Center for International Development. Links to an extensive list of background papers on biotechnology in developing countries.
FAO. 1999. Biotechnology. www.fao.org/unfao/bodies/COAG/COAG15/X0074E.htm.
(A paper presented to COAG covering main biotechnology applications, previous major work on biotechnology in FAO, issues and concerns of developing countries and areas for FAO action).
FAO. 1999. Biosafety issues related to biotechnologies for sustainable agriculture and food security. ftp://ext-ftp.fao.org/waicent/pub/cgrfa8/8-i11-e.pdf (Presented at the 8th Regular Session of the CGRFA)
FAO. 1999. Glossary of biotechnology and genetic engineering. FAO Research and Technology Paper 7. www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X3910E/X3910E00.htm
FAO. 2001. Genetically modified organisms, consumers, food safety and the environment. Ethics Series, no. 2. www.fao.org/Ethics/ser_en.htm
UNDP. 2001. Human Development Report 2001. Making new technologies work for human development. www.undp.org/hdr2001/
Biotechnology and Development Monitor. www.biotech-monitor.nl/
(A quarterly journal published by the University of Amsterdam, Holland, with short, easily-understandable articles on research, development, regulation and applications related to biotechnology relevant to developing countries).
Center for International Development. Links to an extensive list of websites on biotechnology in developing countries. www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech/links/biotech_dev.htm
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology www.ejb.org
FAO Biotechnology Website www.fao.org/biotech/index.asp
OECD’s Database of Field Trials. www.olis.oecd.org/biotrack.nsf
(This database includes records of field trials of genetically modified organisms (crops, forest trees, animals, fungi, bacteria and viruses) which have taken place in OECD member countries. It also includes data from other countries, provided by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization).
Anonymous. 2000. Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture. National Academy Press. www.nap.edu/html/transgenic/index.html (A report prepared under the auspices of the Royal Society of London, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the Mexican Academy of Sciences and the Third World Academy of Sciences).
Brink J. A., Woodward, B. R. and E. J. DaSilva. 1998. Plant biotechnology: a tool for development in Africa. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 1 (3). ejb.org/content/vol1/issue3/full/6/index.html
Drew, R. A. 1997. The application of biotechnology to the conservation and improvement of tropical and subtropical fruit species. www.fao.org/ag/agp/agps/pgr/drew1.htm
James, C. 2000. Global status of commercialized transgenic crops: 2000. ISAAA Briefs No. 21: Preview. ISAAA, Ithaca, United States. (Key parts of the document can be viewed at www.isaaa.org/publications/briefs/Brief_21.htm).
Mann, C. C. 1999. Crop scientists seek a new revolution. Science, 283, 310-314.
Paarlberg, R. 2000. Governing the GM crop revolution: Policy choices for developing countries. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 33. IFPRI (can be found by searching on the IFPRI website at www.ifpri.org/)
Saxena, D., Flores, S. and G. Stotzky. 1999. Transgenic plants: Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bt corn. Nature, 402, 480.
Somerville, C. and S. Somerville. 1999. Plant functional genomics. Science, 285, 380-383. www.biotech-info.net/plant_functional.html
Spillane, C. 1999. Recent developments in biotechnology as they relate to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. ftp://ext-ftp.fao.org/waicent/pub/cgrfa8/BSP/bsp9E.pdf. (A paper prepared for the CGRFA).
Crop Biotech Net. Run by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA). www.isaaa.org/kc/
Plant biotechnology teaching resources. Provided by Texas A & M University, United States. aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/tisscult/biotech/biotechteach.html
Technical Cooperation Network on Plant Biotechnology in Latin America and the Caribbean (REDBIO/FAO). www.rlc.fao.org/redes/redbio/html/home.htm
Burdon, R. D. 1994. The role of biotechnology in tree breeding. Forest Genetic Resources, 22. FAO, Rome.
Burdon, R. D. 1999. Risk-management issues for genetically engineered forest trees. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 29, 375-390.
Burdon, R. D. 2001. Genetic aspects of risk - species diversification, genetic management and genetic engineering. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 45, 20-25.
Burke, W. S. 2001. New trees on the horizon: anticipating forest biotechnology. The Forestry Chronicle, 77, 19-22.
Butcher, P. A., Glaubitz, J. C. and G. F. Moran. 1999. Applications for microsatellite markers in the domestication and conservation of forest trees. Forest Genetic Resources, 27. www.fao.org/forestry/FOR/FORM/FOGENRES/genresbu/web27-en/micr-e.stm
Carlson, M. 2001. ERMA hearing for applications to field trial genetically-modified Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 46, 8-9.
