Management of Natural Forests of Dry Tropical Zones


Table of Contents

R. Bellefontaine, A. Gaston and Y. Petrucci
with the collaboration, for the case studies, of:
Cyrille Kaboré and Kimsé Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso
Joran Fries and B. A. Näslund, SUAS, Sweden
Werner Gerber, Asunción, Paraguay
Francisco Carnero Barreto Campelo, Recife, Brazil
Meher Homji, Institut français de Pondichéry, India

Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United

The designation employed and the presentation of the material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103970-4

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of the material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Vialle delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to

© FAO 2000

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Table of Contents



Issues and Subject-Matter

Part One

Chapter I: The Issues

1. Rationale of the study and the issues raised
2. The scope of this paper
3. The countries in question

Chapter II: Diversity of Woody-Vegetation Formations and Summary Breakdown

1. The various classifications used
2. Description of the main types of vegetation

2.1 Dry deciduous forests
2.2 Thickets
2.3 Open woodlands
2.4 The savannas
2.5 Steppes

3. Types of woody-vegetation stands by geographic zone

3.1 Africa: The Sudanian and Sahelian domains
3.2 Africa: The Zambezian domain
3.3 Africa: Madagascar
3.4 America
3.5 Asia

Chapter III: Evolutionary Factors in Dry Forests

1. Climatic factors
2. Biological and physical factors
3. Anthropogenic factors

Chapter IV: The Concept of Forest Management - Evolution, Principles and Technical Requirements

1. The role and the meaning of forest management
2. Management - the development of different approaches
3. The principles of sustainable management
4. Technical requirements
5. Final general remarks

Part Two

State of the Art and Tools
Chapter V: State of the Art and Tools - Biology of Forest Species

1. Survival strategies
2. Sexual regeneration or reproduction
3. Asexual regeneration or multiplication
4. Species plasticity
5. Biological diversity
6. Maintaining soil fertility

Chapter VI: State of the Art and Tools - Forest Resources Evaluation

1. Inventories

1.1 Regional or global inventories
1.2 National inventories
1.3 Local inventories

2. Estimating forest resources
3. Growth and productivity
4. Some data on productivity
5. Allowable cut and compartment layouts
6. The main technical approaches
7. Measurement of fodder biomass and density of cover
8. Evaluation and monitoring of resources: the new tools

Chapter VII: State of the Art and Tools - Silviculture and Silvo-Pastoralism

1. Definition and evolution of the system
2. Silvicultural operations

2.1 Thinning and release cutting
2.2 Pruning
2.3 Plantations
2.4 Direct seeding
2.5 Fire-breaks
2.6 Total protection versus early burning

3. Harvesting
4. Silvo-pastoralism

4.1 Definition of carrying capacity
4.2 Husbandry principles
4.3 Land management
4.4 Improvements

Chapter VIII: State of the Art and Tools - Social Sciences

1. Methods and means of observation

1.1 Describing the ‘socio-economic object’
1.2 Surveys
1.3 The type of information to be collected
1.4 Are GPS and GIS new tools for the social sciences?

2. Multiple uses and multiple agents

2.1 Multiple uses
2.2 Multi-actors

3. Consideration of socio-economic factors in forest management

3.1 From the land tenure issue to resource management
3.2 Land and forest management

4. Management beyond the forest

4.1 Urban development or resetting of links between towns and countryside?
4.2 The management of the ecosystem and the landscape
4.3 Policies and forests

Part Three

Prospects and Guidelines
Chapter IX: Options and Operational Guidelines

1. Management team

1.1 A multidisciplinary team
1.2 Dialogue
1.3 An evolving team

2. Policy options

2.1 Local management and national development
2.2 Involve all the partners in the long term
2.3 Training and the development of forestry systems
2.4 Seeking self-financing
2.5 Global resource upholding

3. Technical options

3.1 Technical options associated with the social sciences
3.2 Technical options associated with the forestry approach
3.3 Technical options associated with livestock

4. Implementation and monitoring of the management scheme
5. Evaluation of the management scheme

Chapter X: Criteria and Indicators

1. International initiatives
2. Concepts implemented: criteria and indicators
3. Criteria and indicators for dry tropical africa
4. Implementation

Chapter XI: Research

1. Background and context
2. Overview of the present state of knowledge
3. Research to be carried out
4. A few recommendations

Part Four: Case Studies

Case Study 1: The Nazinon Reserved Forest (Burkina Faso)

1. Background to natural forest management
2. Nazinon reserved forest

2.1 Brief overview of the forest
2.2 Management project
2.3 Methodology used
2.4 Foundations of the management system
2.5 Participation of the local population
2.6 Financing forest management and the breakdown of revenues
2.7 Priority issues to be settled during phase iii

3. Lessons learnt and future prospects

3.1 A new forestry development strategy
3.2 Links between natural forest management and village land management
3.3 Privatization
3.4 Training
3.5 Role of women
3.6 Forestry research

4. Conclusions

Case Study 2: The Badénou Reserved Forest (Côte d’Ivoire)

1. Introduction
2. Natural environment
3. Plant formations
4. Socio-economic analysis
5. Management of the Badénou reserved forest

5.1 Inventory and volume tables
5.2 Forest stands increments and merchantable diameters
5.3 General considerations and objectives
5.4 Spatial organization of the objectives

6. Measures to involve the neighbouring populations

6.1 Limiting the extension of agricultural lands
6.2 Supervision of the livestock producers
6.3 Establishment of a Peasants-Forests Commission

7. Remarks on the state of the Badénou forest in March 1995

Case Study 3: Morondava Forest (West Coast of Madagascar)

1. Management of dry forests in Madagascar

1.1 Background
1.2 Menabe Programme

2. Morondava forests

2.1 General conditions
2.2 Socio-economic environment
2.3 Morondava FVTC forest management scheme
2.4 Participation by the riverside populations
2.5 Financing forest management
2.6 Lessons learnt and future prospects

Case Study 4: Niger’s Forest Management Experience

1. Forestry co-operatives in the 1980s
2. Domestic energy strategy
3. DES: Global management objectives through a radical change in operations of the product channels
4. Lessons to be drawn from past experience

4.1 Technical constraints
4.2 Organizational constraints
4.3 Land tenure constraints
4.4 Commercial constraints
4.5 Economic and financial constraints
4.6 Constraints linked to the integration of crop farming and animal husbandry

5. Forest management assets and their integration within DES

5.1 New forestry legislation
5.2 Creation of paid work and income distribution

6. Technical aspects of forest development schemes implemented under DES

6.1 Controlled management of Tientiergou
6.2 ‘Oriented’ forest management at Degma

7. Conclusions and future development prospects for the forest management schemes in Niger

Other Projects: India, Brazil and Other Dry Tropical Forest Management Projects

Abbreviations and Acronyms


FAO technical papers - FAO conservation guide