Previous Page Table of Contents


Appendix I - Composition of the Panel and Biographical Information
Appendix II - Terms of Reference for External Programme and Management Reviews of CGIAR Centres
Appendix III - Itinerary of the EPMR Panel
Appendix IV - Documents Provided to the Review Panel
Appendix V - Evaluation of IRRI's Progress in Implementing the Recommendations of the 1992 External Programme and Management Review (EPMR)
Appendix VI - Glossary of Acronyms

Appendix I - Composition of the Panel and Biographical Information


Dr. P. Bernard Tinker
Glebe House
Broadwell, Lechlade
Glos. GL7 3QS, United Kingdom

Tel: (44-1367) 860 436
Fax: (44-1367)860-436


Dr. G.S. Bhalla

102 New Campus
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi 110067, India

Tel.: (91-11) 616-7557 or
610-7676 Ext. 2465 (Office)
(91-11)616-5402 (Home)
Fax: (91-11) 6165886

Dr. Michael Denis Gale, FRS

John Innes Centre
Norwich Research Park, Colney
Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom

Tel.: (44-1603) 452-571 Ext. 2596 (Office)
(44-1603) 460-888 (Home)
Fax: (44-1603) 502-270

Dr. Hiroyuki Hibino

Director, Dept. of Environmental Biology National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences
3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305, Japan

Tel.: (81-298)388-294
Fax: (81-298) 388-294 or 388-199

Dr. Donald L. Plucknett

Agricultural Research and Development International
7127 Little River Turnpike, Suite 207
Annandale, VA 22003, USA

Tel.: (1-703) 354-5423 (Office)
(1-703) 323-5758 (Home)
Fax: (1-703)941-1936

Mr. Louis R.K. Paul

6018 Loganwood Drive
N. Bethesda, MD 20852, USA

Tel.: (1-301)230-2196
Fax: (1-301) 230-2395
lrkpaul@pop.erols. corn

Mr. Roger A. Smith

1961 Silver Spur Circle
Ojai, CA 93023, USA

Tel.: (1-805)646-1379
Fax: (1-805) 646-1379


Dr. Ronnie Coffman
Associate Dean for Research
College of Agriculture & Life Sciences
Director, Cornell Agricultural Exper. Station
Cornell University, 245 Roberts Hall
Ithaca. NY 14853-1902. USA

Tel.: (1-607) 255-2554 (Office)
(1-607) 272-7551 (Home)
Fax: (1-607) 255-9499

Resource Persons:

CGIAR Secretariat

Dr. Pammi Sachdeva
Senior Management Specialist
CGIAR Secretariat, The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington DC 20433, USA

Tel: (1-202) 473-8941
Fax: (1-202)473-8110

Dr. Henri Maraite

Head, Phytopathology Unit
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
Catholic University of Louvain
Place Croix du Sud, 2, Bte 3
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

Tel.: (32-10) 473-749 (Office)
(32-10) 451-819 (Home)
Fax: (32-10) 478-697
E-Mail: Maraite@FYMY.UCL.AC.BE

TAC Secretariat

Dr. Amir Kassam

Senior Agricultural Research Officer
TAC Secretariat
Research, Extension and Training
Division, FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy

Tel.: (39-6) 5705-6226
Fax: (39-6)5705-3298/5731

Name: TINKER, P. Bernard (UK)

Position: Senior Research Associate, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford.

Expertise: Soil Science, Plant Nutrition, Natural Resources Management, Research Management.

Education: B.Sc. in Chemistry, Sheffield University (1951); Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry, Sheffield University (1955); M.A., University of Oxford (1965); D.Sc.. University of Oxford (1983).

Experience: 1955-1962: Senior Scientific Officer, UK Overseas Research Service, Benin, Nigeria; 1962-65: Senior Scientific Officer, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, UK; 1965-1971: Lecturer in Soil Science, Oxford University; 1971-77: Professor of Agricultural Botany, Leeds University; 1974-77: Head of Department of Plant Sciences, Leeds University; 1977-1983: Deputy Chief Scientific Officer and Head of Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, Rothamsted Experimental Station; 1983-85: Deputy Director and Head of Soils Division, Rothamsted Experimental Station; 1985-1992: Director of Terrestrial and Freshwater Sciences, Natural Environment Research Council; Since 1993: present position.

Has membership of a number of societies such as the British Ecological Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry and the Society of Chemistry and Industry (Chairman Agriculture Group, and Member of Council 1981-1983). He has been a member of several review groups such as the NERC Terrestrial Life Sciences Grants Committee 1977-82, the Royal Society Group on Geochemistry and Environmental Health 1982, and the Rothamsted Visiting Group 1975. Member of 1977 QQR of IITA. Chairman of First ICRAF External Review (1993) and First IIMI External Review (1995). Member of Soil and Water Study 1996. Has published five books and some 170 papers.

Name: BHALLA, G.S. (India)

Position: Professor Emeritus, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University.

Expertise: Economics, agricultural economics.

Education: M.A. (Maths), University of Punjab (1951); M.A. in Economics, University of Agra (1955); Ph.D. (Econ.). London School of Economics, London (1963).

Experience: 1956-1963: Lecturer and Reader in Economics, Rajasthan University, Jaipur: 1960-63: British Council Scholar at the London School of Economics; 1966-67: Associate Professor, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada; 1967-69: Economist, Department of Regional Economic Expansion, Government of Canada, Ottawa; 1969-1975: Reader and Professor of Economics, Punjab University, Chandigarh; 1983-86: Chairman, Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi; 1990-91: Member, Planning Commission, Government of India; 1975-1993: Professor of Economics, CSRD, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Dean, School of Social Sciences, JNU (September 1986 to April 1988); Since 1993: present position. Prepared a research report for IFPRI, jointly with Dr. Peter Hazell of IFPRI, which is entitled Prospects for Balancing Food Needs with Sustainable Resource Management in India to 2020. Prepared a write-up on "Indian Agriculture" for the FAO publication. The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) for 1995.

