C. World food program
105. The Conference considered the future of the World Food Program (WFP) on the basis of reports submitted by the Council (C 65/29 and C 65/LIM/32), the Intergovernmental Committee of the Program (C 65/29), the Secretary- General of the United Nations and the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization jointly (C 65/10 and C 65/10 Corr, 1) and the Executive Director of the Program (C 65/10, Appendix). The Conference also had before it the text of Resolution 1080 (XXXIX) on the continuation of the World Food Program, adopted by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC). Copies of an amendment to the draft resolution recommended by the Economic and Social Council to the General Assembly of the United Nations, which had been submitted by Argentina to the General Assembly for approval, were circulated at the request of the Argentine Delegation for the information of the Conference.
106. The Conference considered that the experimental World Food Program had proved to be a success. Multilateral food aid should become part of the regular activities of the United Nations family, complementing the other types of assistance already provided by established agencies and programs.
107. While the World Food Program had its origins both in the need for food aid and in various initiatives to find constructive uses for agricultural commodity surpluses, the Program now involved much more than the mere utilization of surplus foods. While it was possible to discern a trend toward the reduction of world surpluses, the need for food aid on the contrary was increasing. The Program had revealed new ways of using food as development capital, and had enabled governments to start undertakings which might not otherwise have been feasible.
108. Some delegates suggested that food aid needs might be considered by the governments of donor countries when they were setting their national production targets; this should not, however, encourage uneconomic production. It was suggested by several delegates that the effectiveness of WFP food aid could be enhanced by linking it with projects in the national development plans of recipient countries.
109. The Conference appreciated that the commodity composition so far available to the World Food Program, while it included Items not among the traditional surplus products, nevertheless was still less than Ideal for meeting the basic needs of many developing countries. Certain commodities, notably high protein foods and rice, were not available in sufficient quantities to satisfy requirements. This was clearly a question which should receive increasing attention in the years ahead. One solution suggested by some delegations was the partial exchange of WFP commodities for other items needed by project beneficiaries.
110. The Conference noted that, insofar as the Program in future had resources available for the purchase of foodstuff a to provide a more balanced diet, such purchases would be made, as far as was possible and economic, from those developing countries which were exporters of food and were seeking to expand food exports. The Program would thus benefit both food deficient developing countries and food-exporting developing countries as envisaged by Recommendation A. II.6 of the Final Act of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
111. The Conference also recognized that one of the effects of the Program's operations had been, and should continue to be, to increase consumption of food commodities in low-income countries.
112. Food aid was only an Interim solution to the food problems of the developing areas; the basic answer to these problems lay in an increase in local food production. The Conference therefore emphasized the particular importance of WFP projects aimed at increasing agricultural productivity. In all projects, of whatever type, due safeguards - as provided by the FAO Principles of Surplus Disposal - must be applied to ensure that WFP aid did not discourage local producers in recipient countries or disrupt international trade. The Conference also laid stress on the need for adequate attention to the physical arrangements for the handling, storage.. transport and distribution of WFP commodities in recipient areas.
113. A number of delegates described the role of WFP emergency operations or development projects in their countries, and expressed the gratitude of their governments to donor nations and to the World Food Program. In some cases, WFP aid had led to the introduction of new ideas for integrating related schemes designed to increase food production.
114. The Conference recognized that most WFP projects had
become operational only in the second half of the experimental
period, so that evaluation in depth of the impact and
effectiveness even of selected projects bad not yet been
possible; great importance was, however, attached by many
delegations to such an appraisal being made at the earliest
115. The Conference accepted the proposed targets of $275 million for voluntary contributions for the period 1966-1968, and 33 percent for the proportion in cash and services. Many delegations stated that their governments would announce contributions at the forthcoming Pledging Conference, and in some cases gave advance indications of the level at which they would contribute. The Executive Director reported that the flow of requests for WFP assistance had already reached such proportions that, if the target were fully met, it was likely that all resources available for projects could be committed.
