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Cook, H.L., 1976 Problems in shrimp culture in the South China Sea Region. South China Sea Fisheries Programme, Manila, Philippines, SCS/77/WP/40: 29p.

Cook, H.L. and H.R. Rabanal (eds.), 1978 Manual on pond culture of penaeid shrimp, A project of ASEAN with the assistance of FAO/ UNDP/South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme, Manila, Philippines, ASEAN 77/SHR/CUL3: 132p

Denila, L., 1976 Layout, design, construction and levelling of fishponds. Readings on Pond Construction and Management, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. (manuscript)

Department of Fisheries, 1978 “Feasibility Study”, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Malaysia. (manuscript)

Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, 1979 “Tide Tables for Malaysia and Singapore”, Birkenhead, United Kingdom

Jamandre, T.J. and H.R. Rabanal, 1975 Engineering aspects of brackishwater aquaculture in the South China Sea Region. South China Sea Fisheries Programme, SCS/75/WP/16:

Joint SCSP/SEAFDEC 1977 Workshop on Aquaculture Engineering (with emphasis on small-scale aquaculture projects), Vol. 2 - Technical Report. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 27 November-3 December 1977. South China Sea Fisheries Programme, Manila, Philippines SCS/GEN/77/15: 468p.

Kato, J., 1948 Guide to design and construction of coastal aquaculture pond. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, Japan

King, H.W., C.O. Wisler and J.G. Woodburn, 1948 Hydraulics, Wiley, London, 5th ed.: 351p.

Krynine, D.P., 1947 Soil mechanics. McGraw, N.Y., 2nd ed.: 511p.

Lim, Chiong-Chup, 1969 Reclamation of tidal lands on the west coast of Malaysia. Paper presented to the Second Symposium on Development of Deltaic Areas, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 23p.

Maar, J.M., 1966 Fish culture in Central East Africa, FAO, Rome: 158p.

Manning, R., 1890 Flow of water in open channels and pipes. Transactions of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Ireland, Vol. 20

Peurifoy, R.L., 1970 Construction, planning, equipment and methods. McGraw, N.Y., 2nd ed.: 696p.

Pillai, T.G., 1962 Fish farming methods in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Hong Kong. Fisheries Division, Biology Branch, FAO, Rome

Platon, R.R., 1978 Design, operation and economics of small-scale hatchery for the larval rearing of sugpo, Penaeus monodon Fabricius. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Extension Manial No. 1: 30p.

Potter, T., 1976 The problems to fish culture associated with acid sulphate soils and methods for their improvement. Paper contributed to the ASEAN Seminar Workshop on Pond Culture of Penaeid Shrimp, Iloilo City, Philippines, 15–23 November 1976: 132p.

Primavera, J.H. and F.P. Apud, 1977 Manual of operations: Sugpo Pond Culture Extension Manual No. 2. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines

Project Task Force, 1979 “Inception Report”, Preliminary report for the culture of brackishwater shrimp”, Ban Merbok, Kedah, West Malaysia. Paper submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Malaysia

Scobey, F.C., 1933 The flow of water in flumes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 393

Sham Shani, 1975 Variation of bright sunshine in Peninsular Malaysia, 1963–1972. The Malaysian Agricultural Journal, Vol. 50, No. 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Malaysia

Sinnappa, S. and Chang Eng Thuan, 1971 Identification of rotenone in fish poisoned by derris root resin. Malaysian Agricultural Journal, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Malaysia Vol. 48, No. 1: 20–24p.

Shigueno, K., 1975 Shrimp culture in Japan. Association for International Technical Promotion, Tokyo, Japan: 153p.

Steel, E.W., 1960 Water supply and sewerage, 4th ed. McGraw, N.Y.: 655p.

Tang, Y.A., 1976 Planning, design and construction of a coastal fish farm. FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture, FIR:AQ/Conf/ 76/E.68

Tiensongrusmee, B. and S. Adisukresno, 1979 The culture of the triger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius in brackishwater ponds. FAO/UNDP Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre, Jepara, Indonesia. (manuscript)

U.S. Department of Agriculture, (undated) “Engineering Field Manual for Soil Conservation Practices


