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Australia

Vegetation description

The mangrove flora of Australia is one of the richest in the world. It consists of thirty-nine species. The mangroves are distributed around most of the mainland coast, except for the Great Australian Bight, in the southwestern Australia, and for Tasmania, where they do not occur. The highest diverse species is found along the north and northeastern coastlines. The presence of mangroves along the south east coast is important since they are located at the southernmost latitude in the world (38 45S). Common species include: Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera parviflora, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora stylosa, and Acanthus ebracteatus. Associated species include: Acrostichum speciosum, and Pemphis acidula.

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. & Field, C.D., eds. 1997 World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.

National level mangrove area estimates

Year

Area
(ha)

Source

Trend

Methodology/Comments

1979

1 161 700

Galloway, R.W. 1979. Distribution and patterns of Australian mangals. Presented at the Australian National Mangrove Workshop, 18-20 April 1979

X

Cited in: FAO. 1982. Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. FAO environment paper 3. FAO, Rome, 160 pp.

1982

1 000 000

Robertson, A.J. 1991. Plant-animal interactions and the structure and function of mangrove forest ecosystems. Australian Journal of Ecology Vol. 16: 433-443

 

Secondary reference, no primary source provided.

1982

1 150 000

Galloway, R.W. 1982. Distribution and physiographic patterns of Australian mangroves. In: Clough, B.F., ed. Mangrove ecosystem in Australia: Structure, Function and Management, pp. 31-54. Australian Institute of Marine Science and Australian National University Press, Canberra.

 

Cited in: Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp. It could be an approximate estimate based on Galloway, R.W. 1979 (see above).

1983

1 162 000

Wacharakitty, S. 1983. Mangrove Ecosystem in General. In: ESCAP/UNESCO/NRCT Regional Remote Sensing Training Course of Mangrove Ecosystem. p. 22-33. Bangkok, Nov. 28-Dec. 16 1983

 

Cited in FAO. 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper 117. Rome, 319 pp. Most likely an approximate estimate based on the 1979 figure (see above)

1995

969 500

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D., eds. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. 178 pp.

 

Map analysis. Scale 1:250 000

1997

1 045 000

National Forest Inventory. 1997.

 

Cited in: Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS). 1998. Australia's State of the Forest Report 1998. http://www.affa.gov.au/content/publications.cfm?Category=Forest%20and%20Vegetation%20Sciences&ObjectID=3D3475D7-AA51-493F-90C186929E909302

1997

995 277

Ibid

X

Combined national level mangrove estimate based on the following remote sensing studies: Queensland: Queensland Fisheries Service, Assessment and Monitoring Group. 2000. Queensland Coastal Wetlands Mapping. Queensland government, CD ROM. Rest of the country: National Forest Inventory. 1997. (see above)

The reference year is the area weighted average.

Trends in mangrove area extent over time


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