116. Many delegations referred to the Argentine proposal for amending the draft resolution on the continuation of the World Food Program submitted by ECOSOC to the General Assembly of the United Nations. While sympathy was expressed by a number of delegations for the substance of the Argentine proposals, the Conference felt that the basic character of the Program should be maintained, and that, therefore it was of fundamental importance for the satisfactory conduct of the Program that the same decisions be reached by its two parent organizations, the United Nations and FAO, which meant that the introduction of substantive changes at this point by either body should be avoided. The resolutions as recommended by ECOSOC and the FAO Council to the General Assembly and the FAO Conference respectively had the same operative provisions, and it was highly desirable that this harmony should be maintained. The Argentine proposals had raised new issues which, although admittedly Important, went beyond the scope of the World Food Program. These Issues should form the subject matter of a separate study, for which indeed action had already been recommended by the Committee on Commodity Problems and requested of the Director-General by the FAO Council; these matters were being considered by the Conference under item 6 of its agenda (see para. 68).
117. The Conference felt that, although the experimental period in a formal sense was now coming to an end, further experimentation by the World Food Program was still desirable. As an example, sets of linked projects, or projects covering an entire economic sector or region of a country, were suggested. Reference was made by many delegations to the "program approach" for the provision. of food aid under overall development plans. Most delegates felt that the present emphasis in the World Food Program on using commodities to support projects should be maintained, and that any decision by the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) on a program approach should not be taken until a thorough study had been made of its implications. In this connection, the Conference noted that the IGC had requested the Executive Director to carry out a detailed factual study on the basis of full co-operation with a specific country, and that this study had already been initiated in Jamaica.
118. The Conference was gratified to learn of the support given to the Program by other agencies as well as by nongovernmental organizations, and expressed the hope that this co-operation would be strengthened still further.
119. The Conference Adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 4/65
Continuation of the World Food Program
Conscious of the vast and growing needs of the peoples of the developing countries, of the pressing requirement for assistance in their economic and social development, and of the suffering caused by hunger and malnutrition;
Recalling General Assembly Resolutions 1496 (XV) of 27 October 1960 and 1714 (XVI) of 19 December 1961 and FAO Conference Resolution No. 1/61 of 24 November 1961 concerning the establishment of an experimental World Food Program,
Having considered the report of the Intergovernmental Committee on the future of the World Food Program as transmitted by the Council,
Having studied the report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the future development of the Program (document C 65/10) as well as the report of the Executive Director of the World Food Program (document C 65/10, Appendix),
Having considered the results obtained by the Program during Its initial phase and the contribution which it Is making toward achieving the goals of the United Nations Development Decade and of the FAO Freedom from Hunger Campaign,
Taking note with satisfaction of the contributions of foodstuffs, money and services already made by Member States of the United Nations and Member Nations and Associate Members of FAO, as well as the co-operation of recipient countries in the elaboration and implementation of development projects, in which for the first time food aid is being utilized for development in a multilateral framework,
Recognizing the potentialities of this Program, in which the United Nations and FAO have co-operated through the joint UN/FAO Administrative Unit,
Appreciating the co-operation and assistance extended to the Program by the interested Specialized Agencies and operating programs of the United Nations, and by a number of other intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and
Having considered Resolution 1080 (XXXIX) of the Economic and Social Council and Resolution No. 3/44 of the FAO Council:
1. Decides to extend the UN/FAO World Food Program, established in virtue of General Assembly Resolution 1714 (XVI) and FAO Conference Resolution No. 1/61, on a continuing basis for as long as multilateral food aid is found feasible and desirable, on the understanding that the Program will be regularly reviewed before each pledging conference and that if circumstances so require it may be enlarged, curtailed or terminated at the end of any period for which resources have been pledged;
2. Established for the three years 1966, 1967 and 1968 a target for voluntary contributions of $275 million, of which not less than 33 percent should be in cash and services, and urges Member States of the United Nations and Member Nations and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization to make every effort to ensure the early attainment of the target
3. Requests the Secretary -General in co-operation with the Director-General of FAO to convene a pledging conference at United Nations Headquarters as soon as feasible,
4. Decides that the next following pledging conference, subject to the review provided for in paragraph 1 above, should be convened in 1967, at which time governments would be Invited to pledge contributions for 1969 and 1970, with a view to reaching such target as may be recommended by the General Assembly and the FAO Conference;
5. Reaffirms its previous decision to the effect that the UN/FAO Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Program shall comprise 24 Nations Members of FAO or the United Nations, 12 of these Members to be elected by the Economic and Social Council and 12 Members by the FAO Council, It being understood that outgoing Members shall be eligible for re-election.
