic resources?
- Has your country made significant investments and undertaken initiatives to import and use exotic AnGR? What have been the results of these initiatives? Have the results of the use of these resources been assessed to describe the impacts (positive and negative) of these initiatives?
- What mechanisms are in place to improve recognition
and understanding of the various roles of men, women and children in the
utilization and conservation of AnGR?
- Have objectives for sustainable use and conservation
of AnGR been linked with other national and international biodiversity
objectives, especially with the Convention on Biological Diversity?
- What are the priorities for capacity building in the management of AnGR (e.g. statistical sampling and survey techniques; breed evaluations and characterizations; preservation techniques; geographic information systems (GIS); management of live populations; database management; animal breeding and genetics, molecular genetics, other)?
- Is there legislation governing sanitary aspects of
AnGR including quarantine legislation in place? How does such legislation
affect the movement of indigenous and exotic genetic resources?
- Do legislation and policies concerning food product
standards affect the use and conservation of AnGR in your country?
- Are there legislation and policies governing access
to AnGR? How do these policies affect the use, development and conservation of
- Does your country have legislation and policies
related to ethical concerns regarding the use and welfare of animals? How do
these policies impact on the use, development and conservation of AnGR?
- Are there legislation and policies relating to the
use and release of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)? How to these
policies impact on the use, development and conservation of AnGR?
- Are there legislation or policies relating to
intellectual property rights? How do these policies affect the use,
development and conservation of AnGR?
- Does your country have bilateral or multilateral
arrangements with other governments, research institutions or others relating
to research, training, exchange of information and materials, and/or
conservation of AnGR? Describe these arrangements? What are the objectives and
main outcomes of these arrangements?
- What are the primary institutions and organizations
that are involved in AnGR research, education, training and policy
development? What are your priorities for overcoming gaps in research
capacity, education, and for enhancing training, policy development, and other
institutional capacity? Are there adequate educational programmes in
characterization, utilization and conservation of AnGR available in your
country, or do students need to leave the country for much of their training?
- What is your country's strategy for enhancing its information and communication system's capacity to support and promote the better management of AnGR, including preserving indigenous knowledge, monitoring and reporting on the state of these resources, trends and threats?