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D. Salient points in regard to the organization's activities

1. Agriculture
2. Fisheries
3. Nutrition
4. Forestry
5. Economic and social affairs
6. Information and publications

1. Agriculture

a) Animal production and health
b) Land and water development
c) Plant production and protection
d) Atomic energy in food and agriculture

a) Animal production and health

277. Animal Production. The Conference felt that the Organization's activities to define suitable livestock breeds and strains in relation to existing environmental and marketing conditions should be intensified, emphasis being given to the evaluation, conservation and utilization of animal genetic resources, . in which connection the need for increased studies on wildlife management was stressed. The Conference considered that any improvement of breeds and strains should be conducted only in association with improved management, feeding and hygiene.

278. The role of sheep and goat husbandry in marginal areas should not be confined to milk production. The potential of these animals as efficient meat producers needed also to be considered, but caution should be exercised to develop goat husbandry only on suitable areas.

279. As one of the means of relieving animal protein shortages, Member Governments should recognize the possibilities offered by the introduction of efficient modern techniques of poultry and pig production. The Conference stressed the need for the Development of regional facilities for research and training in this field. It considered that, under certain circumstances where supplies of feedstuffs could be assured, poultry numbers could be significantly increased.

280. Dairying. The Conference felt that further action was necessary to make better use of surplus sheep and goat milk, much of which at present is wasted. It noted that the Organization had established a panel of experts to study the utilization of sheep and goat milk.

281. The Conference expressed the view that the Development of a dairy industry and the planning of future milk plants should depend to a great extent on the results of economic studies. The Conference stressed the need for pilot dairy schemes in countries intending to develop a dairy industry.

282. Expressing satisfaction at the close collaboration which had existed with UNICEF, WFP and various bilateral aid programs, the Conference recommended even closer collaboration with bilateral aid programs in the future, especially in connection with various dairy training programs in the regions.

283. Payment for quality milk was important as this was the best incentive to good husbandry. For successful dairy production, the farmer must be assured of regular collection and sale of his product. Where collection was over long distances or under bad transport conditions, consideration should be given to chilling facilities.

284. The Conference considered that the use of imported dried skim milk in developing countries should be so planned as to avoid impeding the Development of a national dairy industry. It agreed, however, that the use of this milk product could be initially advantageous in augmenting local milk supplies.

285. Animal Health. While expressing satisfaction at the progress made in the control of rinderpest, the Conference urged that constant vigilance be exercised in areas which were now free from the disease. It noted that there had been outbreaks of rinderpest in the past biennium in countries which had been free of it for several years. Considering the progress which had been made in rinderpest control, the Director-General should explore the possibilities of producing a document to record the achievements.

286. The Conference urged that attention be given in certain countries to contagious bovine and caprine pleuropneumonia. It hoped that investigations which were being pursued would result in the production of cheaper and more effective vaccines suitable for widespread application where this disease is enzootic. More work should also be devoted to the problem of bovine cysticercosis, especially in Africa. The Conference noted that FAO maintained close liaison with WHO in the investigation of this and other zones.

287. The Conference recommended that increased attention be given to tsetse fly control in Africa Satisfactory economic control would enable livestock farming to be practiced on vast areas which are at present unfavorable because of the fly and the associated risk of trypanosomiasis. The program of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division would be helpful in this connection.

288. The prevention of the entry and spread of exotic diseases is vitally important. There was clear need to rationalize and harmonize sanitary regulations relating to the international movement of animals and animal products. FAO should, in close co-operation with the International Office of Epizootics (OIE), stimulate international action as a means towards encouraging safe trading in livestock and livestock products.

289. The effectiveness of buffer zones as a means of controlling the spread of animal disease should be recognized, although the Conference felt that the cost of establishment and maintenance might be a limiting factor. It recommended that surveys by FAO to establish their value should be carried out with the least possible delay.