6. Requests the Economic and Social Council and the FAO Council as soon as possible after the adoption of this resolution by the General Assembly and the FAO Conference to elect twelve Members each, four Members each for a term of one year, four Members each for a term of two years, four Members each for a term of three years;
7. Decide that thereafter all the members of the Intergovernmental Committee shall be elected for a term of three years and requests the Economic and Social Council and the FAO Council to make such provisions as will ensure that the terms of office of four members elected by the two Councils respectively shall expire in each calendar year;
8. Further requests the Economic and Social Council and the FAO Council when electing members of the Intergovernmental Committee to take into account the need for balanced representation of economically developed and developing countries and other relevant factors such as the representation of potential participating countries, both contributing and recipient, equitable geographical distribution and the representation of both developed and developing countries having commercial Interests in international trade in foodstuff 8, especially those highly dependent on such trade
9. Requests a review of the General Regulations of the Program in the light of the present resolution and calls upon the Economic and Social Council and the FAO Council to take appropriate action thereon.
(Adopted 6.12. 65)
D. Freedom from hunger campaign
Report on results achieved and future orientation of the campaign
Plans for the second world food congress
International rice year
Report on results achieved and future orientation of the campaign
a) National FFHC committees
c) Action program
d) Young world mobilization appeal
e) Industry co-operation
120. The Conference considered the progress of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC) as outlined in documents C 65/18, C 65/18 Add. 1, C 65/LIM,/1, and C 65/36. It also noted the Report and Recommendations of the Second Freedom from Hunger Campaign Conference, held at FAO Headquarters on 17 - 20 November 1965 (document C 65/LIM,/42). It also had before it the Director-General's preliminary plans for the Second World Food Congress, C 65/19.
121. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's report and introductory statement, including both their presentation of the progress of the Campaign to date and the suggestions on the future orientation of the Campaign. Many delegations commented on the Second FFHC Conference which was generally agreed as having been an important gathering and an Improvement on the First FFHC Conference. General support was expressed for the holding of regional FFHC conferences to enable National FFHC Committees within the region to discuss problems of mutual concern and to exchange information and experiences. It was on the other hand suggested that regional co-operation may be achieved by including in delegations to FAO regional conferences members of the FFHC Committees. The Conference grave general support to the Director-General's proposal to appoint three additional regional liaison officers as it was felt that they would be of value to assist National Committees and strengthen regional co-operation.
a) National FFHC committees
122. It was pointed out that one quarter of FAO Member Nations still had not established National FFHC Committees, and the Conference asked that action should be taken to correct this situation. While the value of effective National Committees was fully endorsed it was stressed that the approach to the development of effective National Committees must be on a country-by-country basis, and that each must be helped to adapt its structure according to local needs, and based on local situations. The Conference agreed that regional liaison officers would be most valuable in this field of activity, provided that their work was concentrated, in the first instance, on those countries which were making concerted efforts to develop the work of their Committees.