Di Fazio, S.P., Leonardi, S., Cheng, S. and S.H. Strauss. 1999. Assessing potential risks of transgene escape from fiber plantations. In P.W. Lutman (ed.) Gene flow and agriculture: relevance for transgenic crops. Symposium Proceedings No. 72. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, United Kingdom. pp. 171-176. www.fsl.orst.edu/tgerc/bcpcpres.doc
Espinel, S. and E. Ritter (Eds.). 1999. Proceedings of the meeting on “Applications of Biotechnology to Forest Genetics”. BIOFOR-99. 22-25 September 1999, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
EU. 1999. Which DNA marker for which purpose? Final compendium of the research project ‘Development, optimization and validation of molecular tools for assessment of biodiversity in forest trees’ - European Union DGXII Biotechnology FW IV Research Programme. webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/1999/whichmarker/index.htm
FAO. 1994. Biotechnology in forest tree improvement. FAO Forestry Paper 118.
FAO. 2001. State of the World’s Forests. www.fao.org/forestry/fo/sofo/sofo-e.stm
FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. www.fao.org/forestry/fo/fra/index.jsp
Forest Biotechnology ‘99. 1999. users.ox.ac.uk/~dops0022/conference/abstracts.htm
(Abstracts of a joint meeting of the International Wood Biotechnology Symposium and the IUFRO Working Party 2.04-06 Molecular Genetics of Trees. Held in Oxford, United Kingdom, July 11-16, 1999).
Franclet, A. 1989. Biotechnology and the genetic improvement of trees. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Plant Biotechnologies for Developing Countries. Organized jointly by CTA and FAO. Luxembourg, 26-30 June, 1989. Ebenezer Baylis, The Trinity Press, United Kingdom.
Haines, R. J. 1994. Biotechnology in forest tree improvement: research directions and priorities. Unasylva 177, Vol 45. FAO, Rome.
Haines, R. J. and B. E. Martin. 1997. Biotechnology and the sustainable production of tropical timber.
Forest Genetic Resources, 25.
International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO). 1999. Position statement on benefits and risks of transgenic plantations (September 1999).
Krutovskii, K. V. and D. B. Neale. 2001. Forest genomics for conserving adaptive genetic diversity. Forest Genetic Resources Working Papers, Working Paper FGR/3E (July 2001), FAO. (this paper will be made available on the web).
Ledig, F. T. 1989. The relevance of biotechnology to forestry in developing countries. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Plant Biotechnologies for Developing Countries. Organized jointly by CTA and FAO. Luxembourg, 26-30 June, 1989. Ebenezer Baylis, The Trinity Press, United Kingdom.
McLean, M. A. and P. J. Charest. 2000. The regulation of transgenic trees in North America. Silvae Genetica, 49, 233-239.
Mullin, T. J. and S. Bertrand. 1998. Environmental release of transgenic trees in Canada - potential benefits and assessment of biosafety. The Forestry Chronicle, 74, 203-219.
Owusu, R. A. 1999. An overview of GM technology in the forest sector. - a scoping study for WWF-UK and WWF International. www.wwf-uk.org/news/n_0000000172.asp
Sederoff, R. R. 1999. Tree genomes: what will we understand about them by the year 2020? In: Matyas, C. (Ed.), Forest Genetics and Sustainability. Forestry Science, Volume 63, 23-30. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sedjo, R. A. 2001. The role of forest plantations in the world’s future timber supply. The Forestry Chronicle, 77, 221-225.
Strauss, H. S., DiFazio, S. P. and R. Meilan. 2001. Genetically modified poplars in context. The Forestry Chronicle, 77, 271-279.
Szmidt, A. E. and X. R. Wang. 1999. Genetic markers in forest genetics. In: Forest Genetics and Sustainability. C. Matyas (Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Wang X. R. and A. E. Szmidt. 2001. Molecular markers in population genetics of forest trees. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 199-220.
Whiteman, A. and C. Brown. 1999. The potential role of forest plantations in meeting future demands for industrial wood products. International Forestry Review, 1, 143-152.
Yanchuk, A. D. 2001. The role and implications of biotechnological tools in forestry. Unasylva 204, Vol. 52, 53-61. www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X8820E/x8820e10.htm#P0_0
Biotechnology at the Canadian Forest Service.
Dendrome (a forest tree genome database) dendrome.ucdavis.edu/<http://dendrome.ucdavis.edu/
International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) iufro.boku.ac.at/
Tree Genetic Engineering Research Cooperative www.fsl.orst.edu/tgere
Cunningham, E.P. 1999. Recent developments in biotechnology as they relate to animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. ftp://ext-ftp.fao.org/waicent/pub/cgrfa8/BSP/bsp10E.pdf (Prepared for the CGRFA)
Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S. and C. Courbois. 1999. Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 28, IFPRI. www.ifpri.cgiar.org/2020/dp/dp28.pdf
FAO. 1997. Report of a working group on the implications of new developments in biotechnology for conservation of animal genetic resources - reversible DNA quiescence and somatic cloning, Rome. pp. 33. dad.fao.org/en/refer/library/reports/dna.pdf
FAO. 2000. Modern biotechnology and the management of animal genetic resources: Policy issues. dad.fao.org/en/refer/library/reports2/itwg/2-00-4.pdf (Prepared for the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources of the CGRFA, Rome, 4 - 6 September. pp.14.)