290. In view of the role of wildlife in the spread of diseases, the Organization should extend investigations into the significance of wild animals as reservoirs of human and animal pathogens, in conjunction with studies on the relationship of wildlife to domestic animal production. It should also make widely known how pure water supplies could obviate spreading disease.

291. Because early diagnosis was the key to the control and eradication of animal disease, the Conference felt that FAO should assist member countries to the fullest extent possible in establishing adequate diagnostic services.

292. The Conference recommended that the control of major diseases should be approached on a regional basis wherever practicable.

b) Land and water development

293. The Conference noted the very considerable field programs developed in this field. In view of the importance of field programs in this sector and of the reciprocal influence of activities under the Regular and field programs, the Conference at this stage of FAO's organization recommended that the Organization pursue its present successful policy in regard to them, entailing: (a) integration of the technical and economic disciplines, with emphasis on the main limiting factors as the central theme; (b) securing that pre-investment surveys followed the sequence of an inventory of natural resources, overall planning, identification and study of specific projects and feasibility studies leading to financing and Development; and (c) placing increased emphasis on pilot projects which are essential to reduce risks in the Development of large-scale areas. Such pilot projects, while constituting the first stage of productive investment, could also play a basic role in demonstration and training.

294. The Conference urged taking into account the recommendations of the first session of the Regional Commission for Land and Water Use in the Near East when planning and carrying out the program of work of the Organization in that region. It recommended that the second session of this Regional Commission should be organized during the course of the coming biennium if finances permitted.

295. Soils and Fertilizers. The Conference gave recognition to the value of soil surveys which provided essential information for a variety of Development projects. It stressed that soil surveys and their interpretation go hand in hand. It recognized the importance of proper treatment of soils in order to develop their potential, and in this connection agreed that due attention should be paid to soil physics.

296. The Conference, while emphasizing the importance of fertilizers to improve agriculture in the developing countries, considered that full benefit would often not be obtained without improved cropping practices. The introduction of fertilizers was a first step in the improvement of agricultural production.

297. Water Resources and their Use. The Conference recommended that at the request of governments, FAO continue to participate actively in the overall Development of international river basins. It noted that present work was limited to a few rivers in Africa.

298. Water conservation should continue to be regarded as a part of watershed hydrology. The Conference stressed the importance of the collection and interpretation of precipitation data in terms of agricultural use; the combined study and exploitation of surface and underground waters; and underground storage of surplus surface water.

299. Increased attention should be given to the investigation and Development of groundwater resources because several governments intend to seek further assistance from the Organization, particularly for the Development of arid and semi-arid areas.

300. Although recognizing that desalination and weather modification, in their application to agricultural production, could not be considered significant at present, the Organization should keep abreast of the latest developments in these and allied fields through interdivisional co-operation and liaison with other appropriate agencies.

301. Work conducted should be related to the objectives of the International Hydrological Decade.

302. Noting FAO's many field projects in hydraulic engineering, the Conference stressed the need to shorten, whenever possible, the survey and design phases, without jeopardizing technical soundness, in order to expedite the preparation of feasibility and economic studies and productive investment. The Conference also stressed the importance of improving existing irrigation networks and other water usage systems such as watering points for livestock where appropriate, in cooperation with WHO and other agencies.

303. The Conference thought that more emphasis should be placed on efficient control and use of water on the land, including conservation of rainfall, and pointed out that many schemes fell short of expectations because of inadequate land preparation, poor irrigation practices, lack of drainage and inability to apply inputs from lack of water. The disseminating of information on small-scale irrigation systems was also highly important. There was a need for greater economy in the use of water through advanced irrigation methods.

304. The Conference emphasized the need for efficient organizational arrangements and satisfactory water legislation, as these were critical factors in Development. A revised booklet on legislation should be issued in due course.

305. Land Use and Farm Management. The Conference stressed that the application of sound farm management principles was a crucial factor in raising farm productivity. It recommended that FAO should help to establish the most economic size of production units, bearing in mind management, technical, institutional and economic aspects. A continuing service required in the Organization in determining the obstacles to improved production, was the provision of a link between all the operating sectors concerned.