123. Most delegations paid tribute to the value of National Committees in both developed and developing countries in Informing their people about the problems of hunger and malnutrition, thus leading to constructive action. One delegation explained that a national foundation had been established and with government support had been given tax exemption both for donations received and for local private investment in agricultural development projects. Considerable emphasis was laid on the ability of local populations to develop effective action, provided they had the leadership of a National Committee. Some delegates suggested that Committee activities should be particularly directed toward training schemes and educational programs designed to stimulate action among their own people. The Conference agreed that the Inter-relationship between National Committees and FAO in the International Campaign was of the greatest Importance, as It served- to demonstrate that local actions were also part of a world-wide activity.
124. The Conference laid stress on the Importance of continuing to provide information about the problems of hunger in order to promote public action, but at the same time emphasized the importance of Including in the information program case histories of successful programs designed to promote further action. The Conference agreed that the Campaign had succeeded to a considerable extent in arousing world opinion and expressed its gratitude to the Director-General for his efforts in focusing attention on these problems, inter alia through his speeches at the United Nations Population Commission and at the World Population Conference held in Belgrade in August 1965.
125. Many delegates stressed the importance of providing more material specifically designed for the use of developing countries, even if this should mean that FAO could produce less material for general use. The Conference noted with approval the activities of FAO in promoting seminars on farm broadcasting. While the value of such seminars was not questioned it was suggested that it would be important to evaluate the orientation and the impact of farm broadcasting in order that FAO's work might be developed along most effective lines. (See also para. 153.)
c) Action program
126. The Conference noted the substantial role played in the Campaign by action projects, and welcomed the increasing emphasis of the Campaign on action. The Conference agreed that FAO could play a still larger role in developing such programs and it was pointed out that finances to support FFHC action projects, while primarily still the concern of nongovernmental organizations, could also be supported by government funds earmarked for this specific purpose. It was suggested that FFHC could be extremely useful as a clearing house for all types of action undertaken for the objectives of the Campaign. A proposal made to the Freedom from Hunger Campaign Conference by the Indian Delegation for the establishment of a central fund to ensure the more rapid implementation of approved projects was mentioned by some delegations, and one reported that a small national fund of this kind had already been established. The Conference hoped that the Director-General would consider further the implications of this proposal.
127. Several delegations gave examples of action projects undertaken to enlist underemployed manpower which were regarded as particularly important because they helped to involve local people in the development of their own areas and contributed to national development plans. The Conference noted with approval the Director-General's proposals for a further expansion of FAO's role in the process of utilizing underemployed manpower for rural development, and the announcement that a number of missions were shortly to begin the study of such projects in three different regions. It agreed however that before this process was developed on a wider scale the results of the forthcoming missions should be carefully evaluated, and also the results of experiencies of the World Food Program.
128. The Conference agreed that while the action projects undertaken through FFHC might usually be small in comparison to governmental activities, such projects should nevertheless be given great importance by National FFHC Committees as small actions of this kind were invaluable in preparing the ground for larger, regular national schemes. It was also generally agreed that project action programs should be kept under constant review.
d) Young world mobilization appeal
129. The Conference warmly welcomed the launching of the Young World Mobilization Appeal, and agreed that it could be of great value for the pursuit of the objectives of FFHC. Several delegations gave examples of the mobilization of young people for local action such as the construction of schools, training centers, small Irrigation schemes and roads. One de legation explained that the work being done by young people had proved to be extremely valuable in helping the country toward self - sufficiency in its staple crop. Strong stress was laid on the importance of ensuring that programs under the Young World Mobilization Appeal should be designed to provide opportunities of constructive action for young people, and not merely to enlarge youth organizations.
130. The recommendation of the Second FFHC Conference that a Director-General's Promotion Group for the. Young World Appeal should be established within the framework of FFHC was welcomed by the Conference, and it was stressed that there was an urgent need for a planned program to follow up the initiatives already undertaken both by the Director-General as well as by countries and organizations.
e) Industry co-operation
131. The Conference noted with approval the initiatives which the Director-General had taken to establish closer relations between FAO and industries related to agriculture, and recognized the potential value of this action which extended FFHC activities:; into an entirely new area. The detailed review and recommendations of the Second FFHC Conference were noted in this regard. A majority of delegations gave details of the ways in which they felt industrial co-operation could be of most value, particularly in assisting to provide necessary equipment, supplies and training facilities needed for agricultural development programs. The Conference acknowledged the importance of a multilateral approach in this area. It was also agreed that much might be done by the establishment of bilateral contacts between developing countries and industries related to agricultural production and food conservation and processing. Some delegations pointed out that this type of co-operation had a real value for all three partners, namely FAO, industry and the developing countries. It was also pointed out that it would be important for the Director-General to keep governments and National FFHC Committees Informed of his negotiations within Member Countries.
