FAO FOOD AND NUTRITION PAPER 81

FAO FOOD AND NUTRITION PAPER 81

Worldwide regulations for
mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003






FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome 2004

 

Table of Contents




The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105162-3
ISSN 0254-4725

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© FAO 2004

For further information, please contact:

Food Quality and Standards Service (ESNS)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Fax: (+39) 06 57054593
E-mail: food-quality@fao.org
Web site: http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/index_en.stm


Contents

Acknowledgements
Foreword
Abbreviations
Explanatory note

1. Introduction

2. Factors affecting the constitution of mycotoxin regulations in food and feed

2.1 Hazard identification and hazard characterization
2.2 Exposure assessment
2.3 Sampling procedures
2.4 Methods of analysis
2.5 Trade contacts
2.6 Food supply
2.7 Synopsis

3. Mycotoxin regulations in 2003 and current developments

3.1 The international inquiry from 2002 to 2003
3.2 General observations
3.3 Specific observations per region

3.3.1 Africa
3.3.2 Asia/Oceania
3.3.3 Europe
3.3.4 Latin America
3.3.5 North America

3.4 Specific observations per mycotoxin or group of mycotoxins

3.4.1 Worldwide limits for aflatoxins
3.4.2 Worldwide limits for other mycotoxins

3.5 Harmonized regulations

3.5.1 Australia/New Zealand
3.5.2 European Union
3.5.3 MERCOSUR
3.5.4 ASEAN
3.5.5 Codex Alimentarius

4. Concluding remarks

References

Annex 1: Contributions

Annex 2: Tables

Table 1: Overview of currently available mycotoxins reference materials
Table 2: Overview of countries involved in the survey
Table 3: Maximum tolerated levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs, dairy products and animal feedstuffs (2002/2003 survey)

ALGERIA [DZ] 2003
ANTIGUA and BARBUDA [BH]
ARGENTINA [AR] 2003 [MERCOSUR member state]
ARMENIA [AM] 2003
AUSTRALIA [AU] 2003
AUSTRIA [AT] 2003 [EU member state]
BAHAMAS [BS] 2003
BAHRAIN [BH] 2003
BANGLADESH [BD] 2003
BARBADOS [BB] 2003
BELGIUM [BE] 2003 [EU member state]
BELIZE [BZ] 2003
BELARUS [BY] 2003
BENIN [BJ] 2003
BOLIVIA [BO] 2003
BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA [BA] 2003
BRAZIL [BR] 2003 [MERCOSUR member state]
BULGARIA [BG] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
BURKINA FASO [BF] 2003
CAMEROON [CM] 2003
CANADA [CA] 2003
CHILE [CL] 2003
CHINA [CN] 2003
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS 2003
COLOMBIA [CO] 2003
COSTA RICA [CR] 2003
CÔTE d'IVOIRE [CI] 2003
CROATIA [HR] 2003
CUBA [CU] 2003
CYPRUS [CY] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
CZECH REPUBLIC [CZ] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
DENMARK [DK] 2003 [EU member state]
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC [DO] 2003
ECUADOR [EC] 2003
EGYPT [EG] 2003
ESTONIA [EE] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
ETHIOPIA [ET] 2003
EUROPEAN UNION [EU] 2003
FINLAND [FI] 2003 [EU member state]
FRANCE [FR] 2003 [EU member state]
GERMANY [DE] 2003 [EU member state]
GHANA [GH] 2003
GREECE [GR] 2003 [EU member state]
GUATEMALA [GT] 2003
HONDURAS [HN] 2003
HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION (SAR), CHINA [HK] 2003
HUNGARY [HU] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
ICELAND [IS] 2003
INDIA [IN] 2003
INDONESIA [ID] 2003
IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF [IR] 2003
IRAQ [IQ] 2003
IRELAND [IE] 2003 [EU member state]
ISRAEL [IL] 2003
ITALY [IT] 2003 [EU member state]
JAMAICA [JM] 2003
JAPAN [JP] 2003
JORDAN [JO] 2003
KENYA [KE] 2003
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF [KR] 2003
KUWAIT [KW] 2003
LATVIA [LV] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
LIECHTENSTEIN [LI] 2003
LITHUANIA [LT] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
LUXEMBOURG [LU] 2003 [EU member state]
MACEDONIA, FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF [MK] 2003
MALAWI [MW] 2003
MALAYSIA [MY] 2003
MALTA [MT] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
MAURITIUS [MU] 2003
MERCOSUR [ME] 2003
MEXICO [MX] 2003
MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF [MD] 2003
MOROCCO [MA] 2003
MOZAMBIQUE [MZ] 2003
MYANMAR [MM] 2003
NEPAL [NP] 2003
NETHERLANDS, THE [NL] 2003 [EU member state]
NEW ZEALAND [NZ] 2003
NICARAGUA [NI] 2003
NIGERIA [NG] 2003
NORWAY [NO] 2003
OMAN [OM] 2003
PAKISTAN [PK] 2003
PANAMA [PA] 2003
PARAGUAY [PY] 2003 [MERCOSUR member state]
PERU [PE] 2003
PHILIPPINES, THE [PH] 2003
POLAND [PL] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
PORTUGAL [PT] 2003 [EU member state]
QATAR [QA] 2003
ROMANIA [RO] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THE [RU] 2003
SALVADOR, EL [SV] 2003
SAUDI ARABIA [SA] 2003
SENEGAL [SN] 2003
SERBIA and MONTENEGRO [YU] 2003
SINGAPORE [SG] 2003
SLOVAKIA [SK] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
SLOVENIA [SI] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
SOUTH AFRICA [ZA] 2003
SPAIN [ES] 2003 [EU member state]
SRI LANKA [LK] 2003
SUDAN [SD] 2003
SURINAME [SR] 2003
SWEDEN [SE] 2003 [EU member state]
SWITZERLAND [CH] 2003
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC [SY] 2003
TAIWAN PROVINCE OF CHINA [TW] 2003
TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF [TZ] 2003
THAILAND [TH] 2003
TRINIDAD and TOBAGO [TT] 2003
TUNISIA [TN] 2003
TURKEY [TR] 2003 [EU candidate member state]
UGANDA [UG] 2003
UKRAINE [UA] 2003
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES [AE] 2003
UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND [UK] 2003 [EU member state]
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA [US] 2003
URUGUAY [UY] 2003 [MERCOSUR member state]
VENEZUELA [VZ] 2003
VIET NAM [VN] 2003
YEMEN [YE] 2003
ZAMBIA [ZM] 2003
ZIMBABWE [ZW] 2003