306. The Conference stressed the need for an integrated approach in watershed management and soil conservation problems arising from UNDP programs. It felt that the possibility of using marginal land on a sustained basis should, in co-operation with other sectors of the Organization, be assessed through appropriate technical and economic analysis at the local level.

307. Farm Power and Machinery. The Conference considered the introduction of powered machinery important wherever circumstances permitted. It felt that the Organization's program should continue to include hand tools and animal drawn equipment which for a long time would be of the utmost importance in many countries and everything possible should be done to develop them to the highest standard of efficiency. The Conference would welcome preparation of an appropriate handbook.

308. The Conference urged the Organization to assist governments in the establishment of training centers and mechanization schemes especially for developing countries and appropriate to both large and small holdings. In this connection the relative merits of local contractors' schemes should be taken into account. The Conference suggested that ways and means might be sought through the FAO/Industry Program to secure modification of machinery to suit local conditions.

309. Agricultural Industries and Services. The Conference stressed the importance of continued assistance to developing countries in processing of agricultural raw materials as an essential means of stimulating production, meeting consumer needs, preventing losses through spoilage, increasing export earnings and providing employment in areas of production. Such assistance should be properly integrated through close co-operation between units within the Organization and with other UN Specialized Agencies such as UNIDO having allied spheres of responsibility.

310. Longer-Term Developments. The Conference considered that increased emphasis should be laid in future on the following:

- Interpretation and correlation of soil and water resources surveys, in order to provide governments with background information for an increased tempo of Development;

- Soil physics; soil microbiology, soil organic matter and the use of organic waste; saline and alkaline soils; and soil conservation;

- Applied irrigation research; irrigation techniques, including irrigation by sprinkling, drainage, water logging control and the reclamation of peat soils; water conservation and watershed hydrology; and water administration and legislation;

- Integrated approach to land use through package programs; reclamation and improvement of marginal land; transformation of small traditional farms into market-oriented units; management of large-scale estates in developing countries; improved soil conservation and engineering practices;

- Development of rural electrification; agricultural processing industries; and the assessment and prevention of grain and pulses losses through engineering means between harvest and consumption.

c) Plant production and protection

311. Plant Production. The Conference stressed the importance of plant exploration, utilization and conservation work, and felt that this should be one of the major lines of activity of the Organization. The adequacy of the budgetary provision for 1968/69 was discussed and the Conference suggested that the Director-General consider making adjustments to allow an additional $25,000 to be made available in 1968/69 for this work, either within the total FAO budget or from other sources that may become available.

312. The feasibility of establishing regional seed multiplication and distribution centers serving countries with similar ecological conditions should be studied. The Conference considered that national seed improvement and production programs should also receive more support. The preparation of recommended lists of varieties of the main crops would be useful.

313. The Conference felt that more action should be taken by the Organization to ensure a free exchange of information on the evaluation and performance of new varieties and strains under different environmental conditions, and to organize adequate seed exchange programs within the existing seed exchange services.

314. The Conference urged that long-range training of local plant breeders should be continued. The supply of high quality seed of improved and adapted varieties should be given priority, including the making available of seed developed in successful breeding programs under similar ecological conditions, after the varieties had been successfully tested in the regions to which they were to be introduced. FAO should actively co-operate on agro-climatological work undertaken by WMO and Unesco.

315. More attention, the Conference felt, should be focussed on the breeding of maize, millet and sorghum varieties adapted to prevailing climatic conditions and responding best to economic fertilizer application. Adequate seed production and distribution programs of these crops should be developed. Attention should also continue to testing and comparing rice varieties whose good characteristics have been recognized by the International Rice Research Institute.

316. The Conference felt that greater stress should be placed in the 1968/69 program on wheat production in tropical countries and on raising the nutritive value of the main staple crops by selection and breeding.