Rege, J. E. O. 1996. Biotechnology options for improving livestock production in developing countries, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5473b/x5473b05.htm (A paper from the proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference of the African Small Ruminant Research Network, Uganda, 5-9 December 1994)
Wagner, H-G. and K. Hammond. 1997. Animal production improvement in developing countries: issues concerning the application of biotechnology. Proceedings of an international workshop on Transgenic Animals and Food Production, Stockholm, Sweden, 22-24 May, 1997.
International Society of Animal Genetics. Links to animal genomics websites.
Roslin Institute online information on cloning and nuclear transfer
Bartley, D. M. 1998. Genetics and breeding in aquaculture: current status and trends, 13-30, in D. M. Bartley and B. Basurco (Eds.), Genetics and Breeding of Mediterranean Aquaculture Species. Cahiers OPTIONS Vol. 34, 297pp.
Bartley, D. M. 1999. International instruments for the responsible use of genetically modified organisms. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter, 23, 11-16. www.fao.org/fi/newslet/fan23e.asp
Bartley, D. M. 1999. Ex situ conservation, genebanks and responsible fisheries. Pages 45-56 in B. Harvey, C. Ross, D. Greer and J. Carolsfeld (Eds.), Action Before Extinction - Conserving Fish Genetic Diversity. World Fisheries Trust, Vancouver, Canada.
Devlin, R. H., Biagi, C. A., Tesaki, T. Y., Smailus, D. E. and J. C. Byatt. 2001. Growth of domesticated transgenic fish. Nature, 409, 781-782.
FAO. 2000. Genetically modified organisms and fisheries. Pages 71-77 in The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X8002E/x8002e05.htm#P30
Muir, W. M., and R. D. Howard. 1999. Possible ecological risks of transgenic organism release when transgenes affect mating success: sexual selection and the trojan gene hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 13853-13856.
NACA/FAO. 2000. Aquaculture development beyond 2000. The Bangkok Declaration and Strategy. Conference on Aquaculture Development in the Third Millennium.
NACA/FAO 2001. Aquaculture development beyond 2000. Proceeding of the Conference on Aquaculture Development in the Third Millennium. In Press.
Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M. C. M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H. and M. Troell. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405, 1017-1024.
Pullin, R. S. V., D. M. Bartley and J. Kooiman (Eds.). 1999. Towards policies for conservation and sustainable use of aquatic genetic resources. FAO/ICLARM. Conference Proceedings No 59, Manila.
Reichhardt, T. 2000. Will souped up salmon sink or swim? Nature, 406, 10-12.
Tave, D. 1995. Selective breeding programmes for medium-sized fish farms. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 352.
Walker, P. and R. Subasinghe (Eds). 1999. DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 395. FAO, Rome.
Centre for Aquatic Genomics, University of New Hampshire, United States. tilapia.unh.edu/(Contains information on a wide range of subjects, including African cichlids and tilapia genomics)
Center for International Development. Links to aquaculture websites.
FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. www.fao.org/fi/agreem/codecond/codecon.asp
FAO Fisheries Glossary www.fao.org/fi/glossary/default.asp
Links to and comments on research papers relevant to aquaculture and fisheries genetics and conservation. Provided by Genetic Computation Limited, Canada. www.genecomp.com/
USDA performance standards for safely conducting research with genetically modified fish and shellfish www.nbiap.vt.edu/perfstands/psmain.html
Barton, J. H. 2000. Reforming the patent system. Science, 287, 1933-1934.
Barton, J. H. and J. Strauss. 2000. How can the developing world protect itself from biotech patent-holders. Nature, 406, 455.
Bobrow, M. and S. Thomas. 2001. Patents in a genetic age. Nature, 409, 763-764.
Byerlee D. and K. Fischer. 2001. Accessing modern science: policy and institutional options for agricultural biotechnology in developing countries. IP Strategy Today, No. 1-2001.
Center for International Development. Links to an extensive list of background papers on biotechnology and IPR. www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech/links/intellectual_property-rp.htm
Cohen J. I., Falconi, C., Komen, J. and M. Blakeney. 1998. Proprietary biotechnology inputs and international agricultural research. ISNAR Briefing Paper No. 39.