Table 1. Preliminary soil analysis in Ban Merbok site
Source: Inception Report of Project Task Force, Project for Culture of Brackishwater Shrimp, page 10.
DateStationTextureOrganic matter %Silt %Clay %Fine sand %Coarse %pHRemarks
11.7.79Random/Outside of Bund------8.0 
" /Inside "   "------5.7
" /    "    "   "------5.5
18.7.79I Bottom of riverClay loam15.9427.8621.066.692.028.0Samples from surface of river bottom
II "   "   "Loam14.8926.5617.1514.946.918.0"   "   "   "   "   "
III "   "   "Loam14.6228.688.4013.205.008.0"   "   "   "   "   "
IV "   "   "Silty clay loam13.5238.2429.673.943.698.0"   "   "   "   "   "
V "   "   "Loam16.6321.1313.4118.476.488.0"   "   "   "   "   "
25.7.791 Inside of BundClay loam6.2625.3227.0238.981.755.51. Sampling was done 100 yards from the bund and at 100 yd intervals.
2 "   "   ""   "9.3434.5334.9128.954.285.5
3 "   "   ""   "6.8928.9834.6129.752.765.72. The land was flooded in 6 inches to 2 feet.
4 "   "   "Loam7.0940.6423.5930.033.175.7
5 "   "   "Sandy clay loam14.2527.9323.4818.9930.415.73. Rained for the past few days.
        4. Samples taken from 3 feet below ground surface.
31.7.797700 Outside of BundLoam24.4827.8417.9224.7810.697.51. Sampling was done about 100 feet from bund.
7400 "   "   "Sandy loam26.1033.5818.1141.6819.587.5
7100 "   "   ""   "24.0628.8115.7838.1318.178.02. Wood pegs on the bund were used as guide.
6800 "   "   "Loam23.1138.2021.2920.8612.408.0
6500 "   "   ""19.5428.4019.2828.1511.928.03. Samples taken from 3 feet below surface.
6100 "   "   "Clay loam18.6839.2227.1421.734.887.2

Note: The percentage of organic matter, silt, clay, fine sand and coarse sand do not add up to 100% because of experimental error.

Table 2. Preliminary water analysis in Ban Merbok site
Source: Inception Report of Project Task Force, Project for Culture of Brackishwater Shrimp, page 13
DateStationTimeTidal conditionTransparency (m)Temp. °CpHSalinity pptD. Oxygen ppmBOD ppmCOD ppm% O2 saturationTotal AMM. ppmFE ppmSuspended solids ppmTotal solids ppmDissolved solids ppmRemarks
11/7/79Random---- 27--------- 
24/7/79I1200Rising0.75277.3203.281.731.245.470.020.040---Raining for the past few days before the day sampling was done
25/7/79 0430Receding-277.4202.310.441.032.02-----

Note: All samples were taken 6 inches below the surface.

Table 3. Ratios of tidal range at Tanjong Dawai to that at site of proposed farm 1

Time difference: +25 minutes

State of tideHeight difference (m)Correction ratio
At reference station (predicted)At site of farm (observed)
MHHW 22.372.571.08
MHLW 20.960.940.98
MLHW 22.122.331.09
MLLW 20.720.751.05
LAT 2---
HAT 2---

1 Data were taken from 1979 Tide Tables for secondary port at Tanjong Dawai (referring tide station) and the proposed farm site (Sungai Merbok); average for the months of August and September, using automatic and stick gauges.

2 MHHW: Mean higher high water; MHLW: Mean higher low water;
MLHW: Mean lower high water; MLLW: Mean lower low water;
LAT: Lowest astronomical tide; HAT: Highest astronomical tide.

Table 4. Design tide curve (for main gate) with high water at mean high water neap (representative curve of 21 February 1979 shown in Fig. 8)

Times and heights of high and low waters

PlacePositionTide differencesHeight differences
Standard Port PenangLat.LongMHWMLWMHWS
Secondary Port Tanjong Dawai  -0023-0023+0.2+0.10.0-0.1

Seasonal changes in mean level

Penang -0.1          
Tanjong Dawai -0.1          

Predicted times at STANDARD PORT0624195412340048
Time differences at Secondary Port-0023-0023-0023-0023
Predicted times at Secondary Port0601193112110025
Seasonal change of ML at STANDARD PORT-0.1-0.1-0.1-0.1
Corrected heights at STANDARD PORT1.
Interpolated height diff., Sec. Port.
Uncorrected heights at Secondary Port1.
Seasonal change of ML at Secondary Port-0.1-0.1-0.1-0.1
Predicted heights at Secondary Port1.

Note: Predicted height at Standard Port less seasonal change equals corrected heights at Standard Port.

Table 5. The nutrient composition of some organic fertilizers

Source: Tiensongrusmee, B. and Adisukresno, S., 1979

Kind of organic nutrientsOrganic carbon
Organic matter
Phosphorus (%)Nitrogen
1. Buffalo dung3.656.290.320.02
2. Pig dung3.375.802.862.21
3. Chicken manure3.455.932.191.67
4. Cow dung3.135.400.750.69
5. Goat dung3.686.340.731.64
6. Sheep dung3.465.950.410.92
7. Horse dung3.326.581.401.40
8. Rice bran6.6411.400.122.35
9. Sugar cane mollases2.364.060.050.40
10. Peanut cake3.916.740.165.92
11. Coconut cake3.736.430.222.67



Fig. 1 Map of West Malaysia showing location of proposed pilot brackishwater aquaculture demonstration project and hatchery