317. The Conference also considered that fruit and vegetables coming from tropical and subtropical regions were of particular importance. It recommended that special attention be paid by the Organization to these crops and to vegetable production in general. The Organization should also expand work on bananas, plantains and dates, in view of their economic importance to many developing countries. Closer attention might also well be paid, through meetings and documents, to the results of work on hydroponic culture, recognizing the need for caution about this technique.

318. The Conference agreed that the Inter-Regional Olive Production Improvement Program in the Mediterranean Basin and the Near East should be continued. Work on olives might be extended to cover also certain Latin American countries.

319. The Conference, noting that the ICO/IBRD/FAO Coffee Study would be available towards the end of 1968, emphasized the importance of the work of the interdivisional group studying diversification possibilities in monocrop areas.

320. It considered that the 1968/69 program might well be adjusted to place increased emphasis on coconuts, oil palm and oilseeds in general, and sugar beet.

321. The Conference felt that a co-ordinated approach towards the integration of fodder production into certain systems of intensive cultivation in the tropics needed more emphasis in the Organization's program. The increased attention being given to the problems of nomadic grazers and to range improvement was welcomed. In this connection fire control and judicious stock watering policy needed study. Fodder conservation as hay or silage was of paramount importance in evening out fluctuations in food availability for animals and in maintaining production. It deserved continuing attention.

322. Plant Protection Considering the risk of disseminating pests and pathogens through the exchange of plant materials, the Conference fully endorsed the establishment of plant quarantine and post quarantine stations in strategic areas and recommended that the Organization provide adequate assistance for this purpose. It further recommended that plant quarantine training courses be organized.

323. Work on olive-tree pests and on the sun pest should continue as in the past. The Conference emphasized the importance of placing work on locust control on a permanent basis within the Organization. It recommended that as much as possible of this work should become a responsibility of the Regular Program.

324. The Conference felt that losses in plant production caused by nematodes, grain-eating birds and weeds should receive more attention, and that special training courses in nematode control should be arranged. Control of waterweeds, particularly water hyacinth, needed stronger action by FAO

325. The Conference felt that far greater consideration should be given to the dangers risked by farmers in handling pesticides and to the need to concentrate on the Development and use of chemicals of low toxicity. The panels of experts which deal with this important field should continue. Their work should be co-ordinated with that of other agencies concerned such as European Plant Protection Organization and a report to Member Governments be submitted as early as possible.

326. Longer-Term Developments. The Conference felt that the Organization should pay particular attention to integrated pest control, grassland Development, the Development of modern techniques for high value crops, agro-ecology, and the exploration of new plant resources.

327. In view of the great importance of increased animal production, the Conference recommended that work on pasture and fodder crops also be strengthened. It urged that the work of the panel on tropical grasslands should receive proper follow-up by means of seminars, international meetings and other operations.

328. The Conference considered work should be continued on fruit and vegetables whose importance to both rural and urban populations has already been stressed. It requested the Director-General to give consideration to setting up a Regional Commission for Horticultural Production in Africa. It recommended that a specialist on fruit and vegetable production should be included in the 1970/71 budget.

d) Atomic energy in food and agriculture

329. The Conference agreed that the joint FAO/IAEA activities had proven to be more successful than had at first been thought possible. The Conference expressed satisfaction with the emphasis that had been placed on problems of practical importance to developing countries and at the cooperation established with all sectors of FAO and national and international institutes. The Conference expressed particular satisfaction with the co-ordinated research programs which had been organized for the application of isotopes and radiation in studies of crop nutrition, irrigation, entomology, plant breeding, animal health and production and food preservation.

330. The Conference noted that the application of isotopes and irradiation while having certain limitations, is a tool that deserves continuing attention. There is a need to consider all known techniques whether they be nuclear or otherwise before determining a course to follow in solving problems.

331. The Conference noted the research that had contributed to the efficiency of fertilizer use in rice and maize and recommended that this type of work be extended to other crops and other geographical areas.

332. It observed that the use of the neutron moisture meter had already led to the Development of more efficient water use and recommended a continuation of work in this field.