132. The Conference gave consideration to a proposal for the establishment of an Agricultural Inputs Pool to which industry in developed countries would be asked to subscribe such items as agricultural machinery, fertilizers, seeds and insecticides. The proposal also included a suggestion that the Director-General should be asked to initiate an approach to industry to seek the mobilization of surplus industrial capacity in these fields. Many delegations welcomed the Initiative while some expressed reservations in view of the complexity of the issues involved. The Director-General pointed out the importance of the attitude of developing countries toward attracting private Investment, and the need for flexibility in approach in encouraging co-operation from private industry. The Conference adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No 5/65
Appreciating the role that the FAO Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC) has played in focusing world attention on hunger as the most urgent problem facing mankind, in setting up a machinery to enlist human and physical resources to the solution of this problem, and in generating the flow of supplementary aid on a people-to-people basis,
Welcoming the initiative taken recently by the Director-General to establish close relations between FAO and industry within the framework of FFHC so as to reinforce humanitarian appeals by realization of the importance of participation in the program in mutual interest,
Noting with concern the dilemma that faces a large number of developing and food-deficient countries as a result of the nonavailability of fresh land for cultivation, and at the same time of the unforeseen and unprecedented pressure of growing population,
Recognizing that in this situation one of the few means of averting the catastrophe of mass hunger and malnutrition in the next few years can be the organization in these countries of Intensive cultivation of foodstuffs so as to step up the farm output in the shortest time practicable,
Realizing that such a Production drive of immediate importance would not be possible without the availability in required quantities of the essential farm production requisites, such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural machinery,
Noting that for the domestic manufacture of farm requisites, these countries have yet to build up the necessary industrial capacity, while worldwide supply of "these Inputs to getting increasingly beyond their reach due to deterioration in the terms of trade as between agricultural and industrial products and lack of foreign exchange,
Recommends that the Director-General, in continuing his negotiations with industry, encourage increased investment in developing countries for the manufacture of Industrial inputs for agricultural production; seek the co-operation of development funding institutions and bilateral aid agencies for more adequate credit to finance necessary agricultural inputs such as fertilizers farm equipment and pesticides; and study additional measures that may be required to assure Increased production and availability of such inputs.
(Adopted 9. 12. 6 5)
Plans for the second world food congress
133. Subject to the views expressed by the Conference in paragraphs 103 and 104 of its Report, the Conference noted with approval the Director-General's proposal to summon a Second World Food Congress in 1968 and his intention to make the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development the central theme of that Congress. Two delegations however expressed a reservation concerning the potential cost of the Congress. The Conference also noted the Director-General's proposal for the preparation of a new series of Basic Studies, and agreed that these would serve a dual purpose of documentation for the Congress and also as a means of education for the Campaign in general.
134. The Conference unanimously approved the recommendation of the Council that the Campaign should be extended until the end of the United Nations Development Decade in 1970, and adopted the following resolution on the Campaign as a whole:
Resolution No. 6/65
Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC)
Recalling its Resolution No. 13/59 establishing the Freedom from Hunger Campaign for the period 1960-65, and its Resolution No. 4/63 continuing Freedom from Hunger Campaign activities beyond 1965,
Haying noted the recommendations of the Forty-Third Session of the Council on the Campaign, and having received the Report of the Director-General (C 65/18)p
Decides that the Freedom from Hunger Campaign shall be continued until the end of the United Nations Development Decade in 1970, under the terms and conditions of Conference Resolution No. 13/59.
