Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects


Table of contents


by

T.C. Dougherty
A.W. Hall

HR Wallingford
United Kingdom

53 FAO IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PAPER

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-56

ISBN 92-5-103731 -0

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FAO 1995


Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

List of abbreviations

Chapter 1: Introduction

The need for environmental assessment
Objective
Using the guide

Chapter 2: The context of environmental analysis

Policy framework
Social context
Institutional framework and EIA
Legal framework for EIA
Building institutional capacity

To carry out an EIA
To implement the recommendations of an EIA

Chapter 3: EIA process

Resources
Screening
Scoping
Prediction and mitigation
Management and monitoring
Auditing
Public participation
Managing uncertainty
Techniques

Baseline studies
The ICID Check-list
Matrices
Network diagrams
Overlays
Mathematical modelling
Expert advice
Economic techniques

Final report - Environmental impact statement

Chapter 4: Major impacts of irrigation and drainage projects

Hydrology

Low flow regime
Flood regime
Operation of dams
Fall of water table
Rise of water table

Water and air quality

Solute dispersion
Toxic substances
Agrochemical pollution
Anaerobic effects
Gas emissions

Soil properties and safety erects

Soil salinity
Soil properties
Saline groundwater
Saline drainage
Saline intrusion

Erosion and sedimentation

Local erosion
Hinterland effect
River morphology
Channel structures
Sedimentation
Estuary erosion

Biological and ecological change

Project lands
Water bodies
Surrounding area
Valleys and shores
Wetlands and plains

Socio-economic impacts

Population change
Income and amenity
Human migration
Resettlement
Women's role
Minority groups
Sites of value
Regional effects
User involvement
Recreation

Ecological imbalances

Pests and weeds
Animal diseases
Aquatic weeds

Human health

Disease ecology
Specific risks and counter measures
Health opportunities

Chapter 5: Preparation of terms of reference

Determining study requirements
Contents of the TOR

Chapter 6: References

Recommended texts
Bibliography

Annex I: Glossary