333. The Conference stressed the great potential of the "sterile-male" technique as a method of insect control and recommended that research to apply this technique to other insects harmful to plants, animals and man, be encouraged. It should be integrated with other methods of control, and a prime requirement was sound ecological and biological studies.

334. The Conference drew attention to the importance of accurate assessment of pest damage and in this context advocated the use of radioactive labeling for measuring population density and movement.

335. Noting the attention drawn elsewhere in this report to the grave problems presented in Africa by the tsetse fly, the Conference expressed the hope that work could be expanded related to this insect.

336. The Conference noted the usefulness of induced mutation as a practical plant breeding technique for specific purposes, and recommended that this method be used particularly for the improvement of agronomic characters governed by single genes as a means of improving otherwise well adapted genotypes, and to break up close linkage, produce translocations for gene transfer, etc. It further recommended that work should be undertaken on the use of induced mutations in leguminous species because of their high protein content and value as food crops.

337. The Conference acknowledged the importance of the application of radiation in the production of vaccines against parasitic diseases in animals, but urged that continuous care be exercised to ensure the safety of the vaccines.

338. The Conference noted the progress being made in the application of atomic energy to food preservation and acknowledged the potential of this method of preservation. It urged that attention should continue to be given to wholesomeness and safety aspects; that appropriate legislation for irradiated foods should be encouraged; and information provided to Member Governments.

339. Longer-Term Developments. The Conference felt that over the long term the services to Member Governments in addition to the present area of activities should be expanded to cover intensification of the present projects and initiation of new projects involving the sterile-male technique; assisting Member Governments in drafting legislation on irradiated food; starting new projects involving induced mutations for protein quality and other agronomic characters; inclusion of other macronutrients and the micronutrients in the program involving isotopically labelled fertilizers; projects on trace element metabolism of animals; and assistance with isotope and radiation studies in fisheries, pastures and forestry.

2. Fisheries

a) Training in the field of fisheries
b) Regional consultative requirements
c) International action
d) Fishery resources and exploitation
e) Fishery economics and products
f) Longer-term developments

340. The Conference noted that the 1968/69 budget allocations did not provide for the rate of Development over three successive biennia visualized for the Department at the time of its Thirteenth Session. It recognized that the allocations by the Director-General were probably as realistic as they could be within the budget ceiling approved for the Organization as a whole, even though they would entail a loss of momentum and inadequate coverage of some areas of work. It accepted that among the effects of the slowing of momentum would be the absence of competence in certain important technological fields, such as marine engineering, which were envisaged in the original scheme and were needed for the balanced Development of the program, and that a number of posts could be filled only in 1969, thus delaying the implementation of urgent projects.

341. The Conference felt that there was some danger of overlap between the work of the Committee on Fisheries established under Article V of the Constitution and the Technical Committee of the Conference in the area that concerns the program of work of the Department of Fisheries. The Conference recognized the important function of the Article V Committee in providing advice on the formulation of the program of work at an early stage of its Development, at its session in the inter-conference year. The detailed technical review of the program when formulated was the proper function of the Technical Committee itself. The problem could perhaps be resolved by the Article V Committee placing much greater emphasis on its program function in inter-Conference session years than in Conference years, but the Conference felt that it was not yet possible to come to firm conclusions so early in the life of the Article V Committee.

a) Training in the field of fisheries

342. The Conference again stressed the importance of training in all its aspects and at all levels, and pressed for faster action on the follow-up of recent surveys, and on the Development of training schemes supported by UNDP and other sources of funds. The importance of training instructors and supervisory staff was particularly emphasized, and the Conference urged that such training should be undertaken in developing countries and where possible on a regional basis. The Conference recognized that there were training elements in many different disciplines of Fisheries, but considered that all the work should have the same orientation and use a single methodology for ascertaining manpower training requirements.