Name: GALE, Michael Denis (UK)

Position: Associate Research Director, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich.

Expertise: Genetics, molecular mapping, plant breeding and germplasm,

Education: B.Sc. in Genetics (Hons), University of Birmingham (1965); PhD, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth (1969).

Experience: 1968-1984: Cytogenetics Department, Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge; 1984-85: Study leave, Canberra; 1985-88: UG6 IM, Cytogenetics Department, Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge; 1988-1992: Head, Cereals Research Department, Cambridge Laboratory; 1992-94: Acting Head of Cambridge Laboratory; Since 1994: present position.

Consultant, molecular mapping in Hevea, Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (1987); Technical cooperation expert for International Atomic Energy Agency for wheat, barley and quinoa breeding programmes in Bolivia (1987); Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Novel Crops and Livestock Enterprise Review Group (1987-88); Scientific Advisory Committee for the Rockefeller Foundation Rice Biotechnology Programme (1989-); Overseas Development Administration, Plant Breeding and Physiology Management Advisory Panel (1990-); External review panel CIRAD, Montpellier, France (1992); Science Advisory Group, School of Biological Sciences, Reading University (1992-); Member of UK H&S Committee on Genetically Modified Organisms, representing BBSRC (1995-); Nuffield Bioethics Committee on Genetically Modified Plants (1997-).

Name: HIBINO, Hiroyuki (JAPAN)

Position: Director, Department of Environmental Biology, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba.

Expertise: Plant virology, plant pathology.

Education: B.Sc., Nagoya University (1961); Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University (1966).

Experience: 1966-1982: Technical Official, Institute for Plant Virus Research; 1969-70: Visiting Scientist, University of California; 1975-78: Japan-Indonesia Joint Food Crop Research Programme, JICA, Indonesia; 1982-88: Plant Virologist, International Rice Research Institute; 1988-95: Department of Plant Protection, National Agriculture Research Centre; 1995-97 National Chugoku Agricultural Experiment Station; Since 1997: present position. Major research interests: virus characterisation, vector relations of plant virus, epidemiology of rice virus diseases, control of rice virus diseases, cytology of virus-infected cells, plant virus serology.

Name: PLUCKNETT, Donald L. (USA)

Position: President and Principal Scientist, Agricultural Research and Development International, Annandale, Virginia, USA

Expertise: Tropical crop and pasture management, weed control, farming systems, natural resource management

Education: B.Sc. General Agriculture, University of Nebraska (1953); M. Sc. Agronomy, University of Nebraska (1957); Ph.D. Tropical Soil Science, University of Hawaii (1961).

Experience: 1958-80: University of Hawaii - Lecturer and Assistant Professor of Agronomy (1958-65); Associate Professor of Agronomy (1965-70); Professor of Agronomy (1970-80). 1965 Consultant (Ford Foundation) and Senior Agricultural Advisor, Aswan Agricultural Development Centre, Egypt. 1968: Visiting Professor in Agriculture, University of Brisbane. 1968-69: Visiting Scientist, IRRI. 1971: Senior Fellow, East-West Food Institute. 1973-76: Chief, Soil and Water Management Division, USAID. 1978-80: Chief, Agriculture and Rural Development Division, Bureau for Asia, USAID. 1980-94: Senior Scientific Advisor to the CGIAR Secretariat. Since 1995: present position.

Panel Member of the Farming Systems Study (1977-78) and CGIAR Resource Person in the Reviews of CIAT (1977 and 1984), CIMMYT (1982 and 1987), CIP (1983 and 1989), IBPGR (1985), ICARDA (1983), IITA (1977 and 1983), ILCA (1981), ILRAD (1980 and 1986), IRRI (1982, 1987 and 1992), and WARDA (198'6). Consultant to CIP Review (1995).

Member of several scientific societies and author of numerous publications.

Name: PAUL, Louis R.K. (The Netherlands)

Position: Private Consultant

Expertise: Strategic planning, technology management, R & D management (planning, co-ordinating, prioritising, evaluating).

Education: B.Eng. (Hons), Guindy Campus, Madras University, India (1953); Business Studies Programme for Senior Executives, Sloan School of Management, MIT, Boston, Mass., USA (1983).

Experience: 1954-1991: Positions of increasing responsibility with Royal-Dutch Shell, including, Field Mechanical Engineer (1955-1968), Project Economics and Project Management (1968-73), Strategic Planning Analyst (1973-76), Head, Planning and Economics, Refining Function (1976-1983), Marketing Policy Adviser (1983-87), Head, Planning and Coordination, Research (1987-1991). In this last position responsibilities covered the planning and coordination of Shell's research programme across a worldwide network of international research centres, with a research outlay of US$ 900 million and a scientific pool of 7,000 staff; key achievements included the introduction of rigorous research reporting coupled to business-impact review of research results. These positions required long-term assignments in Bombay, Trinidad, London and The Hague; trouble-shooting and other work-related visits to many other parts of the world. Since retirement from Shell, served as a consultant on R&D Management and Evaluation, to the European Commission (Brussels), the German Ministry for Research and Technology (Bonn), and the Advisory Council for Science and Technology (The Hague), the Science Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, the Commonwealth Partnership for Technology Management (London). Member of CIP EPMR in 1995.

