Study and analysis of feeds
and fertilizers for sustainable
aquaculture development

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.497

Study and analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development



Edited by
Mohammad R. Hasan
Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service
Fisheries and Aquaculture Management Division
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

Thomas Hecht
Rhodes University
Grahamastown, South Africa

Sena S. De Silva
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

and
Albert G.J. Tacon
FAO Consultant
Hawaii, United States of America

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2007

CONTENTS

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PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

This document was prepared by a group of experts under the leadership of Dr Mohammad R. Hasan as part of the FAO Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service's (FIMA) on-going programme entity "Monitoring, Management and Conservation of Resources for Aquaculture Development". A number of country reviews and case studies from Asia, Africa and a regional review for Latin America were commissioned to provide an overview of aquaculture and an analysis of feed and fertilizer use for the sustainable development of the sector. To reflect the diversity of aquaculture systems and practices in these regions seven countries were selected from Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam), six from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) and eight from Africa (Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). The country reviews for Asia and sub-Saharan Africa were synthesized, and a global synthesis was prepared on the basis of the three regional reviews (Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa). In addition and as part of the FIMA work programme, a targeted workshop on "Use of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development" was held in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China, on 18-21 March 2006. The workshop was organized by FIMA of FAO in collaboration with the Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre (FFRC) of China and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA).

Eight Asian and six African country reviews, a case study from Viet Nam, the three regional reviews and the global synthesis and the report of the workshop are included in this document. The report and recommendations of the workshop were circulated among the participants of the workshop and FAO FIMA technical officers for comment and the final report is incorporated in this technical paper.

The manuscripts in this technical paper were reviewed and technically edited by an editorial team led by Dr Mohammad R. Hasan. With a few exceptions, most of the reports included in the document were reviewed and edited in early 2007 before the FAO FishStat data for 2005 was released and hence data contained in most of the reports are for 2004. Updated aquaculture data for 2005 are available on FishStat (2007) (www.fao.org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS.asp). For consistency and conformity, scientific and English common names of fish species were used from FishBase (http:// www.fishbase.org/home.htm). Most of the photographs in the country reviews and in the regional syntheses were provided by the authors. Where this is not the case, due acknowledgements are made to the contributors.

Much gratitude is due to the review and case study authors, who faced an enormous task and showed equally enormous patience with the editors. We acknowledge Ms Helen Nakouzi, Ms Hasini Wijesuriya, Ms Elena Irde and Ms Marika Panzironi for their assistance in word processing, Ms Tina Farmer, Ms Francoise Schatto and Ms Chrissi Smith-Redfern for their assistance in quality control and FAO house style and Mr Josť Luis Castilla Civit for layout design. The publishing and distribution of the document were undertaken by FAO, Rome.

Finally, Mr Jiansan Jia, Service Chief and Dr Rohana P. Subasinghe, Senior Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture), FAO Aquaculture Management and Conservation Service are gratefully acknowledged for providing the means, technical advice and moral support to initiate the study and to complete the publication.

 

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

The views expressed in this information product are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.

ISBN 978-92-5-105862-6

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© FAO 2007

Hasan, M.R.; Hecht, T.; De Silva, S.S.; Tacon, A.G.J. (eds).
Study and analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 497. Rome, FAO. 2007. 510p.

ABSTRACT

This compendium provides a comprehensive overview of feed and fertilizer use for sustainable aquaculture development in developing countries. It comprises of a series of review papers, including eight country reviews from Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam), six country reviews from Africa (Cameroon, Egypt, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Uganda), one case study report from Asia, three regional reviews (Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa), a global synthesis as well as the final report of the FAO Expert Workshop on "Use of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development", held in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China, on 18-21 March 2006.

The country reviews provide an overview of the current status of aquaculture, a synthesis of the availability, accessibility and use of feed and fertilizer resources in relation to the diversity of farming systems and practices and an analysis of the nutritional, economic and social constraints of using these inputs. The regional reviews provide a synthesis of the country reviews by considering production trends and feed and fertilizer use from a wider geographic perspective and also analysed the projected expansion of the aquaculture sector in relation to the future availability of input commodities. The global synthesis provides a general overview and summarizes the future challenges facing the sector with respect to the use of feeds and fertilizers. The reviews as well as the case study reports provided the background information for the working group sessions of the workshop.

The working groups focused on the important role of farm-made aquafeeds in Asia and the need to develop and promote the use of farm-made feeds in sub-Saharan Africa, considered issues pertaining to the production and safe use of aquafeeds and deliberated on the constraints faced by industrial and small-scale aquafeed producers. Several key issues and constraints were identified, categorized and prioritized and appropriate actions were recommended. The workshop recommended that FAO undertake the following actions to assist regional organizations and member country governments to address the following identified issues and constraints on a regional and global perspective:

  • review existing national standards and legislation regarding nutrient specifications (where these exist) for the manufacture of industrial and farm-made aquafeeds, and to provide guidelines and advisory material for different farming systems, practices and feed types;
  • review existing national incentive mechanisms, subsidies and taxes affecting the animal feed manufacturing sector and feed ingredient usage, including feed commodity imports and exports and developing domestic promotion strategies;
  • compile synopses of the nutritional requirements of major cultured fish species and the feed ingredients currently used in compound/farm-made aquafeeds, including national/regional feed ingredient source books containing information on nutrient composition, quality control criteria, seasonal availability and market price;
  • encourage the strengthening of national/regional dialogue, exchange of information and assist with the setting of research priorities between researchers, the public sector and the aquaculture sector (including farmers and feed manufacturers), by supporting the activities of national/regional organizations, implementation of joint research projects, establishment of national farmer/aquafeed associations, and the development of web-based information and research networks; and
  • strengthen capacity of farmers, feed manufacturers, private service providers, researchers and extension workers in aquaculture nutrition and feed technology, including on-farm feed management in developing countries (particularly in sub- Saharan Africa), and promote interregional cooperation.

  • Contents


    PDF icon (900 Kb)
    Preparation of this document
    Abstract
    Contributors
    Foreword
    Executive summary
    Abbreviations and acronyms

    GLOBAL SYNTHESIS AND REGIONAL REVIEWS
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    Global synthesis of feeds and nutrients for sustainable aquaculture development
    Albert G.J. Tacon and Mohammad R. Hasan

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    Feeds and fertilizers: the key to long-term sustainability of Asian aquaculture
    Sena S. De Silva and Mohammad R. Hasan

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    Feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development: a regional review for Latin America
    A. Flores-Nava

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    Review of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in sub-Saharan Africa
    Thomas Hecht


    COUNTRY REVIEWS AND CASE STUDY: ASIA
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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Bangladesh
    Benoy K. Barman and Manjurul Karim

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in China
    M. Weimin and L. Mengqing

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in India
    S. Ayyappan and S. Ahamad Ali

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    Development of the aquafeed industry in India
    A. Victor Suresh

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Indonesia
    Abidin Nur

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in the Philippines
    Neila S. Sumagaysay-Chavoso

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Thailand
    S. Thongrod

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam
    Le Thanh Hung and Huynh Pham Viet Huy

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    Case study on the use of farm-made feeds and commercially formulated pellets for pangasiid catfish in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam
    Le Thanh Hung, Luu Thi Thanh Truc and Huynh Pham Viet Huy


    COUNTRY REVIEWS: AFRICA
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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Cameroon
    Victor Pouomogne

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Egypt
    Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Kenya
    Beatrice Nyandat

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Malawi
    S.K. Chimatiro and B.B. Chirwa

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Nigeria
    Olajide A. Ayinla

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    Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Uganda
    J. Rutaisire


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    WORKSHOP REPORT

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