b) Regional consultative requirements

343. The Conference noted a suggestion that consideration be given to the establishment of international consultative and coordinating arrangements for the investigation of marine resources in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico areas. While recognizing that the Organization should take the lead in fishery Development and research programs in these areas, FAO should co-operate with but not seek to supplant the related activities of other organizations. Arrangements for the Gulf area should, it was considered, emerge perhaps as a sub-committee, from the Indian Ocean Fishery Commission, since some resources in the area may already be in need of management based on international agreement.

c) International action

344. The Conference was aware that the Organization's support for its regional fishery bodies had been weak. It seemed still not strong enough. The Conference, therefore, called for more vigorous technical and organizational support of the regional fishery bodies. The Conference also urged that a balance be maintained between worldwide and regional treatment of matters which were the subject of technical conferences. Use of external sources of funds should increasingly be sought to facilitate the attendance of representatives of developing countries at meetings.

345. Noting the time scale involved in developing international action, the Conference was of the opinion that a long view on programming was necessary. Examples of the long period of time for concept, analysis, agreement and execution were cited for Atlantic tuna, hake and Indian Ocean tuna. During these periods the fishery situations for the regions and stocks concerned had worsened: lack of adequate secretariat resources contributed to these delays.

d) Fishery resources and exploitation

346. The Conference laid particular emphasis on the urgency of carrying out much more research on marine and inland water pollution; not only by gross pollutants such as oil but also by apparently more subtle agents. This would involve national and international action through international bodies, and the Conference welcomed the increasing activity of the European Inland Fishery Advisory Commission (EIFAC) in this matter.

347. The Conference emphasized the need for intensification of work on inland fisheries and fish culture; also on fishing vessels, methods and operations. It recognized the importance of the exploration of new marine and inland fishery resources, including stock assessment. Expansion of work in all these fields was needed, especially to support production and Development work under the UNDP and other field programs. The intention to convene or support conferences on marine pollution, food chains in the sea, and the mechanization of small craft, was endorsed.

348. The Conference gave recognition to the valuable services to fishery science and technology being rendered by the Advisory Committee for Marine Resources Research (ACMRR), and expressed the wish that the Advisory Committee itself should meet annually, as well as maintain its working parties. It suggested that, subject to availability of funds, a similar body be constituted to provide advice on the Development of inland fishery resources and fish culture. The provision was also urged of consultative machinery to cover multi-national inland waters.

349. The Conference also noted that the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), under Unesco had recently decided to invite the co-operation of the Organization in support of certain meetings to be held during 1968/69; specifically meetings dealing with the marine resources of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico and of the Kuroshio Current area. The Conference recognized that these activities could not be provided for in the Organization's own program unless extrabudgetary funds became available and recommended that all possible collaboration be extended within the means available. Such collaboration with other activities of the IOC, and of other organizations concerned with marine science and technology should be carefully selective; the Organization must discharge its proper responsibilities but avoid undue diversion of limited resources to matters of lesser priority from a fisheries point of view.

350. The Conference endorsed the co-operation envisaged with the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) in appraising the status of the resources off Northwest Africa. Other activities suggested for FAO support included exploration of bathy-benthic resources, in relation to the needs for exploiting species not at present utilized, as well as the promotion of research on the toxicity of fish.

351. The planned continuation of collaboration with ILO on matters of vocational training, and with ILO and the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on safety of fishing operations was noted with satisfaction.

e) Fishery economics and products

352. The Conference urged the Organization to undertake studies on investment criteria, not only with a view to facilitating foreign investment in developing countries but also to mobilizing the Development finance available within those countries themselves. The Conference considered that this should be a feature of the International Conference on Investment in Fisheries scheduled for 1969. The role of FAO vis a vis the IBRD and the area Development banks should also be studied in this context.

353. The Conference placed emphasis on processing, distribution and marketing, defects which were in many parts of the world limiting production. Fish, for instance, in many parts of Africa was not being distributed very far from the landing points on the sea or lake shores. The Conference recommended that, subject to the availability of funds, a symposium on these topics be organized in the African region in the 1968/69 biennium. More economic utilization was also stressed.