Abbreviations and References for Table 3

ALGERIA [DZ]
ARGENTINA [AR]
ARMENIA [AM]
AUSTRALIA [AU]
AUSTRIA [AT]
BANGLADESH [BD]
BELARUS [BY]
BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA [BA]
BRAZIL [BR] (see also MERCOSUR)
BULGARIA [BG]
CANADA [CA]
CHILE [CL]
CHINA [CN]
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS
COLOMBIA [CO]
COTE d'ÍVOIRE [CI]
CROATIA [HR]
CUBA [CU]
CYPRUS [CY]
CZECH REPUBLIC [CZ]
DENMARK [DK]
EGYPT [EG]
ESTONIA [EE]
EUROPEAN UNION [EU]
FINLAND [FI]
FRANCE [FR]
GERMANY [DE]
GREECE [GR]
HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION, CHINA [HK]
HUNGARY [HU]
INDIA [IN]
INDONESIA [ID]
IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF [IR]
IRELAND [IE]
ISRAEL [IL]
ITALY [IT]
JAPAN [JP]
JORDAN [JO]
KENYA [KE]
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF [KR]
KUWAIT [KW]
LATVIA [LV]
LITHUANIA [LT]
MACEDONIA, FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF [MK]
MALAWI [MW]
MALAYSIA [MY]
MALTA [MT]
MAURITIUS [MU]
MEXICO [MX]
MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF [MD]
MOROCCO [MA]
MOZAMBIQUE [MZ]
NEPAL [NP]
THE NETHERLANDS [NL]
NEW ZEALAND [NZ]
NIGERIA [NG]
NORWAY [NO]
OMAN [OM]
PERU [PE]
THE PHILIPPINES [PH]
POLAND [PL]
ROMANIA [RO]
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION [RU]
SENEGAL [SE]
SAUDI ARABIA [SA]
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO [YU]
SINGAPORE [SG]
SLOVAKIA [SK]
SLOVENIA [SI]
SOUTH AFRICA [ZA]
SPAIN [ES]
SRI LANKA [LK]
THE SUDAN [SD]
SWEDEN [SE]
SWITZERLAND [CH]
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC [SY]
TAIWAN PROVINCE OF CHINA [TW]
TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF [TZ]
THAILAND [TH]
TUNISIA [TN]
TURKEY [TR]
UKRAINE [AU]
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES [AE]
UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND [UK]
URUGUAY [UY]
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA [US]
VENEZUELA [VZ]
VIET NAM [VN]
YEMEN [YE]
ZIMBABWE [ZW]

Table 4: Medians and ranges of maximum tolerated levels (mg/kg) for some (groups of) aflatoxins in 1995 and 2003 and numbers of countries known to have relevant regulations

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