Authorizes the Director-General to make preparations for a Second World Food Congress to be held in 1968; and
Requests the Council to make suitable arrangements, in accordance with the procedures laid down at the Tenth and Twelfth Sessions of the Conference to review the plans and recommendations of the Director-General on the future of the Campaign for consideration at the Fifteenth Session of the Conference.
International rice year
135. The Conference reviewed preparations for the International Rice Year (1966), which had been declared by the Director-General following the decision taken at the Twelfth Session and further discussions at the FAO Council. The Council had agreed that the Organization should play a positive role in guiding and stimulating national action, but It emphasized that the degree of success of the scheme would mainly depend on the efforts of individual interested countries. The Council requested the Director-General to give all possible assistance and support to national programs.. within the limitations of the budget. Following the Director-General' a formal declaration of the International Rice Year on 1 July 1965, all the related activities were placed within the general framework of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign.
136. To date, thirty Member Governments had communicated their intention to participate in the International Rice Year. The special programs which were being organized in all regions covered a wide field including direct and indirect measures to aid production, and action to improve marketing, milling, utilization and nutrition. Stress was being laid by Governments on the farm demonstration and extension aspects, for which modern forms of communication including television and film were being employed. Among the international activities planned, several developed countries and one developing country had offered to contribute additional fellowships on rice subjects and other governments had offered to exchange Information on experimental research. To underline the basic importance of scientific and economic research, the Organization was organizing an International Rice Research Competition in 1966, with a prize fund opened with a generous donation made by the Government of Thailand. A series of now FAO publications on various aspects of rice, as well as reprints of selected bulletins on rice which were now out of print, would be issued, and special emphasis would be placed on rice in appropriate FAO sessions in 1966.
137. The Conference reaffirmed Its support for the objectives of the International Rice Year, and it welcomed the constructive activities which were planned. It noted that although there was no provision in the FAO Budget for special rice projects in 1966, the Secretariat stood ready to assist in the technical formulation of such projects which, in certain cases, might obtain support from donors within the framework of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign, the United Nations Special Fund, or other resources. The Conference pointed cat the need to pay particular attention to areas where rice was a relatively new crop, and where farmers had little experience in methods of rice growing.
E. Article XI reports.
138. In accordance wit the suggestion of the Program Committee, the Council has decided to place the suggestion of Article XI reports on the provisional agenda of the Conference, and requested the Director-General to submit to the Conference a report on the subject.
139. The first three paragraphs of the Article XI of the Constitution of FAO read as follows:
2. These reports shall be made at such times and in such form and shall contain such particulars as the Conference may request
3. The Director-General shall submit these reports, together with analyses thereof, to the Conference and small publish such reports and analyses as may be approved for publications by the Conference together with any reports relating thereto adopted by the Conference."
140. The Conference had before it document C 65/21r which contained a brief analysis by the Director-General of past experience in regard to Article XI reports.
141. The Conference noted that relatively few member countries submitted Article XI reports as prescribed by the Council within the time limit laid down. The reports were to cover three-year periods and the most recent covered the period 1961 - 1963. Under the present arrangement fifteen copies of the report were to he forwarded to the Director-General in one of the official languages of the Organization, and governments were also required to communicate copies directly to all other Member Government.
142. The Conference recognized that much of the material required to the Organizations has submitted in other forms, such as replies to questionnaires and reports on specific topics, and in documentation collected regularly by other international organizations.
143. The Conference therefore, decided to request that the Council:
(b) Consider the most appropriate subject matter and format of these reports.
(c) Give considerations to the most useful method of preparing, circulating and using these reports.
(d) Make recommendations thereon to the fourteenth Session of the Conference (1967)
144. In this connection several delegates drew attentions to the possible as to which these Article XI reports could be put as the regional conference hold every second year and suggested that their periodicity might their before be changed from three-years intervals to two year of four intervals.