354. The Conference noted that many Member Governments needed assistance in drafting fishery legislation and in developing legislation codes. It therefore urged more collaborative work in this field with the Organization's Legislation Branch.

f) Longer-term developments

355. The Conference considered that a balance should be maintained between work on developing the exploitation of under-utilized stocks of fish, and arranging for the provision of the scientific and technical bases for the rational management of intensively exploited stocks. In this connection the Conference urged the Organization to keep in touch with ocean-use planning and investigation, and with the activities of other organizations working in related fields, especially those arising in reference to the UN General Assembly Resolution 2172; for instance the Inter-Governmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) under Unesco, and the World Weather Watch of WMO. The Organization should also develop its interest in international arrangements being made for the provision of marine environmental data.

356. The Conference agreed that over the long term more attention should be given to the utilization and even cultivation of fish resources in brackish and coastal marine waters. It also approved providing stronger regional research and training facilities, including training fishermen's instructors.

357. The Conference called for economic studies in the field of fisheries on costs, earnings and price factors; on the economics of catching, processing and marketing, especially as these apply in developing countries; and on the means used by governments to increase the rewards of fishing to their nationals, including restraints of foreign landings and subsidies. Work should continue also on fish and fish products inspection and quality control, products Development and fish products utilization technology.

358. The Conference noted the Director-General's proposal to replace the publication World Fisheries Abstracts by a review journal covering recent advances in the same subject fields, and asked the Council to review the matter through its Committee on Fisheries, putting up a detailed proposition to the Conference's next Session.

3. Nutrition

a) Education and training
b) Food technology
c) Home economics
d) Food consumption and planning
e) Group feeding
f) Changing emphasis in the work on nutrition

a) Education and training

359. The Conference strongly supported educational and training activities at all levels in nutrition, home economics and food technology and in particular drew attention to the need for such activities in the Near East and Africa. It recognized the need to develop more educational material, as well as the importance of using mass media in popular education. The Conference recommended that a proper place be given to nutritional considerations in the training of food technologists

360. The Conference welcomed a greater concentration of resources on the Development of permanent training centers instead of short meetings and seminars. There was a general feeling that greater emphasis should be given to instruction in French.

b) Food technology

361. The Conference endorsed the intensification of work on food technology, particularly that directed towards the Development of food industries through which indigenous food production can be more efficiently used and wastage avoided. This should be achieved by the Development of both capital-intensive industries and small industries. Such industries can be financed by the private sector, the State sector in whole or in part, or by co-operatives. The Conference considered that FAO could play a most useful role in assisting member countries in food industry Development, owing to its expert knowledge of food and nutrition and the related technologies in co-operation with other specialized agencies, in particular UNIDO.

c) Home economics

362. The Conference noted with satisfaction the expansion of home economics activities described in the 1968/69 Program of Work in all fields, particularly in those concerning the role of women in economic and social Development. It also noted the efforts being made to en rural youth in home economics and applied nutrition activities.

363. The Conference appreciated that other agencies in the UN family were closely involved in the Development of programs designed for women and considered that FAO should have the leading part in co-ordinating the Development of home economics programs in general and extension programs in particular. The ad hoc meetings being held between FAO, ILO, Unesco, WHO, and the UN Social Development Division to consider the respective roles of each agency in programs designed for women were noted with approval.

364. The Conference decided that the matter of a FAO working party in home economics for the African region should be referred to the next FAO Regional Conference for Africa.

d) Food consumption and planning

365. The Conference emphasized the need for statistically sound national food consumption surveys designed to provide bases for action programs to improve standards of living Such surveys should be combined when possible with the collection of information on related socio-economic factors and public health data, and might be supported by the UNDP. Regarding FAO's preparation of food composition tables, the Conference was in agreement that (a) priority should be given to the preparation of regional tables rather than a revision of international tables, and that (b) amino acid tables should be prepared separately from other nutrients.

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