CSRD. 2001. Proceedings of a workshop on intellectual property clearinghouse mechanisms for agriculture. www.cnr.berkeley.edu/csrd/technology/ipcmech/ (A workshop held by the Center of Sustainable Resource Development of the University of California Berkley, and the University of California Office of Technology Transfer, February 16, 2001)
IPGRI. 1999. Key questions for decision-makers. Protection of plant varieties under the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. (Search on “wto” at www.ipgri.cgiar.org/system/page.asp?frame=catalogue/select.asp)
Kryder, R.D., Kowalski, S.P. and A.F. Krattiger. 2000. The intellectual and technical property components of pro-vitamin A rice (GoldenRiceTM): A preliminary freedom-to-operate review. ISAAA Briefs No. 20. ISAAA, Ithica, United States. 56 p.
Salazar S., Falconi C., Komen J. and J. I. Cohen. 2000. The use of proprietary biotechnology research inputs at selected Latin American NAROs. ISNAR Briefing Paper 44.
Center for International Development. Links to an extensive list of websites on biotechnology and IPR.
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). www.upov.int/
IP Strategy Today. www.biodevelopments.org/ip/index.htm (A free electronic journal on intellectual property strategies, primarily in the context of biotechnology).
Links to searchable patent databases and to information sources concerning patents and intellectual property rights. Provided by AgBiotechNet. www.agbiotechnet.com/links/patents.asp
Patent glossary, from the UK Patent Office. www.patent.gov.uk/patent/glossary/
TRIPS material on the WTO website www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/trips_e.htm
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) www.wipo.int
Anonymous. 1999. Access issues may determine whether agri-biotech will help the world’s poor. Nature, 402, 341-345.
Chrispeels, M. J. 2000. Biotechnology and the poor. Plant Physiology, 124, 3-6.
FAO. 1999. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 1999.
FAO. 2000. The State of Food and Agriculture 2000. www.fao.org/news/2000/000903-e.htm
FAO. 2001. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001.
Guerinot, M. L. 2000. The green revolution strikes gold. Science, 287, 241-243.
Persley, G. J. and M. M. Lantin. (Eds.) 2000. Agricultural biotechnology and the poor. www.cgiar.org/biotech/rep0100/contents.htm. (Proceedings of an international conference, Washington D.C., October 21-22, 1999. Convened by the CGIAR and the United States National Academy of Sciences).
Serageldin, I. and G.J. Persley. 1999. Promethean Science: Agricultural Biotechnology, the Environment, and the Poor. www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/publications/prometh/pscont.html
Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Kloti, A. Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P. and I. Potrykus. 2000. Engineering the Provitamin A (bb-Carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science, 287, 303-305.
Food First/The Institute for Food and Development Policy www.foodfirst.org/index.html
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) www.ifpri.cgiar.org/
AI =人工授粉Artificial insemination
Bt =苏云金芽孢杆菌 Bacillus thuringiensis
CBD = 生物多样性公约Convention on Biological Diversity
CGIAR = 国际农业研究磋商小组Consultative Group on International Agricultural Res earch
CGRFA = 食物与农业遗传资源委员会Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agr iculture
COAG = FAO农业委员会FAO's Committee on Agriculture
ET = 胚胎移植Embryo transfer
FAO = 联合国粮农组织Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
G x E = 环境决定的基因型（指基因与环境互作）Genotype by environment
GM = 基因改良（亦称遗传修饰、基因修饰、遗传改造，通常指转基因）Genetically modif ied
GMOs = 转基因生物，遗传改良生物Genetically modified organisms
IAEA = 国际原子能机构International Atomic Energy Agency
IARC = 国际农业研究中心International Agricultural Research Centre
IDWGB = FAO生物技术工作组The FAO Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biotechnolo gy
IPM = 有害生物综合防治Integrated pest management
IPR = 知识产权Intellectual property rights
IVM/IVF = 体外成熟/体外受精In vitro maturation/in vitro fertilization
LAC = 拉丁美洲及加勒比地区Latin America and the Caribbean
MAS = 标记辅助选择Marker-assisted selection
MNCs = 跨国公司 Multi-national corporations
MOET = 多排卵和胚胎移植Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer
NGOs = 非政府组织Non-governmental organizations
OECD = 经济合作与发展组织Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
QTLs = 数量性状位点Quantitative trait loci
PVP = 植物品种保护Plant variety protection
SDRR = FAO研究与技术发展局FAO's Research and Technology Development Service
The TRIPS Agreement = 世贸组织关于与贸易相关的知识产权保护协议WTO's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
UNDP = 联合国开发计划署United Nations Development Programme
UPOV = 国际植物新品种保护联盟International Union for the Protection of New Varie ties of Plants
VAD = 维生素A缺乏症Vitamin A deficiency
WIPO = 世界知识产权组织World Intellectual Property Organization
WTO = 世界贸易组织World Trade Organization