Name: SMITH, Roger A. (USA)

Position: Consultant

Expertise: Finance

Education: B.Sc., Chemical Engineering, Rice University (1962); M.B.A., New York University (1972); Graduate study in Plant Physiology, New Mexico State University (1986),

Experience: 1962-1985: Atlantic Richfield Company - positions include: 1962-65: Petroleum refinery technical service and operations management; 1965-1970: Research and implementation of computerized process control systems and integrated refinery management systems; 1970-72: Manager of Refinery Coordination; 1972-76: Manager of Strategic Planning for Refining and Marketing Division; 1976-78: Controller of Refining and Marketing Division; 1978-1980: Manager of Planning and Analysis for the Refining and Marketing Division; 1980-82: Vice President and Chief Financial officer for Atlantic Richfield's Brazilian subsidiaries; 1982-85: Assistant Corporate Controller for company-wide accounting and controls; 1987-89: Chief Financial Officer, IITA; 1989-1997: Consultant - positions include: 1990: IFPRI EMR; Review of the plans for the computerization of accounting and finance for CIMMYT; Special report on internal and external auditing in the CGIAR for the World Bank CGIAR Secretariat; Consulting on the World Bank CGIAR Secretariat Annual Financial Report; Consultant to the CGIAR Benefits Committee to evaluate and to set up a new Association (AIARC) to administer and manage the payroll and benefit plans for the 1200 expatriate scientists and administrators employed by the twenty international research centres; 1995: CIMMYT CCER; 1992-94: Executive Director/President, Association of International Agricultural Research Centres; 1994-97: Consultant to the AIARC Executive Director and Board of Directors; 1998: ICARDA CCER.

Appendix II - Terms of Reference for External Programme and Management Reviews of CGIAR Centres



1. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is an informal association of over 50 members that supports a network of 16 international research centres in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. The CGIAR aims, through its support to the Centres, to contribute to promoting sustainable agriculture for food security in developing countries. Because the Centres constitute the core of the CGIAR, the effectiveness of each Centre is crucial to the continued success of the CGIAR (as a System).

2. Each Centre is an autonomous institution operating within the mandate assigned to it by the CGIAR, and is governed by a legally constituted Board that has full fiduciary responsibility for managing the Centre. To ensure accountability in an essentially decentralized system, each Centre is expected to be responsive to the CGIAR, which provides financial support for its work.

3. The CGIAR has established a tradition of External Programme and Management Reviews (EPMRs) to provide a mechanism of transparency and accountability to the Members and other stakeholders of the CGIAR System. EPMRs are the joint responsibility of TAC and the CGIAR Secretariat, and are conducted for each Centre approximately every five years. As each Centre is autonomous, EPMRs provide a measure of central oversight and serve as an essential component of the CGIAR's accountability system.

Integrated System of Reviews of Each Centre

4. Besides the EPMRs, Centre Commissioned External Reviews (CCERs) are undertaken at each Centre. These CCERs are commissioned by the Centre Boards to periodically assess the quality and effectiveness of particular aspects of a Centre's work. The terms of reference (TORs) for each CCER are determined by the Centre, based on broad principles endorsed by the CGIAR at ICW95 (ref. document entitled Improving the Quality and Consistency of CGIAR's External Centre Reviews, dated October 24, 1995).

5. EPMRs complement the CCERs by providing a CGIAR-commissioned and comprehensive external assessment of the Centre's programme and management, especially its future directions and the quality and relevance of its research. The TORs for the EPMRs (which update the "standard TORs" endorsed by the CGIAR at MTM95) are provided below. Guidelines for undertaking the reviews are issued separately.


Objectives and Scope

6. EPMRs seek to inform CGIAR members that their investment is sound, or recommend measures to make it so. Members of the CGIAR and other stakeholders can be informed whether the Centre is doing its work effectively and efficiently. EPMRs are both retrospective and prospective; and help ensure the Centres' excellence, relevance and continued viability, and the CGIAR System's coherence. Each review is expected to be strategic in orientation and as comprehensive as the situation warrants.

7. The broad objectives of EPMRs are to: a) provide CGIAR members with an independent and rigorous assessment of the institutional health and contribution of a Centre they are supporting; and b) to provide the Centre and its collaborators with assessment information that complements or validates their own evaluation efforts, including the CCERs.

8. The EPMR panel is specifically charged to assess the following:

a. The Centre 's mission, strategy and priorities in the context of the CGIAR's priorities and strategies;

b. The quality and relevance of the science undertaken, including the effectiveness and potential impact of the Centre's completed and ongoing research;

c. The effectiveness and efficiency of management, including the mechanisms and processes for ensuring quality; and

d. The accomplishments and impact of the Centre's research and related activities.

9. The topics expected to be covered by the EPMRs are listed below.


A. Mission, Strategy and Priorities

- The continuing appropriateness of the Centre's mission in light of important changes in the Centre and its external environment since the previous external review.

- The policies, strategies, and priorities of the Centre, their coherence with the CGIAR's goals (of poverty alleviation, natural resources management, and sustainable food security), and relevance to beneficiaries, especially rural women.

- The appropriateness of the roles of relevant partners in the formulation and implementation of the Centre's strategy and priorities, considering alternative sources of supply and the benefits of partnerships with others.

B. Quality and Relevance

- The quality and relevance of the science practised at the Centre.

- The effectiveness of the Centre's processes for planning, priority setting, quality management (e.g., CCERs, peer reviews and other quality and relevance assurance mechanisms), and impact assessment.

C. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Management

- The performance of the Centre's Board in governing the Centre, the effectiveness of leadership throughout the Centre, and the suitability of the organization's culture to its mission.

- The adequacy of the Centre's organizational structure and the mechanisms in place to manage, coordinate and ensure the excellence of the research programmes and related activities.

- The adequacy of resources (financial, human, physical and information) available and the effectiveness and efficiency of their management.

- The effectiveness of the Centre's relationships with relevant research partners and other stakeholders of the CGIAR System.

D. Accomplishments and Impact

- Recent achievements of the Centre in research and other areas.

- The effectiveness of the Centre's programmes in terms of their impact and contribution to the achievement of the mission and goals of the CGIAR.

Appendix III - Itinerary of the EPMR Panel

The Panel Chair attended the IRRI Board meeting from 7 to 12 April 1997. The Chair, together with the Panel Chairs of IFPRI and CIMMYT External Review Panels, attended a two-day briefing and discussion meeting in London on 10 and 11 May 1997, with the TAC Chair and staff from the TAC and CGIAR Secretariats. The purpose of the meeting was to brief the Panel Chairs on the review process and to initiate discussion of the key issues to be considered by the respective Panels.