Fig. 2 Locality Plan (Enlarged map of site area)

Greater than 9.0 hours
6.1 to 9.0 hours
3.1 to 6.0 hours
0.1 to 3.0 hours

Fig. 4 DIURNAL VARIATION OF SUNSHINE FOR ALOR SETAR, 1963–1972 (The Malaysian Agricultural Journal, Vol. 50 No.1 (1975) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Malaysia)

Greater than 9.0 hours
6.1 to 9.0 hours
3.1 to 6.0 hours
0.1 to 3.0 hours

Fig. 5 SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE PERCENTAGES OF DAYS WITH VARIOUS AMOUNTS OF SUNSHINE FOR ALOR SETAR, 1963–1972. (The Malaysian Agricultural Journal, Vol.50, No.1 (1975), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Malaysia)


Fig. 6 Sketch of general area showing location of proposed pilot project and succeeding phases


Fig. 7 Topographic map of the proposed project areas inside and outside the bund Water sampling stations are indicated


Fig. 8 Tide curves showing the tidal characteristics of the Sungai Merbok estuary


Fig. 9 Tidal characteristics of Ban Merbok estuary in relation to existing ground elevation of the area


Fig. 10 General (modular) pond layout for Ban Merbok brackishwater aquaculture demonstration project


Fig. II Typical module for a family size shrimp pond for the proposed Ban Merbok pilot development


Fig. 12 Cross section through secondary dike across water supply canal and nursery/rearing pond (Section B-B in fig. II) Not to scale


Fig. 13 Cross section through tertiary dike across nursery and rearing pond (Section A-A in fig. II) Not to scale


GE = ground elevation at dike center line
HAT = highest astronomical tide
Hfd = highest flood water level during a 15-year period
%S = allowance for shrinkage, 30% is assumed
H%S= additional height allowance for shrinkage
Hfb = freeboard, taken as 0.60 m (2'-0")

Fig. 14 Typical cross-section of perimeter (main) dike Scale 1:50 m


GE = ground elevation at dike center line
HAT = highest astronomical tide
Hfd = highest flood water level during a 15-year period
%S = allowance for shrinkage, 30% is assumed
Hfb = freeboard, taken as 0.60 m (2'-0")
Hd = designed height of dike after compaction, from ground surface at point of stationing, m.

Fig. 15 Typical cross section of perimeter dike built across an old channel Not to scale


Hw = desired depth of water in the pond
GE = ground elevation from chart datum
Hfb = freeboard, taken as 0.30 m
MR = maximum rainfall during 24 hours
H%S = height allowance due to shrinkage
Hd = design height of dike, above chart datum, m

Fig. 16 Typical cross section of secondary dike showing ground and water levels Scale 1:50 m


Hd = height of tertiary dike above chart datum
Hw = desired pond water depth
MR = maximum rainfall in 24 hours during the year
Hfb = freeboard, taken as 0.30 m
Hg = height of tertiary dike above ground elevation, equals, Hd minus GE

Fig. 17 Typical cross section of tertiary dike, TD, showing the various ground and water levels Scale 1:50


Fig. 18 Change on pond water level with time as plotted against tide curve. (Not corrected for heights and times of tide at proposed farm site) (Refer to annex D)


Fig. 19 Detail of main gate, MG


Fig. 20 Detail of secondary gate, SG1 & SG2 Scale 1:50


Fig. 21 Detail of secondary gate SG3 and SG4 Scale 1:50


Fig. 22 Detail of tertiary gate, TG1 and TG2 for nursery/rearing ponds


Fig. 23 Typical cross-section of supply canal Not to scale


Fig. 24 Typical cross-section of drainage canal Not to scale

Fig. 25 Map of Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia showing study sites for proposed hatchery


Fig. 26 Schematic of elevation and plan of a multi-purpose hatchery showing fresh and sea water piping and related structures


Fig. 27 Schematic layout plan of proposed multi-purpose hatchery


Fig. 28 Sketch showing how to use a winch and a pulley block for manual destumping

(Source : Maar & Mortimer, 1966, Fish Culture in Central East Africa, FAO, Rome)


Fig. 29 Types of anchor for manual destumping


Fig. 30 Range diagram and limits of work of drag line as defined for the construction of the perimeter dike

Fig. 31 Three types of fish pond digging implements (Source: Jamandre & Rabanal, 1975)


Fig. 32 Two kinds of implements used in fishpond construction (Source : Jamandre & Rabanal, 1975)


Fig. 33 Side slope gimmick (made for dike slope of 1.5:1) Not to scale


Fig. 34 Flat boat for fish pond use (Jamandre and Rabanal, 1975).


Fig.35 Depth gauge (Denila, 1977)


Fig.36 Fertilizer platform (Source : Anonymous, 1976)

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