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1.1 Preview seafarming studies in Indonesia

A mission was organized by the FAO/UNDP South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme (SCSP - RAS/74/013) in 1977 to identify small-scale fisheries pilot projects in the Pulau Tujuh (Seven Islands) area of the Riau Archipelago District. This mission, which included observations concerning seafarming as well as capture fisheries, recommended a resource survey to identify areas for development of seafarming of shellfish, seaweed and marine finfish and a marine turtle survey.

A report by Dr. Maxwell S. Doty in 1977 published by the FAO South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme recommended studies of Anambas, Natuna and the other islands of the Riau Archipelago to evaluate their potential for seaweed farming.

Another mission organized by the SCSP-RAS/74/013 in 1980 at the request of the Directorate General of Fisheries investigated the potential for seaweed farming at nine sites in Bali, and in West and East Nusa Tenggara Islands.

Three reports in 1981 under the “Preparatory Assistance in Seafarming Project” (FAO/UNDP/ INS/80/005) included:

  1. Report on the Training Workshop on Seafarming, 1–6 March 1981, Denpasar, Bali.
  2. A preliminary survey of the development potential of shellfish farming in Indonesia.
  3. The culture of marine finfishes in floating net cages in Indonesia.

Only finfish report included observations in the Kepulauan Riau District.

1.2 Status of seafarming in Indonesia

The culture of shellfish is largely in the experimental phase except for pearl oyster culture using Japanese technology by five companies in the eastern part of Indonesia. Experimental culture of the green mussel Perna (Mytilus) viridis is being undertaken in two areas. The Research Institute for Marine Fisheries (BPPL) has a joint mussel culture project with the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) at Banten Bay, West Java. The Oceanarium (GSA) and Pembangunan Jaya Ancol have a joint project to culture mussels and also groupers at Ancol, Jakarta.

The native rock or mangrove oyster is being cultured in a limited scale at Kwanyan, (Bankalan) on Madura Island, East Java. The culture of cockles, Anadara spp, is practised at Kepatang Bay, West Java, but consists only of gathering seed and relaying it in beds until it reaches marketable size. (Pagcatipunan, et al, 1981).

Several species with aquaculture potential are harvested from wild stocks as indicated by the following table of commercial landings (DGF, 1978):

NameSpeciesLandings (tons)
Cupped oysterCrassostrea cucullata16171 274186
ClamsVarious1 1722 7024 319
Blood cocklesAnadara spp22 97531 36040 980
SeaweedsEucheuma spp, etc.3 7504 0985 621
GroupersEpinephelus spp, etc.5 4766 5736 085
SnappersLutjanus spp, etc.14 49214 51516 698

1 Probably Crassostrea (Saccostrea) glomerata

1.3 Origin of the present study

The Indonesia Fisheries Development Project (INFIDEP) (GCP/INS/056/CAN) concerns generally the waters around the islands of Natuna in the South China Sea and Sangihe, north of Sulawesi.

As a part of this project, it was necessary to determine the types of small-scale seafarming suitable for these areas. This information will provide a basis for formulation of aquaculture trials to be followed by pilot or demonstration projects and other activities needed to develop seafarming.

The first phase of this study was the evaluation of the potential for seafarming in the Riau Archipelago District described in this report. A similar study of the Sangihe area will be scheduled during 1982.

1.4 Terms of reference

The terms of reference for the one month study, as modified during discussions at Jakarta, were to conduct seafarming surveys of representative areas in the Riau, Archipelago District including Kepulauan Riau, Kepulauan Anambas and if practicable Kepulauan Natuna with the following objectives:

(a) To determine the environmental suitability of various locations for seafarming of oysters, mussels, clams, cockles, seaweeds, crustaceans and marine fishes.

(b) To evaluate the potential for developing economically viable seafarming of selected species considering culture methods, seed supply, growth rate, mortality, food supply, availability of supplies and services, labour supply, logistics, and markets.

(c) To recommend species with high potential for culture in the Riau Archipelago District.

(d) To prepare a detailed description of aquaculture trials needed for the next phase of seafarming development under the INFIDEP programme.

(e) To propose general recommendations for demonstration farms, training programmes or other government activities that will be needed after the present INFIDEP programme to develop seafarming in the Riau Archipelago District.

1.5 Organization of the study

The assignment began in Jakarta with three days of orientation, discussion, and scheduling of activities in cooperation with personnel of the Directorate General of Fisheries (DGF) and the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries (BPPL).

The FAO consultant and DGF and BPPL counterparts then went to Tanjung Pinang, the base for field studies in the Riau Archipelago District.

Field studies in the Riau and Anambas areas were completed during the period July 2–22 and the team returned to Jakarta for discussions of the results. Field observations of the Natuna area could not be conducted because of lack of transportation and the limited time available for the seafarming study. The team report was completed by the FAO consultant at the UNDP/FAO South China Sea Programme office in Manila.

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