The whole Panel visited IRRI Headquarters from 9 to 17 September 1997 for the initial phase to familiarize itself with the Institute. The visit was timed to coincide with the IRRI Board's Executive Committee and Programme Committee meetings. The Panel members interacted with the Board members, Management, and staff, including representatives of the various staff associations and the spouse employment committee. The Panel also met with directors of national programmes from the Philippines, Myanmar, Laos, and Bangladesh, who had been attending a workshop at IRRI,§§and with the Director of PCARRD and the Chancellor of the University of the Philippines at Los Baños. On 17 and 18 September, a subpanel visited the national rice programme, Philrice, in Munoz.

In November 1997, two Panel members met with the ICAR Director General, the Director of the national rice programme in India, and some leading rice scientists in India. From 4 to 16 January 1998, one subpanel visited India and another subpanel visited Vietnam where they met with IRRI field staff, national programme scientists, and government officials. Prior to the main phase, the Panel Chair and a Panel member communicated with the Board Chair and Board members.

The whole Panel returned to IRRI Headquarters on 26 January 1998 for the main phase of the Review. Panel members interacted with management and scientific staff, individually and in small groups, and also met with the nationally recruited staff and IRRI trainees. Two Panel members met with the external auditors, and the Panel Chair and a Panel member met the Philippines Under Secretary of Agriculture.

The drafts of the report were shared with the Interim Director General for comments. On 13 February 1998, the final Report of the Panel was presented by the Panel Chair to the Board's Executive Committee and IRRI Management, and subsequently to the staff.

Appendix IV - Documents Provided to the Review Panel

A. Documents Provided by the TAC and CGIAR Secretariats

1. Review Processes in the CGIAR, 1988.

2. CGIAR Priorities and Strategies for Resource Allocation During 1998-2000.

3. Report of the Fourth External Programme and Management Review of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

4. Report of the Fourth External Programme and Management Review of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).

5. Investment in Rice Research in the CGIAR: A Global Perspective - Report of the Inter-Centre Review of Rice.

6. Priorities and Strategies for Soil and Water Aspects of Natural Resources Management Research in the CGIAR (and two background documents):

(a) A Synthesis of Current Activities in Soil and Water Research in the CGIAR;
(b) A Strategic Review of Natural Resources Management Research on Soil and Water.

7. Harvest and Postharvest Problems in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries - The CGIAR Contribution to Research.

8. Priorities and Strategies for Policy, Public Management and Institution Strengthening Research and Service in the CGIAR (and two background documents):

(a) Perspectives on Policy and Management Research;

(b) The Future Role of the CGIAR in Development of National Agricultural Research Systems: A Strategic Study of Institution Strengthening Research and Services.

9. Extracts from the Reports of the 66th and 69th Meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC)

10. Medium Term Resource Allocation 1998-2000: Centre Proposals and TAC Recommendations.

To All Panel Members:

11. Lucerne Declaration and Action Programme (February 9-10, 1995 - 2 Vols.)

12. Most recent CGIAR Annual Report.

13. Most recent CGIAR Brochure and Directory.

14. (a) Financial Requirements of the 1998 CGIAR Research Agenda (Agenda Item: 8, Doc. No. MTM/97/14, May 6, 1997);

(b) Financial Requirements of the 1997 CGIAR Research Agenda (Doc. No: MTM/96/10, April 26, 1996.

15. Organization and Management of the CGIAR System: A Review, 1993. (S. Ozgediz, Public Administration and Development, Vol. 13, 217-231 (1993); copyright 1993 by John Wiley & sons, Ltd.).

16. Reference Guides for CGIAR International Agricultural Research Centres and their Boards of Trustees, August 1997.

To Relevant Panel Members:

17. Governance and Management of the CGIAR Centres, 1991 (S. Ozgediz, Study Paper No. 27, copyright 1991, first printing October 1991).

18. Most recent volume of the CGIAR Board of Trustees Directory (October 1996).

19. Some Thoughts Toward Ensuring the Successful Performance of Boards in the CGIAR System, 1987 (John L. Dillon, August 1987).

20. CGIAR 1995 Financial Report (August 1996).

21. Committees and Units of the CGIAR: Roles, Responsibilities, and Procedures (April 3, 1996).

22. Most recent CGIAR financial guidelines and manuals relating to:

(a) Financial Management Guidelines, Series No. 1 (January 1988);
(b) Accounting Policies and Reporting Practices Manual (October 1993);
(c) Financial Guidelines - Audit Manual (July 7, 1995).

23. CGIAR Research Agenda: 1999-2001 Medium Term Plans (MTP).

B. Documents Provided by IRRI

To all Panel Members:

24. IRRI 1995-1996 Listening to the Farmers (Corporate Report).

25. IRRI's Programme Report for 1995 (Annual Report).

26. IRRI Toward 2020.

27. Sustaining Food Security Beyond the Year 2000 - A Global Partnership for Rice Research (Medium-Term Plan 1998-2000).

28. Rice Research in a Time of Change:

(a) IRRI's Medium-Term Plan for 1994-1998.
(b) 1997 Programme Plans and Funding Requirements.

29. IRRI Financing Plan 1997 -(Supplement to 1997 programme Plans and Funding Requirements).

30. IRRI Administration and Operations 1993-1997.

31. IRRI Financial Management 1993-1997.

32. IRRI Programmes 1993-1997.

33. Major Issues Confronting IRRI's Research and Research Support Programmes.

34. IRRI Organizational Structure - July 1997 (with major Institute Committees).

35. IRRI's IRS and NRS Directory

36. List of Reports of Major Planning Conferences, Internal Reviews, Internally-commissioned External Reviews, Expert Meetings,

37. Summary of Actions taken in Response to the last External Programme and Management Review.

38. IRRI Publications 1993-1997.

39. Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)/Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).

