FAOLEX Database

Framework Law

The main law applicable to water resources management, which covers all of the following areas: administration; management, conservation and use of freshwater resources; water rights; waterworks; water supply
Date of text: 30 September 2009

Constitutional provisions

Date of original text: 11 January 1982 (2019)

Right to water: El artículo 145 fue reformado mediante Decreto Nº 232-2012 con el fin de contemplar específicamente el derecho al agua y al saneamiento, como derecho humano. El aprovechamiento y uso del agua será Equitativo, preferentemente para consumo humano. Asimismo se garantiza a la preservación de las fuentes de agua a fin que éstas no pongan en riesgo la vida y salud pública.

Natural resources: Se declara de utilidad y necesidad pública, la explotación técnica y racional de los recursos naturales de la nación. El Estado reglamentará su aprovechamiento, de acuerdo con el interés social y fijará las condiciones de su otorgamiento a los particulares (art. 340). En tema de recursos naturales cabe también destacar el artículo 354: los bienes fiscales o patrimoniales solamente podrán ser adjudicados o enajenados a las personas y en la forma y condiciones que determinen las leyes. El Estado se reserva la potestad de establecer o modificar la demarcación de las zonas de control y protección de los recursos naturales en el territorio nacional.

Agriculture

Water used for irrigation, forestry and aquaculture

Water Supply and Sanitation

Provision of water services by public utilities or commercial organizations; water supply for domestic, industrial or other purposes; right to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation; quality of piped water; sewerage

Governance

The political, social, economic and administrative systems that govern water management and conservation; good practices; good governance; decentralization; water user’s associations

Infrastructure

Waterworks; water supply systems; dams; hydropower systems; irrigation systems

Water Resources Management and Water Rights

Ownership and control of water resources; abstraction and diversion of water; allocation and quotas; riparian rights; priority of rights; free water use

Water and Environment

Water in environmentally-sensitive areas; ‘water demand’ by ecosystems; protection forests; water conservation zones; environmental impact assessment

Water Quality and Pollution Control

Control of pollution and quality of freshwater bodies and groundwater; agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution; water quality standards

Groundwater

Freshwater resources located below the surface of the earth; aquifers; groundwater abstraction; well-sinking; boreholes; hydrogeology

Disaster Resilience

Water-related hazards; flood; drought; water shortage; adaptation to climate change; early warning system/emergency intervention system

Transboundary Waters

Transboundary effects; international basin institutions; international agreements; transboundary coordination; transboundary aquifers