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Vegetation description

Mangroves are found at the mouths of all large rivers, becoming more shrub-like further south and disappearing completely south of Benguela. Rhizophora mangle is the main species, followed by R. racemosa, Avicennia africana (syn. A. nitida) and Conocarpus erectus. Mangroves associated species include: Chrysobalanus ellipticus, Annona palustris, Pandanus spp., Erythroxylon emarginatum

FAO, UNEP. 1981. Tropical forest resources assessment project. Forest resources of tropical Africa. Part II: Country Briefs. FAO, UNEP. 586 pp.

National level mangrove area estimates


Area (ha)





110 000

Snedaker, S.C. 1991. Personal communication.


Cited in: Fisher, P and Spalding, M.D. 1993. Protected areas with mangrove habitat. Draft Report World Conservation Centre, Cambridge, UK. 60 pp. There is no reference on the method used or on the year of the estimate.


125 000

FAO, UNEP. 1981 Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project, Forest Resources of Tropical Africa. Part II: Country Briefs FAO, UNEP 586pp.


Expert estimate


50 000

Saenger, P., Hegerl E.J. and J.D.S., Davie. 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. Commission on Ecology Papers No.3. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 88 pp.


Secondary reference, no primary source provided. The "Year" is the publication year.


28 000

Horsten F. 1983. Madeira - Una Análise da situaçao actual. Luanda, Sector de Divulgação e Informação, Direcção Nacional da Conservação da Natureza (DNCN), Ministerio da Agricultura.


Estimation based on Carta Fitogeografica de Angola (Barbosa L.A. Granvaux 1970, IICA, Luanda)


60 700

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.


Map analysis, scale 1:1 000 000.

Trends in mangrove area extent over time

The estimate for 2000 has been calculated applying the FRA 2000 (FAO, 2001) annual forest change rate for the year 1990-2000 (-0.2 percent) to the most recent, reliable figure

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