40. List of Ongoing Special Funded Projects as of 4 July 1997, Grouped by Donor.

To Relevant Panel Members:

41. Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws 1990.

42. Agreement Recognizing the International Legal Personality of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) at Malacañang Palace, Manila, Philippines, 19 May 1995.

43. Current Members of the IRRI Board of Trustees.

44. Composition of the IRRI Board of Trustees over the last 5 years.

45. Board of Trustees Handbook, March 1997.

46. Table of salary ranges, allowances and benefits - Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS).

47. Table showing Personal Data on Internationally-recruited Staff by Programme

48. List of Internationally Recruited Staff Turnover by Category (Arrival and Resignation 1993-1997).

49. List of Nationally Recruited Staff.

50. List of Internationally Recruited Staff Unfilled Positions.

51. Information Management Systems and Procedures.

Available at the Centre:

52. Set of Minutes Covering Board and Board Committee Meetings since the last External

Review (and reports of Board Committees to the full Board if not included in the minutes).

53. Staff Manual or a Description of Current Personnel Procedures for International and Locally-recruited Staff.

54. Local Compensation Surveys Used by the Centre.

55. Reports of External Auditors, including Management Letters, and Financial Officer's Reports to the Board since the last External Review.

56. Most Recent Internal Audit Reports.

Additional Papers Provided Upon Request By The EPMR Panel After The Initial Phase:

57. Natural Resources Management Research at IRRI.

58. Some Definitions Relating to Productivity and Yield

59. Upland Rice Ecosystem Programme.

60. Rainfed Lowland Rice Ecosystem Programme.

61. IRRI's Role in the International Rice Research Community and Its Partnership Strategy:

(a) Partnership in Rice Research: Rationale, Experience, and Implications;
(b) Bangladesh-IRRI Dialogue, 24-27 February 1997;
(c) Institution Strengthening: Toward Accelerating the Impact of Rice Research;
(d) IRRI 1996-1997, PARTNERS - Making A Difference (Corporate Report);
(e) Policy on Partnership with the Private Sector.

62. Rice Research Consortia: Partnership in Strategic Research for Rice-based Ecosystems:

(a) International Rice Research Consortia: A New Initiative for Sharing Resources and Responsibilities;

(b) Research Approaches for Variable Rainfed Systems - Thinking Globally, Acting Locally;

(c) Operating Procedures;

(d) Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Consortium: Workplan 1997-1998 - Rajabari, Rajshahi, Bangladesh - Bangladesh Rice Research Institute - Regional Station, Shyampur Rajshahi - 6212;

(e) Scientific Monitoring of the Rice Research Consortia.

Provided to the EPMR Sub-panel for Visits to India and Vietnam:

For Visit to India:

63. Briefing Document for IRRI-EPMR Visit to India 4-10 January 1998

64. IRRI Rice Facts

65. Fact about Cooperation - India and IRRI

66. Vision of India's Rice Trade

67. Physiology of Stress Tolerance in Rice

68. Partners make hybrid rice a reality in India

69. Agroclimatic Atlas of Eastern India

70. Training Resource Book for Agroecosystem Mapping

71. Training Resource Book for Farming Systems Diagnosis

72. Training Resource Book for Participatory Experimental Design

73. Technologies for the improvement of rainfed rice production in Eastern India.

For Visit to Vietnam:

74. Briefing Document for IRRI-EPMR Visit to Vietnam 11-16 January 1998

75. Facts of Co-operation - Vietnam & IRRI (Oct. 1997)

76. Vietnam and IRRI: A Partnership in Rice Research

Appendix V - Evaluation of IRRI's Progress in Implementing the Recommendations of the 1992 External Programme and Management Review (EPMR)


Implementation *


Chapter 3 - Research Programmes

Recommendation 3.1. The Panel, recognizing the threat posed to food supplies by yield decline and decreasing factor productivity in intensively managed riceland, recommends that IRRI lead a major research effort, enlisting the best talents available in the world, to seek solution for this complex of problems-a task that may take a decade or longer to complete.


Response: We have recognized the importance of maintaining or increasing productivity in intensive systems but not at the level of concern as suggested by the EPMR.

The Mega Project on Reversing Trends of Declining Productivity in Intensive Rice Systems was initiated in the second quarter of 1994 to quantify and monitor indices of soil quality and economic performance of farmers' rice production systems in domains of intensive rice cropping near and conceptually linked to existing long-term fertility experiments at several locations in tropical Asia. The expected outputs are:

1. productivity decline quantified and extrapolated;
2. indicators of cropping system performance and production efficiency,
3. indicators of soil quality and sustainability;
4. key constraints and research priorities identified; and
5. models of soil quality and crop productivity validated and refined.

The project involves five NARS research stations in the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The project sites are located in intensive rice systems that are most representative of the irrigated ecosystem in each country.

At each site, the project team consists of an agronomist, a soil scientist, and an agricultural economist. Teams have now been formed for all sites except Indonesia. Time frames, major activities, and standardized research and crop management protocols on farm monitoring (total factor productivity, biophysical) and long-term fertility experiments were finalized and research activities have been initiated at four sites.

Funding for the fast 3 years of the project (1994-96) was provided by the Swiss Development Cooperation.

Yield decline has only been observed in long-term on-station experiments. We do not have sufficient evidence for a yield decline at the farm level. Available data suggest, however, stagnating or declining productivity from applied inputs, such as nitrogen or other inorganic fertilizer, as a general concern to sustainability of intensively managed riceland.

Although we can reject several hypotheses for the observed yield and/or productivity decline, we have not fully unraveled the complex phenomenon. Major areas for research will focus on 1) better understanding of nutrient x disease interactions and their involvement in yield gaps and 2) assessing whether diversification of intensive rice systems would lead to greater sustainability.

Despite substantial donor support for research in rice monoculture (IR9) and rice-wheat (IR9) systems, international efforts have remained below the levels suggested in the 1992 EPR.

One of our major achievements in the last 5 years has been to understand yield decline and recover those yields in the intensive on-station trials.

Our ability to link on-station results with what is happening at the farm level, however, has lagged - partly because the issues are more complex and site-specific, and partly because of economics staff changes and the difficulty of establishing NARS teams of economists for such studies. Most of the rice research systems still have minimal socioeconomic staff, increasing the difficulties of this type of work at a regional level.

The outlook for the next 5 years for real impact at the farm level is positive. We have assembled competent NARS teams in the Mega Project (on productivity decline), and a new economist is on duty.

Panel's comments: The Panel agrees that the implementation of the recommendation has been partial because of the complexity of the problem and the need to first describe it clearly. The link with IPM Net in the IR Consortium is a positive development

Recommendation 3.2. The Panel recommends that IRRI explore the feasibility of combining with cultivated rice the ability of some wild species to grow under low solar radiation, in order to increase wet-season productivity.


Response: We recognize the need to understand and manipulate processes related to raising the yield ceiling. However, we have not focused on increased light use efficiency at low light as the only and main component. We suggest that other factors particularly associated with N metabolism will have greater payoff for research.

Crop management as well as crop improvement could play an important role in increasing wet-season rice yield.

The key steps in our physiological understanding of yield, outlined in the actions taken in 1994» remain part of the IR-1 Project. Only from these studies can we ascertain the opportunity for enhanced photosynthesis under reduced radiation levels.

One of the key steps is determining the genetic variation in quantum use efficiency. This work will be extended to wild rice materials.

Our most important target in photosynthesis remains the matching of N supply to demand and reducing the rapid rate of N decline after anthesis.

The yield potential in the wet season has been closely examined using ORYZA 1. At present, the model estimates are significantly higher than the actual yield, indicating the presence of unknown constraints (physiological, environmental, or managerial), even under the best possible conditions. For more detailed analysis on the yield limitation in the wet season, the model should be modified, or the new type of model should be adopted, that considers physiological processes more closely. Such work is now underway.

In actual field situations, rice yield in the wet season is limited not only by solar radiation but also by lodging, insects/diseases, or by their combinations- Manipulation of photosynthetic systems is the most difficult part of conventional breeding and molecular genetics. Thus, as we address this issue, we emphasize other attributes, such as lodging and disease resistance (sheath blight), which will open up new technologies for crop and fertilizer management and may lead to a higher probability of success for increasing yield in the wet season. A New Plant Type (NPT) now being developed has a higher lodging resistance and a canopy environment that reduces sheath blight This NPT may be suited to wet-season cultivation if the proper management option is developed.

Panel's comments: There is a danger in humid environments of increase in panicle and seed health problems with the New Plant Type, which has its panicle under the upper canopy

Chapter 4 - Research Management

Recommendation 4.1 The Panel recommends that IRRI adjust the matrix management system to provide the Divisions more authority and means to strengthen disciplinary capabilities and rigour, and to ensure that the emphasis on ecosystem research Programmes does not lead to an erosion of disciplinary expertise


Response: Given the key role of projects as the unit of Medium Term Plan (MTP) implementation within the Matrix, both the Programme Leader and the concerned Division Head(s) should "sign off" on the project design (i.e. , work plan, staff time allocations, budget)

Project on Strengthening Division Excellence

In 1994, this concept - of a few limited projects that evolve "outside" the programmes, and strengthen disciplinary capacity - was initiated and has been implemented since 1995.

The terms of reference of the project are:

· Improving and strengthening division staff interactions and communications with concerned professionals on the cutting edge of science.
· Bringing leading scientists into research areas not adequately covered by the Programmes.
· Strengthening divisional Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS) by providing training opportunities in the use of new techniques or concepts when other funds are not available from the Institute.
· Creating division databases and guiding a Quality Assurance Team to assure research quality.
· Organizing a division retreat annually to set the division research targets and focus, and to motivate division staff.

Panel's comments: The divisions are an equal partner in the matrix structure, and disciplinary capabilities have been strengthened Maintaining the balance between programmes and disciplines needs to remain a high priority for IRRI Management. Divisions should also favour linking the needs of the rice ecosystems programmes to the response capacity of the cross-ecosystems projects with greater divisional responsibility.

Chapter 5 - International Programmes

Recommendation 5.1. The Panel recommends that IRRI make every effort to mobilize required resources to protect the integrity and the worldwide effectiveness of the International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER), and to maintain the high level of management capability required for INGER's success


Response: We have made large efforts to mobilize more donors but to date that has been partially successful Our approach has been to review the way INGER operates to streamline its activities and target the NARS as co-owner and supplier of the Network.

The reorganization of IRGC and INGER in the GRC is providing the necessary management support for all activities under IRGC and INGER The rationalization of common activities within the GRC for IRGC and INGER has led to greater efficiency and reduction of duplicate efforts without compromising any of the high standards necessary for germplasm conservation and exchange.

IRRI had received funding from UNDP, but this was terminated in June 1996.

In October 1994, we were successful in obtaining funding support from the SDC (Switzerland) and BMZ (Germany) The SDC funds were awarded for a single year only and the BMZ funding support terminates at the end of 1997 We have been unable to secure additional funding support for INGER and, beginning in January 1998, the project will be supported from IRRI's core budget. Recent changes to the structure and organization of the GRC have been aimed at achieving greater rationalization of resources and achieving efficiency in their use We will use IRRI core funding for the maintenance of international exchange of germplasm, and we are working toward the goal of NARS assuming more responsibility for within-country distribution This emphasis will mean fewer trial sites for the uniform INGER nurseries, but the same level of breeder access to germplasm at the national level We aim to provide a better analysis and interpretation of INGER trials that will permit breeders to make reasonable choices for testing lines selected from the uniform INGER trials.

IRRI and WARDA have jointly developed a proposal to fund INGER activities in Africa, and that proposal is currently being evaluated by UNDP.

The Council for Partnership on Rice Research in Asia (CORRA) has agreed to the concept that members, in addition to the indirect costs of INGER, pay for the indirect costs for the multiplication, clearing and safe delivery of INGER materials We are exploring in 1998 NARS capacity to 'purchase' the INGER trials at a cost that pays for added value costs while maintaining INGER germplasm.

Panel's comments: INGER provides a much-valued service to IRRI and the NARS in the region, and deserves to receive increased funding from the donor community The Panel regrets that funding for INGER is not adequate at present.

Recommendation 5.2. The Panel recommends that, in replacing its retiring librarian, IRRI employ a professional who has demonstrated competency as an international leader in the diverse areas of library and information services management


Response: In May 1993, Ian Wallace was recruited from Agriculture Canada to carry on the fine work of Mrs. L M Vergara, IRRI's first and only librarian During the 4 years that followed, good progress was made a) the library facility was completely remodelled, with improved space, lighting, and fire protection; b) training of IRRI librarians in the new technologies was emphasized, c) the main international bibliographies on CD-ROM were acquired and made available on the local computer network, d) a library automation system was launched; e) international access was enhanced by setting up a World Wide Web site, and f) contacts with NARS clients were broadened The IRRI Library is now adding links to electronic Journals and other Internet-based sources of information As the most modem library in the Philippines and the CGIAR, it is ideally situated to deliver rice information to scientists worldwide.

Panel's comments: IRRI's Library remains world-class.

Recommendation 5.3. The Panel recommends that IRRI, together with colleagues from national research systems, seriously consider the future of and IRRI's participation in the two Networks Asian Rice Farming Systems Network (ARFSN) and International Network on Soil Fertility and Sustainable Rice Farming (INSURE)


Response: Cognizant of the rapidly changing research and information environment within which the two networks operate, the establishment of the ecosystem-based research consortia places a different perspective on the role of these networks In line with an IRRI Management-initiated Peer Review on Networks, Management has begun in early 1992 discussions on the reorganization of existing networks.

IRRI discussed with NARS the changing environment, technology, and information needs of modem rice fanning in Asia. The NARS partners emphasized that the twin objectives of intensifying rice production systems to meet the growing food demand and preserving the resource base and the environment will require the development and dissemination of innovative technologies. They advocated that sharing of crop and resource management information, knowledge, and technologies-not only between IRRI and NARS, but also among NARS-is vital to improve rice productivity, and similar to the exchange of rice germplasm by INGER. IRRI strongly believes that the establishment of a resource management network will exert pressure on researchers to develop technologies that will increase productivity in rice farms and improve the relevance of rice research to field problems, based on clients' feedback After much intensive in-house discussion, and consultation with NARS, in 1994 IRRI established the Crop and Resource Management Network (CREMNET) to facilitate the sharing, evaluation, and adaptation of rice research outputs from IRRI and NARS During the past 3 years of operation, the network has made significant progress, and NARS partners appreciate very much the catalytic role of CREMNET in promoting evaluation and adaptation of emerging research findings and technologies.

Panel's comments: IRRI and its partners are active in CREMNET, and are committed to fully utilizing the benefits of this network, which are already considerable

Chapter 7 - Organization and Management

Recommendation 7.1. The Panel recommends that the Board further improve the way it selects and orients its new trustees


Response: As a matter of policy, the Nominating Committee of the Board follows accepted procedures for CGIAR centers where prospective trustees are identified through an interactive process involving IRRI Board Members, Management, CGIAR Secretariat staff, databases, and other contacts The search process has been expanded by encouraging nominations from IRRI staff A continuing process of identifying and compiling a list of nominees was established Nominations must include specific information on the candidates' possible contributions to the Board.

IRRI has responded accordingly to global changes in the technological and economic frontiers by expanding the composition of the Board The former practice of giving preference only to eminent experts in agricultural research has changed Nominees with high personal and political profiles from the private sector or non-governmental organizations receive special consideration.

Steps were taken to revise the old practice of "automatic" re-election of Trustees for another term According to recent guidelines, at least 1 year prior to the termination of a Trustee's term, the Nominating Committee Chair must inquire officially about his/her interest in accepting re-election, if nominated If a Trustee indicates willingness to be re-elected, the Nominating Committee includes the name in a list of two to three candidates and presents this list to the Board in a closed session The concerned Trustee will not attend the closed session Through secret balloting, the choice is made and becomes the official Board action on the matter This process broadens the choice of candidates for a vacant post.

The number of female Trustees has increased from one in 1992 to three in 1997.

A handbook on Orientation Programme for New Trustees has been updated New Trustees are requested to come at least a day before the Board meeting to get acquainted with IRRI programmes, staff and facilities on-site The Programme Committee Chairperson assumes the task of orienting the new Trustee to IRRI and the CGIAR System.

Special orientation sessions are also held as requested by the Board In 1995, an orientation for Trustees on the planning, budgeting, accounting systems, and procedures at IRRI was conducted A manual was also prepared to help the Board Members in understanding and interpreting financial reports.

Panel's comments: Although some improvements have been made, the composition of the Board remains a matter of concern. Increased attention is needed to further strengthen the scientific and finance/management expertise on the Board.

Recommendation 7.2. The Panel recommends that future peer reviews include a critical assessment of scientific qualify.


Response: Scientific quality and relevance have been and are key concerns of IRRI. The introduction of management-initiated external peer reviews is one of the tools to ensure high quality.

Further, we have strengthened the independence of our Peer Reviews by:

· Canvassing the names and CVs of potential panel members from a broad audience including TAC and donor members.
· The IRRI Steering Committee selecting the panel members based on their objectivity and experience.

We have continued to undertake Peer Review using the guidelines developed at IRRI for independent reviews. However, in 1996 and 1997 we did not conduct peer review during the year of (a) extensive planning for MTP in 1996 and (b) large staff reduction in 1997.

Panel' comments: Peer reviews and CCERs are useful mechanisms for ensuring scientific excellence and management effectiveness. IRRI Management and Board need to give increased attention to the Centre's mechanisms for quality assurance.

Recommendation 7.3. The Panel recommends that IRRI continue to conduct impact assessment studies.


Response: We appreciate the Panel's confirmation of the importance of impact analysis. We interpret this recommendation as supportive of both ex-ante and ex-post assessments. We have focused more analysis on ex-ante impact to guide our research with limited ex-post.

We place high importance on ex-ante impact assessment as a component in setting priorities, assessing equity and environmental impacts, and planning better use of scarce resources.

We conducted a workshop on impact assessment in 1996; the output is a book publication to be released soon.

We are conducting some limited ex-post assessment in the IAEG Programme of the CGIAR.

Panel's comments: The development of an impact culture is a continuing task. Both ex-ante and ex-post impact studies need to be carried out. The Panel is pleased that IRRI intends to further strengthen its impact assessment work.

Chapter 8 - Administration and Operations

Recommendation 8.1. The Panel recommends that, in reality, the HRD Manager report directly to the DDG for Finance and Administration and that human resource management responsibilities be consolidated.


Response: The position of the HRD Manager, vacant at the time of the 1992 External Review, was filled in February 1993. This Manager has done an exemplary job of strengthening the human resource management function, particularly for the Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS).

IRS personnel matters, on the other hand, continued to be handled by a Director for Administration until early 1996. Both officers reported directly to the DDG for Finance and Administration.

With the retirement of the then incumbent Director for Administration on January 31,1996, this position was not filled in line with the streamlining measures at IRRI. IRS personnel matters in IRRI continue to be under the supervision of a single senior IRRI official Although consolidation of both the IRS and NRS human resource management functions as envisioned by the 1992 EPMR Panel has not yet been possible, IRRI is actively recruiting to fill a newly established IRS position (Director of Administration and Human Resources), which puts renewed emphasis on the human resource management function We expect that consolidation will occur once this position has been filled within the next few months.

Panel's comments: The human resource management function, both for IRS and NRS, needs to be under the charge of well qualified and experienced professionals The Panel expects that the new Director of Administration and HR and the new HR Manager will bring the needed expertise.

Recommendation 8.2. The Panel recommends that the Chief Security Officer position be filled by a person from outside IRRI present staff and that IRRI increase the proportion of contract security officers among its security staff


Response: We appreciate the importance the Panel has placed on the security issue at IRRI We have, for several years, initiated steps to improve security, and we will continue to do so with the Panel's suggestions duly noted and with the special care needed in the local environment.

The Chief Security Officer position was filled on May 16, 1994, with an experienced officer from the Philippine Army This Officer resigned after a year and was replaced with a certified security professional whose qualifications include some years of military training at the Philippine Military Academy, a Management degree, and graduate course work in Public Administration.

Between 1992 and 1997, the number of contract security officers has increased by 38% Changes in the composition of security personnel since the 1992 External Review follow:



Before the Staff Adjustment Programme in 1993



As July 1994



As of March 1997



Panel's comments: Security of IRRI's campus appears to be good However, continued attention would be useful as the function is increasingly contracted out.

Appendix VI - Glossary of Acronyms


Agricultural Engineering Division


Asian Rice Farming Systems Network


Agronomy, Plant Physiology, and Agroecology


Asian Rice Biotechnology Network


Advanced Research Institution


Agricultural Research Organization


Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa


Association of South-East Asian Nations


Analytical Service Laboratories


Bacterial Blight


Board of Trustees


Brown plant hopper


Bacillus thuringiensis


Biometrics Unit


Centre Commissioned External Review


Computer and Database Advisory Committee


Cross Ecosystem


Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research


Centre Internacional de Agricultura Tropical


Centre Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo


Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile


Council of Rice Research in Asia


Communication and Publications Services


Crop and Resource Management Network


Central Research Farm


Computer Services Unit


Deputy Director General


Department for International Development


Director General


Differential Impact Study


Deoxyribonucleic Acid


External Programme and Management Review


Entomology and Plant Pathology


Express Sequence Tags


Food and Agricultural Organization


Fundación Latinoamericana para el Arroz de Riego


Genetic Conservation (programme)


Geographic Information Systems


Genetically Modified Organism


Genetic Resources Center


Genotype x Environment


Impact Assessment and Evaluation Group


International Agricultural Research Centre


International Food Policy Research Institute


International Institute of Tropical Agriculture


Accelerating the Impact of Rice Research


International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice


International Network on Soil Fertility and Sustainable Rice Farming


Intellectual Property


Integrated Pest Management


International Rice Genebank Collection


International Rice Genebank Collection Information System


International Rice Information System


Irrigated Rice Research Consortium


International Rice Research Institute


Internationally Recruited Staff


International Rice Testing Programme


International Seed Testing Association, Switzerland


Integrated Voice and Data Network


Long-Term Experiments


Marker-Aided Selection


Materials Transfer Agreement


Medium-Term Plan


National Agricultural Research System


Non-Governmental Organization


New Plant Type


National Resources Institute, UK


Natural Resource Management


Nationally Recruited Staff


Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en coopération, France


Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biochemistry


Personal Computer


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Personal Computer Systems


People's Democratic Republic


Plant Genetic Resources


Policy on Intellectual Property Rights


Performance Management System


Policy on Partnerships with the Private Sector


Philippine Plant Quarantine Service


Plant Variety Rights


Quality Assurance


Quantitative Trait Loci




Rockefeller Foundation


Rainfed Lowland Rice


Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Consortium


Reversing Trends of Declining Productivity


Seed Health Unit


Staff Restructuring Programme


Social Sciences Division


Soil and Water Sciences Division


Systems Research Network for Ecoregional Land Use Planning in Tropical Asia


Technical Advisory Committee


Time Domain Refractometer


Total Factor Productivity


Thermosensitive Genetic Male Sterility


United Nations Development Programme


University of the Philippines at Los Baños


Upland Rice Research Consortium


Veterans Security Agency Incorporated


West Africa Rice Development Association

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